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Chapter 6: Deviance and Social Control: Sickos, Perverts, Freaks, and People like Us Soc 100Dr. Santos.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Deviance and Social Control: Sickos, Perverts, Freaks, and People like Us Soc 100Dr. Santos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6: Deviance and Social Control: Sickos, Perverts, Freaks, and People like Us Soc 100Dr. Santos

2 Introduction Deviance- the violation of social norms Deviance- the violation of social norms Stigma- the disapproval attached to disobeying the expected norms Stigma- the disapproval attached to disobeying the expected norms Crime- the forms of deviance in which formal penalties are imposed by the society Crime- the forms of deviance in which formal penalties are imposed by the society We are all deviant at some time or another and in some places We are all deviant at some time or another and in some places

3 What is deviance? Deviance is a violation of ever-changing social norms Deviance is a violation of ever-changing social norms –Deviance is culturally dependent and historically located, exists always in juxtaposition with some “normality” –Deviance is socially constructed even though some of it might be characterized as an immoral absolute –Deviance is overlooked in some situations

4 Who/what is defined as deviant? Both acts and individuals (and even entire groups) can be defined as deviant: “Condemn the sin, love the sinner,” “aliens”, “misfits”. etc. Both acts and individuals (and even entire groups) can be defined as deviant: “Condemn the sin, love the sinner,” “aliens”, “misfits”. etc. Low status persons (e.g. ethnic minorities, poor people) are more likely to be perceived as deviant, their good behavior “explained away” Low status persons (e.g. ethnic minorities, poor people) are more likely to be perceived as deviant, their good behavior “explained away” Higher status persons (e.g. priests, doctors) are less likely to be defined as deviant, their bad behavior “explained away” Higher status persons (e.g. priests, doctors) are less likely to be defined as deviant, their bad behavior “explained away”

5 Structural-functionalist viewpoint Deviance serves vital functions for society Deviance serves vital functions for society Sets examples of unacceptable behavior Sets examples of unacceptable behavior Provides guidelines for (opposite) behavior that is necessary to maintain social order Provides guidelines for (opposite) behavior that is necessary to maintain social order Bonds people together through their common rejection of deviant behavior Bonds people together through their common rejection of deviant behavior Provides jobs for those who deal with deviants Provides jobs for those who deal with deviants Can signal problems in a society that need addressed (stimulate positive change) Can signal problems in a society that need addressed (stimulate positive change) Opens societies to new and creative paths of thinking Opens societies to new and creative paths of thinking

6 Misconceptions about deviance Some acts are inherently deviant Some acts are inherently deviant Those who deviate are socially identified and recognized Those who deviate are socially identified and recognized Deviants purposely and knowingly break the law Deviants purposely and knowingly break the law Deviance occurs because there is a dishonest, selfish element to human nature Deviance occurs because there is a dishonest, selfish element to human nature

7 Micro-level explanations of deviance Social control theory - our bonds with society encourage us to conform; with fewer bonds, we are more likely to be deviant Social control theory - our bonds with society encourage us to conform; with fewer bonds, we are more likely to be deviant Rational choice theory - the decision to be deviant depends upon a cost/benefit analysis of sanctions Rational choice theory - the decision to be deviant depends upon a cost/benefit analysis of sanctions

8 Differential association theory - conformity or deviance is learned from those we spend time with Differential association theory - conformity or deviance is learned from those we spend time with Labeling theory - behavior is not intrinsically deviant, but becomes deviant because it is labeled as such Labeling theory - behavior is not intrinsically deviant, but becomes deviant because it is labeled as such –Members of a society define (label) what is deviant and impose sanctions for that behavior –Individuals who engage in primary deviance are not labeled, but those who engage in secondary deviance are

9 Labeling theory, con’t. Being labeled can reinforce deviant behavior by: Being labeled can reinforce deviant behavior by: –Increasing alienation –Forcing increased interaction with deviant peers –Motivating juvenile delinquents to positively value and identify with the deviant status Deviance becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy Deviance becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy Those with less power in society are more likely to be labeled as deviants Those with less power in society are more likely to be labeled as deviants

10 Meso and macro-level explanations of deviance Structural-functionalist theories Structural-functionalist theories –Anomie - the breakdown of the norms guiding behavior leads to social disorganization –Strain theory - those with fewer resources are less able to achieve societally shared goals and may resort to deviant behaviors to achieve their desired goals

