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How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1.

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Presentation on theme: "How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1

2 VISIONS OF THE FUTURE: A HISTORY What will we be studying? Why have I created the course in this way? –Concern with fairness –Explaining what you are supposed to do

3 Explaining what you are supposed to do – An Example Historians write in a different manner than biologists or statisticians –Therefore, to succeed in a history course you will need to adopt your reading to the field

4 Explaining what you are supposed to do – An Example Historians write in a different manner than biologists or statisticians Historians are story tellers – we create narratives –The point in reading a story is not to memorize every detail, but rather to capture the bigger picture

5 Explaining what you are supposed to do – An Example Historians write in a different manner than biologists or statisticians Historians are story tellers – we create narratives Historians make their narratives clear and plausible by giving examples –But this does not mean that you have to memorize every example – In fact that will definitely not work

6 Explaining what you are supposed to do – An Example Historians write in a different manner than biologists or statisticians Historians are story tellers – we create narratives Historians make their narratives clear and plausible by giving examples Therefore, you need to:

7 1.Separate the broader story (or thesis) from the details that support it 2.Remember the story (or thesis) using the examples to confirm that you understand the point 3.Forget most of the details – retaining only a few well chosen examples to help you remember the story and to allow you to defend the position if you need to

8 “The Jewish apocalyptic genre emerged from the earlier prophetic tradition, but is distinct from it. The Jewish prophets of the eighth to the sixth centuries B.C. – Amos, Joel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the others – functioned primarily as preachers, focusing on the people’s transgressions and foretelling the Lord’s renewed favor if they repented and further woes if they did not. The prophets were present minded and specific as they addressed a people beset by enemies and continually straying from the path of righteousness. The Jewish apocalypticists, by contrast, were learned stylists consciously creating a literary genre that relied heavily on symbol and allegory to reveal the divine plan underlying the flow of events. Taking the entire sweep of history as their subject, they portrayed in metaphorical language the future of the Jews, the fate of Israel’s enemies, and the ultimate destiny of humanity and the universe itself. The prophets viewed the struggle between good and evil as an individual and corporate matter; the apocalyticists saw it in cosmic terms.”

9 “ The Jewish apocalyptic genre emerged from the earlier prophetic tradition, but is distinct from it. The Jewish prophets of the eighth to the sixth centuries B.C. – Amos, Joel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the others – functioned primarily as preachers, focusing on the people’s transgressions and foretelling the Lord’s renewed favor if they repented and further woes if they did not. The prophets were present minded and specific as they addressed a people beset by enemies and continually straying from the path of righteousness. The Jewish apocalypticists, by contrast, were learned stylists consciously creating a literary genre that relied heavily on symbol and allegory to reveal the divine plan underlying the flow of events. Taking the entire sweep of history as their subject, they portrayed in metaphorical language the future of the Jews, the fate of Israel’s enemies, and the ultimate destiny of humanity and the universe itself. The prophets viewed the struggle between good and evil as an individual and corporate matter; the apocalyticists saw it in cosmic terms.

10 My Pledge to You In this course you will never be faced with the question: “Name five prophets in the Hebrew Bible.”

11 How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1 On Web – Week 1 – “What Readings are Aavailable to Help Me?” On Web – Week 1 Assignment

12 How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1 On Web – Week 1 – “What Readings are Aavailable to Help Me?” On Web – Week 1 Assignment Class – Day 2

13 Last of all arose the age of hard iron: immediately, in this period which took its name from a baser ore, all manner of crime broke out; modesty, truth and loyalty fled. Treachery and wickedness took their place, deceit and violence and criminal greed. Now sailors spread their canvas to the winds, though they had as yet but little knowledge of these, and trees which had once clothed the high mountains were fashioned into ships, and tossed upon the ocean waves, far removed from their own element. The land, which had previously been common to all, like the sunlight and the breezes, was now divided up far and wide by boundaries, set by cautious surveyors. –Ovid, Metamorphoses (c.8 CE) And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season. And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. –Book of Revelation (Late 1 st Century)

14 As this same End of the World is drawing nigh, many unusual things will happen – climatic changes, terrors from heaven, unseasonable tempests, wars, famines, pestilence, earthquakes. All these things are not to come in our own days, but they will all follow upon our times. If you are aware of some of them happening in your land, do not be disturbed, for these signs of the End of the world are sent ahead so that we may have a concern for our souls. Awaiting the hour of death, by our good actions may we be found ready for the Judge Who is to come. –Pope Gregory to Ethelbert, King of the Angels (June 601) Thus Man has taken into his service, and modified to his use, the animals, the plants, the earths and the stones, the waters and the winds, and the more complex forces of heat, electricity, sunlight, magnetism, with chemical powers of many kinds. By means of his inventions and discoveries, by means of the arts and trades, and by means of the industry resulting from them, he has raised himself from the condition of a serf to the condition of a lord. –Winwood Reade, The Martyrdom of Man (1872)

