2The Old TestamentRead:Matthew 5:17-48Romans 3:1-4:12
3The Old TestamentThe prophecy of the Old Testament is fulfilled in Jesus
4The Old TestamentCCC 121:The Old Testament is an indispensable part of Sacred Scripture. Its books are divinely inspired and retain a permanent value,92 for the Old Covenant has never been revoked. (1093)
5The Old TestamentCCC122: Indeed, “the economy of the Old Testament was deliberately so oriented that it should prepare for and declare in prophecy the coming of Christ, redeemer of all men.”93 “Even though they contain matters imperfect and provisional,”94 the books of the Old Testament bear witness to the whole divine pedagogy of God’s saving love: these writings “are a storehouse of sublime teaching on God and of sound wisdom on human life, as well as a wonderful treasury of prayers; in them, too, the mystery of our salvation is present in a hidden way.”95 (702, 763, 708, 2568)
6The Old Testament The Books of the Old Testament Law History Wisdom Prophecy
7The Old TestamentThe LawGenesisExodusLeviticusNumbersDeuteronomy
8The Old Testament The “JEDP” theory of the Pentateuch J: “Yahwist” or “Jehovist” sourceE: “Elohist” sourceD: “Deuteronomic” sourceP: “Priestly” source
9The Old TestamentHistoryJoshuaJudgesRuth1 Samuel2 Samuel
10The Old TestamentHistory1 Kings2 Kings1 Chronicles2 Chronicles
11The Old TestamentHistoryEzraNehemiahTobitJudithEsther
12The Old Testament Joshua Tells how the Israelites, led by Joshua, the successor of Moses, began their conquest of Canaan
13The Old Testament Judges Continues the story of the conquest of Canaan and the death of JoshuaIt tells how, time and time again, the people of Israel were unfaithful to GodAnd how as a punishment He let them fall into the hands of their enemiesEach time, when they repented, God sent a “Judge” to be their leader and save them
14The Old TestamentRuthSet in the time of the Judges, the book of Ruth tells the story of a foreign woman who converts to the worship of the one true God.She marries Boaz, a wealthy IsraeliteHer great-grandson David would be king of IsraelTherefore she is also the human ancestor of Jesus
15The Old Testament 1 Samuel Tells the tragic story of Saul, the first king of IsraelSaul was anointed king by the prophet SamuelStarts out well but loses God’s favor by his disobedienceInvolves Israel in a long civil war with his successor David
16The Old Testament 2 Samuel Continues the story of David after the death of SaulGod’s everlasting covenant with David makes Jerusalem the religious center of the worldDavid builds the nation of Israel into a strong power, but also suffers the consequences of his sin.
17The Old Testament 1 Kings Continues with the reign of David’s son Solomon, who is famous for his wisdom and makes Israel a mighty empireMuch of the book is taken up with the most important event of Solomon’s reign: the building of the Temple in JerusalemSolomon and his successors fall into idolatry, and God rebukes them through Elijah
18The Old Testament 2 Kings Tells how Israel’s two kingdoms, Judah and Israel, become deeply divided by falling away from God and turning to foreign idolsFinally God allows both kingdoms to be conquered and destroyed
19The Old Testament 1 Chronicles Continues the history of 1 and 2 Samuel, but from another point of viewEmphasizes the religious aspect of David’s reignEspecially his preparations for building the Temple
20The Old Testament 2 Chronicles Continuation of 1 Chronicles Retells some of the events of 1 and 2 KingsEmphasizes the kingdom of Judah
21The Old TestamentEzraTells how some of the Jews are allowed to return to Israel after a long exile in BabylonTells how they rebuild the Temple and try to restore the worship of the true God
22The Old Testament Nehemiah Continues the story begun in Ezra, telling how the returned exiles restore the city of Jerusalem and promise to live by the law of MosesMuch of the book is from the memoirs of governor Nehemiah
23The Old Testament Tobit The story of a pious man, who follows the Law even in exileHis son is faithful to the LordSon ends up rich and happily married
24The Old Testament Judith Tells how a heroic woman saves Israel by a clever strategyHer success comes about because she trusted in God
25The Old Testament Esther Tells the story of a heroic Israelite woman who becomes Queen of PersiaShe saves the Jewish people from the plots of evil enemies
26The Old Testament Wisdom Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of SolomonSirach
27The Old TestamentJobWhy does God let bad things happen to good people?A long debate between Job’s friends on this puzzleThey insist that God rewards good and punishes evilJob insists that it doesn’t always happen that way
28The Old Testament Psalms Psalms is a collection of religious songs and poems, many of them attributed to king DavidThe greatest religious poetry ever composed is in the book of PsalmsWe hear it every day in our liturgyAnd many phrases common in our language comes from Psalms
29The Old Testament Proverbs Proverbs is a collection of sayings Many of them are attributed to king SolomonEach one gives an important truth in a short and memorable formMany are in the form of “ ” but “. . . ”
30The Old Testament Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes is a long meditation on vanityThe complete pointlessness of worldly thingsNothing in this world is lastingly worthwhileThe only thing that matters is God
31The Old Testament Song of Solomon The world’s most famous love poem A bride and groom speak of their love for one anotherSince earliest times, the Church has seen the poem as an allegory of Christ’s love for his Church
32The Old Testament Wisdom Full title is The Wisdom of Solomon A poem in praise of wisdomIncludes a long section on how patient God has been with human folly