11 Merton’s ways of adapting to strain Conformity - embracing the society's definition of success and adhering to the established and approved means of achieving success Conformity - embracing the society's definition of success and adhering to the established and approved means of achieving success Innovation - use of illicit means to reach approved goals Innovation - use of illicit means to reach approved goals Ritualism - strict adherence to culturally ‑ prescribed rules, even though individuals give up on the goals they hoped to achieve Ritualism - strict adherence to culturally ‑ prescribed rules, even though individuals give up on the goals they hoped to achieve Retreatism - giving up on both the goals and the means Retreatism - giving up on both the goals and the means Rebellion - rejecting the socially approved ideas of "success" and the means of attaining that success, but replaces those with alternative definitions of success and alternative strategies for attaining the new goals Rebellion - rejecting the socially approved ideas of "success" and the means of attaining that success, but replaces those with alternative definitions of success and alternative strategies for attaining the new goals

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13 Conflict theory - deviance is a result of social inequality Conflict theory - deviance is a result of social inequality –Elites want to maintain control, so they define what is deviant to benefit themselves and deflect attention from their own behaviors –The greater the power differentials and inequalities, especially class, the greater the conflict in a society –Conflict is inevitable under the current capitalist power arrangement

14 Feminist theory - abuses suffered by women are rooted in the patriarchal, capitalist system Feminist theory - abuses suffered by women are rooted in the patriarchal, capitalist system –The causes include the gendered division of labor, the separation of spheres, and the socialization of children –Cultural attitudes toward crime against women differ based on the status of women in that society –Women are less often in a position to commit crimes and often commit crimes that are different from men’s

15 Crime and individuals: macro-level analysis Laws reflect the current opinion of what is right or wrong Laws reflect the current opinion of what is right or wrong Consensus crimes - members of a society are in general agreement about the serious of the deviant act Consensus crimes - members of a society are in general agreement about the serious of the deviant act Conflict crimes - one group passes a law over which there is disagreement or which disadvantages another group Conflict crimes - one group passes a law over which there is disagreement or which disadvantages another group

16 Types of crime Predatory or street crime Predatory or street crime Victimless or public order crimes Victimless or public order crimes Hate crimes Hate crimes Organized crime Organized crime Occupational or white collar crime Occupational or white collar crime State organized crimes State organized crimes Global crimes Global crimes

17 Types of white-collar crimes Crimes against the company Crimes against the company Crimes against employees (e.g., the neglect of worker safety) Crimes against employees (e.g., the neglect of worker safety) Crimes against customers Crimes against customers Crimes against the public Crimes against the public White-collar crimes are less publicized, but ultimately more costly and more deadly than violent predatory crimes White-collar crimes are less publicized, but ultimately more costly and more deadly than violent predatory crimes

18 Ways of measuring crime Uniform crime reports Uniform crime reports Self-reported surveys Self-reported surveys Victimization surveys Victimization surveys Triangulation is best! Triangulation is best!

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20 World systems perspective The cause of deviance lies in the global economy, inequalities between countries, and competition between countries for resources and wealth The cause of deviance lies in the global economy, inequalities between countries, and competition between countries for resources and wealth Capitalism has caused inequality to rise between core and periphery nations Capitalism has caused inequality to rise between core and periphery nations Periphery nations may resort to unconventional means to meet their goals Periphery nations may resort to unconventional means to meet their goals

21 Dealing with crime Structural-functionalist- the justice system is important for maintaining order in society Structural-functionalist- the justice system is important for maintaining order in society Conflict- the criminal justice system presents crime as a threat from poor people and minorities and disproportionately arrests and sentences them Conflict- the criminal justice system presents crime as a threat from poor people and minorities and disproportionately arrests and sentences them

22 Prisons and jails Total institution- completely controls the prisoners’ lives and regulates all of their activities Total institution- completely controls the prisoners’ lives and regulates all of their activities Degradation- mark the inmate as deviant Degradation- mark the inmate as deviant Mortification-break down the individual’s original self as the inmate experiences resocialization Mortification-break down the individual’s original self as the inmate experiences resocialization Incarceration rates have increased Incarceration rates have increased –“Get tough on crime” –“War on drugs” –Preventative policies

23 The functions of prisons Revenge or retribution Revenge or retribution Removing dangerous individuals from society Removing dangerous individuals from society Deterrence Deterrence Despite these, nearly 75% of male prisoners will re-offend (high recidivism) Despite these, nearly 75% of male prisoners will re-offend (high recidivism)

24 The rise of the Prison-Industrial Complex in the USA > 1980

25 Alternatives to prison Social capital - rebuild social networks, shared norms, values, and understanding that facilitate cooperation within or among groups and access to important resources Social capital - rebuild social networks, shared norms, values, and understanding that facilitate cooperation within or among groups and access to important resources Shock probation - releasing a first time offender early in the hope that the shock of prison life would deter them Shock probation - releasing a first time offender early in the hope that the shock of prison life would deter them Day treatment or half-way houses Day treatment or half-way houses Restitution - The offender renders money or service to the victim or community under supervised parole to compensate the victim Restitution - The offender renders money or service to the victim or community under supervised parole to compensate the victim


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