15 Reading Primary and Secondary Sources in History Decide whether you are dealing with a primary or a secondary text

16 “As Christianity triumphed, its millennialist strand faded. Once an embattled faith sustained by apocalyptic hope, Christianity by the third century enjoyed an increasingly secure position in the Roman world, a shift formalized by Constantine, who after coming to power in 312 not only tolerated but favored the new faith. He made Sunday a public holiday; granted privileges to the Christian clergy; and endowed various church institutions, including the Jerusalem holy places. He also arbitrated theological disputes and in 325 presided at the Council of Nicaea that codified the Church’s fundamental creed.” –Paul Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More, Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture, (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1992), p.48.

17 “As Christianity triumphed, its millennialist strand faded. Once an embattled faith sustained by apocalyptic hope, Christianity by the third century enjoyed an increasingly secure position in the Roman world, a shift formalized by Constantine, who after coming to power in 312 not only tolerated but favored the new faith. He made Sunday a public holiday; granted privileges to the Christian clergy; and endowed various church institutions, including the Jerusalem holy places. He also arbitrated theological disputes and in 325 presided at the Council of Nicaea that codified the Church’s fundamental creed.” –Paul Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More, Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture, (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1992), p.48.

18 On the two previous pages Boyer writes: “In Irenaeus’ own prophetic timetable, patterned on the six days of creation and the day of rest, history extends for six thousand years, ending with Christ’s return and the millennium, ‘the hallowed seventh day,’ which he described in lush, physically sensuous terms... “But millenialism met opposition as well … Origen attacked millenialists for misreading apocalyptic texts whose meaning ‘they do not perceive is to be taken figuratively.”

19 Reading Secondary Sources in History Courses Decide whether you are dealing with a primary or a secondary text Decide what is and is not relevant to remember for this course

20 What Should Be Remembered Here?

21 “ As Christianity triumphed, its millennialist strand faded. Once an embattled faith sustained by apocalyptic hope, Christianity by the third century enjoyed an increasingly secure position in the Roman world, a shift formalized by Constantine, who after coming to power in 312 not only tolerated but favored the new faith. He made Sunday a public holiday; granted privileges to the Christian clergy; and endowed various church institutions, including the Jerusalem holy places. He also arbitrated theological disputes and in 325 presided at the Council of Nicaea that codified the Church’s fundamental creed.”

22 What is the Big Idea You Should Come Away From This Passage With? “As Christianity triumphed, its millennialist strand faded. Once an embattled faith sustained by apocalyptic hope, Christianity by the third century enjoyed an increasingly secure position in the Roman world, a shift formalized by Constantine, who after coming to power in 312 not only tolerated but favored the new faith. He made Sunday a public holiday; granted privileges to the Christian clergy; and endowed various church institutions, including the Jerusalem holy places. He also arbitrated theological disputes and in 325 presided at the Council of Nicaea that codified the Church’s fundamental creed.”

23 How is the Task of Reading This Passage Different from Reading the Secondary Work by Boyer? “In the beginning was the Golden Age, when men of their own accord without threat of punishment, without laws, maintained good faith and did what was right. There were no penalties to be afraid of, no bronze tablets were erected, carrying threats of legal action, no crowds of wrong-doers, anxious for mercy, trembled before the fact of their judge; indeed there were no judges, men lived securely without them.” –Ovid Metamorphoses

24 Reading Primary Sources Remember – The point is not to decide whether the author is right You need to view the passage as a window into the ways of thinking of the era you are studying It is important to ask yourself questions about the text you are reading

25 Questions I Might Ask What do I know about the author, the work, and the period in which it was produced that might help me understand the significance of the passage? –“In the beginning was the Golden Age, when men of their own accord without threat of punishment, without laws, maintained good faith and did what was right. There were no penalties to be afraid of, no bronze tablets were erected, carrying threats of legal action, no crowds of wrong-doers, anxious for mercy, trembled before the fact of their judge; indeed there were no judges, men lived securely without them.” –Ovid Metamorphoses

26 Material on the Course Web Site Publius Ovidius Naso was born in Italy in 43 BC, just a year after the assassination of Julius Caesar. He became one of the greatest poets in Roman history, but the scandal of his early works, such as The Art of Love, and some unknown indiscretion led Emperor Augustus to eventually exile him to the Black Sea, where he lived until his death in 17 AD. The Metamorphoses, Ovid's most memorable work, seems to have been written around the time of his exile in 8 AD. It was a reworking of the myths and much of the philosophy of the ancient world into a marvelous collection of interlocking stories. Early in this work he repeated the common belief of his culture that the world had gone through a series of ever worsening ages. His presentation of these ages has captured the imagination of writers and artists for centuries, and the illustrations of an early printed editions of the Metamorphoses accompany this and other pages of this week's web site.

