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Social Cognition September 16th, 2009 : Lecture 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Cognition September 16th, 2009 : Lecture 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Cognition September 16th, 2009 : Lecture 2

2 Social Cognition : Overview (Social) Cognition Basics Lecture 2

3 Social Cognition : Overview (Social) Cognition Basics Lecture 2

4 Social Cognition ➡ Thinking about social objects

5 Social Cognition ➡ Thinking about social objects

6 Social Object ➡ A physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition

7 Social Object ➡ A physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition

8 Social Cognition ➡ Thinking about social objects

9 Social Cognition : Overview (Social) Cognition Basics Lecture 2

10 (Social) Cognition Basics Thinking Automatic cognition Controlled cognition

11 (Social) Cognition Basics Cognition:Perception Processing / Encoding Storage / Knowledge Representation Retrieval / Application

12 (Social) Cognition Basics Cognition:Perception Processing / Encoding Storage / Knowledge Representation Retrieval / Application

13 PerceptionPerception ➡ Becoming aware of something through the senses

14 Pre-attentive Processes ➡ Rapid processing of complex scene Rapid = less than 250 ms Complex = large, multi-element display of information

15 Gaze Detection Doi & Ueda (2007); von Grünau & Anston (1995)

16 (Social) Cognition Basics Cognition:Perception Processing / Encoding Storage / Knowledge Representation Retrieval / Application

17 Processing Information Encoding ➡ Selecting information from the environment and storing it in memory

18 AttentionAttention ➡ Selective perception

19 Simons & Chabris (1999)

20 SchemasSchemas Mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects Efficient processing Guide attention and memory Bias against schema incongruent information

21 Self-fulfilling Prophecy How does attractiveness shape our interactions? Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977)

22 Self-fulfilling Prophecy Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) Method: 1. Develop Stimuli: females pose for pictures males rate pictures on attractiveness 3. 4 attractive & 4 unattractive pictures kept

23 Self-fulfilling Prophecy Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) Method: 2. Schedule male and female participants in pairs 2. Schedule male and female participants in pairs 1. Males given either attractive picture or unattractive picture 2. They talk for 10 minutes over the phone 3. Conversations are recorded

24 Self-fulfilling Prophecy Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) Method: 3. Participants rate each other and the conversation 3. Participants rate each other and the conversation 4. Female judges later listened to the conversations and rated the women 4. Female judges later listened to the conversations and rated the women 1. Judges never met or saw the women 1. Judges never met or saw the women 2. Judges were unaware of picture exchange 2. Judges were unaware of picture exchange

25 Self-fulfilling Prophecy Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) Results: Both men and female judges thought: Unsociable, awkward, Sociable, Poised, Unsociable, awkward, Sociable, Poised, Serious Humorous Serious Humorous

26 (Social) Cognition Basics Cognition:Perception Processing / Encoding Storage / Knowledge Representation Retrieval / Application

27 Semantic Network Prototype Theory of Categorization Objects are classified based on similarity to a prototype Rosch (1973)

28 Semantic Network ➡ Related concepts are stored closely together in memory Bird Canary Robin Ostrich Feathers Flying Wings Animals Dog Horse Furry Cute

29 Semantic Network Bird Canary Robin Ostrich Feathers Flying Wings Animals Dog Horse Furry Cute Spreading Activation Thinking about one concept will “activate,” “prime,” or make “accessible” a related concept ➡ Related concepts are stored closely together in memory

30 (Social) Cognition Basics Cognition:Perception Processing / Encoding Storage / Knowledge Representation Retrieval / Application

31 RetrievalRetrieval Accessibility and Priming Judgemental Heuristics

32 AccessibilityAccessibility The extent to which concepts are at the forefront of your mind Accessible concepts shape social cognition

33 Ironic Effects of Thought Suppression Wegner, Schneider, Carter III, & White (1987) Wegner, Schneider, Carter III, & White (1987)

34 Ironic Effects of Thought Suppression Wegner, Schneider, Carter III, & White (1987) Wegner, Schneider, Carter III, & White (1987)

35 Ironic Effects of Thought Suppression Wegner, Schneider, Carter III, & White (1987) Wegner, Schneider, Carter III, & White (1987) Suppressed thought becomes hyperaccessible

36 PrimingPriming The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of another concept

37 HeuristicsHeuristics Mental shortcuts Fast and efficient Parallel processing Error prone Kahneman & Tversky (1979)

38 AlgorithmsAlgorithms Mechanical, step-by-step process for arriving at an answer Slow and deliberate Serial processing Effortful Highly successful

39 Key Heuristics Availability Heuristic Representativeness Heuristic Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic Simulation Heuristic Kahneman & Tversky (1979)

40 Availability Heuristic A mental shortcut whereby people base a judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind Kahneman & Tversky (1979)

41 Representativeness Heuristic A mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Base rate bias: The tendency to underestimate the impact of base rates on accurate prediction Kahneman & Tversky (1979)

42 Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic Anchoring: The mental shortcut whereby people make judgements using the first answer that came to them as an “anchor” Adjustment: The bias whereby even when people learn their anchor is untrustworthy, they do not adjust sufficiently away from it

43 Simulation Heuristic A mental shortcut whereby people substitute “normal” outcomes for “exceptional” ones in undoing a situation Special case of Availability Heuristic AKA “Counterfactual Thinking” Kahneman & Tversky (1979)

44 Social Cognition : Overview (Social) Cognition Basics Lecture 2

45 “I remember things the way they should have been.” - Truman Capote Next lecture (9/18): The Self Relevant Websites: p p


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