33The Old Testament Sirach A book about how to live a good life How to live in the real world without compromising our faith in God
34The Old Testament Prophecy Prophecy means to speak in place of or for someone elseProphets were called to speak for God without regard for their station in societyAbraham was the first prophetMost prophets were men
35The Old Testament Prophecy Prophets sometimes did not appear for long periods, but showed up when the people were in needThis especially happened during the 11th century – 5th centuryGod sent prophets to guide his people regularly
36The Old Testament Prophecy (Major Prophets) Isaiah Jeremiah LamentationsBaruchEzekielDaniel
37The Old Testament Prophecy (Minor Prophets) Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah JonahMicahNahum
38The Old Testament Prophecy (Minor Prophets) Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai ZechariahMalachi
39The Old Testament Isaiah Isaiah contains some of the clearest prophecies in the Old Testament of the coming of ChristWarns of the disaster that will befall Israel if the people do not turn back to GodPromises redemption to the people even though they have sinned
40The Old TestamentIsaiah was probably written and edited in at least two parts at different times and by different authorsProbably done during the Babylonian exile
41The Old Testament Old Testament Timeline Genesis – impossible to assign a timeline to the events of GenesisCa BC – God calls Abram (Abraham) to go to the land of Canaan. Time of the PatriarchsCa BC – Jacob and his sons go to EgyptCa BC – Joseph dies in Egypt
42The Old TestamentExodus, Leviticus, Numbers Deuteronomy and Job probably composed/conflated during this periodCa BC – Moses bornCa BC – traditional dating of the events described in JobCa BC – God appears to Moses, Israelites escape from Egypt
44The Old TestamentCa BC – Moses dies within sight of the Promised LandJoshua, Judges, Ruth composed during this periodCa.1406 BC – Israel begins conquest of Canaan under JoshuaCa BC – Joshua diesCa, BC – traditional date of events in Book of Ruth
45The Old Testament Ca. 1120 BC – Samson is born 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings (begun), 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles (begun), Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Wisdom probably composed during this periodCa BC – Samuel is bornCa BC – Saul becomes king of IsraelCa BC – David becomes king
46The Old Testament Ca. 970 BC – Solomon becomes king Ca. 930 BC – Solomon dies1 Kings (finished), 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles (finished) Tobit, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Hosea, Joel, AmosCa. 930 BC – Rehoboam becomes kingCa. 926 BC – The ten northern tribes revolt against Rehoboah
47The Old Testament Ca. 912 BC – Elijah begins his career as a prophet Ca. 896 BC – Elijah is taken up into heavenCa 721 BC – Assyrians conquer Israel and take ten tribes into captivityCa. 705 BC – Traditional date of the events described in Tobit
48The Old Testament Judith, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel Ca. 586 BC – Babylonians destroy Jerusalem, raze the Temple, and carry Judah into captivityCa. 539 BC – Cyrus (Persian king) conquers BabylonEzra, Nehemiah, Esther, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Sirach written during this periodCa. 537 BC – Decree of Cyrus allows Jews to return to Jerusalem
49The Old TestamentCa. 515 BC – after some delay and opposition by the Samaritans, the Second Temple is builtCa. 336 BC – Alexander the Great begins his conquestsCa. 175 BC – Antiochus Epiphanes becomes king
50The Old TestamentAntiochus Epiphanes was determined to destroy all worship of the “One True God”He believed that public acts of extreme cruelty would discourage the Jews from following their GodCa. 167 BC – Persecution of the Jews, revolt begins
51The Old TestamentAntiochus’ mistake was underestimating the devotion and faith of the IsraelitesThe Maccabean Revolt led eventually to independence1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees is writtenCa. 164 BC – Temple rededicatedCa. 134 BC – John Hyrcanus becomes high priest
52The Old Testament Typology When we read the Old Testament, we see many things that point to events in the New Testament, the coming of the MessiahAbraham’s sacrifice of Isaac points to God’s sacrifice of His Son Jesus on the crossThus we say that Isaac it a “type” (prototype) of ChristThe study of “types” such as this in the Old Testament is called Typology
53The Old Testament Typology is a way of teaching by analogy We explain the new in term of the old
54The Old Testament Fulfill Genealogy Law Old Testament Pentateuch ProphetTypeTypologyWisdom Literature
55The Old TestamentWho came to fulfill the prophecies of the Old Testament?
56The Old TestamentWhich two historical figures does Matthew mention as ancestors of Jesus Christ at the beginning of his Gospel?
57The Old TestamentWhere is the Old Testament perfected?
58The Old TestamentWhat does the New Testament accomplish?
59The Old TestamentWhat does Jesus’ genealogy indicate?
60The Old TestamentWhat are the four main types of books in the Old Testament?
61The Old TestamentWhich books are the books of the law?
62The Old TestamentWhat are other names for the books of the law?
63The Old TestamentWhat does the word “Pentateuch” mean?
64The Old TestamentWhat do the historical books describe?
65The Old TestamentWhich book includes many religious poems attributed to David?
66The Old TestamentWhich three books of the Old Testament are named for women?
67The Old TestamentWhy are the books from Hosea to Malachi called “Minor Prophets?”
68The Old TestamentWhat can we discover from reading the Old Testament?