27 Questions I Might Ask What do I know about the author, the work, and the period? What is Ovid’s Golden Age Like? “Never yet had any pine tree, cut down from its home on the mountains, been launched on ocean’s waves, to visit foreign lands... Their cities were not yet surrounded by sheer moats … The peoples of the world, untroubled by any fears, enjoyed a leisurely and peaceful existence, and had no use for soldiers.”

28 Questions I Might Ask What do I know about the author, the work, and the period? What is Ovid’s Golden Age Like? How does it differ from the other Ages he describes?

29 How had things changed by the Iron Age? “Last of all arose the age of hard iron... All manner of crime broke out; modesty, truth, and loyalty fled. Treachery and wickedness took their place, deceit and violence and criminal greed. Now sailors spread their canvas to the winds... And trees which had once clothed the high mountains were fashioned into ships... The land, which had previously been common to all … was now divided up … By this time iron had been discovered, to the hurt of mankind and gold, more hurtful still than iron. War made its appearance, using both these metals in its conflict. … All proper affection lay vanquished and, last of the immortals, the maiden Justice left the blood-soaked earth.”

30 Questions I Might Ask What do I know about the author, the work, and the period? What is Ovid’s Golden Age Like? How does it differ from the other Ages he describes? What is the basic idea of time and human history that is being expressed through this myth? How does Ovid’s conception differ from the Christian notion of history?

31 “In the beginning was the Golden Age, when men of their own accord without threat of punishment, without laws, maintained good faith and did what was right. There were no penalties to be afraid of, no bronze tablets were errected, carrying threats of legal action, no crowd of wrong-doers, anxious for mercy, trembled before the face of their judge.

32 Winwood Reade, The Martyrdom of Man (1872) When Man first wandered in the dark forest, he was Nature's serf; he offered tribute and prayer to the winds, and the lightning, and the rain, to the cave-lion, which seized his burrow for its lair, to the mammoth, which devoured his scanty crops. But as time passed on, he ventured, to rebel; he made stone his servant; he discovered fire and vegetable poison; he domesticated iron; he slew the wild beasts or subdued them; he made them feed him and give him clothes. He became a chief surrounded by his slaves; the fire lay beside him with dull red eye and yellow tongue waiting his instructions to prepare his dinner, or to make him poison, or to go with him to the war, and fly on the houses of the enemy, hissing, roaring, and consuming all. The trees of the forest were his flock, he slaughtered them at his convenience; the earth brought forth at his command.

33 Winwood Reade, The Martyrdom of Man (1872) Thus Man has taken into his service, and modified to his use, the animals, the plants, the earths and the stones, the waters and the winds, and the more complex forces of heat, electricity, sunlight, magnetism, with chemical powers of many kinds. By means of his inventions and discoveries, by means of the arts and trades, and by means of the industry resulting from them, he has raised himself from the condition of a serf to the condition of a lord.

34 The Christian Notions of Time and History Albrecht Durer ( ) The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

35 How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1 On Web – Week 1 – “What Readings are Aavailable to Help Me?” On Web – Week 1 Assignment Class – Day 2 Class – Day 3 – Team Exercise

36 “In this sermon [1521] [Thomas Münster] outlined... his view that they were all living in the last days and what was about to happen. It is an exposition of Daniel 2, the story of Nebuchadnezzer’s vision of the great image which was destroyed by a stone. The book of Daniel... provided Christian interpreters with... the scheme of the five kingdoms or monarchies. Four had gone: Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. The fifth he identified as the contemporary obscene mixture of sacred and secular power in the coalition of the Holy Roman Empire and Holy Catholic Church. The ending of this fifth monarch, he proclaimed, was in full swing. Münster saw himself as a new Daniel... Müntzer was totally convinced that God was about to end things..... He detected the beginnings of God’s final judgment in the Peasant uprising of and saw in the rebels God’s elect who were gathering to carry out God’s apocalyptic judgment on all unbelievers..” Walter Klaassen, Living at the End of the Ages: (1992) Each team should: Indicate whether this is a primary or a secondary source. Write a statement about the role of the Apocalypse in Western culture. Briefly explain how this material would serve to support that point. All members of the team present today should sign page and put it in the team folder.

37 How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1 On Web – Week 1 – “What Readings are Aavailable to Help Me?” On Web – Week 1 Assignment Class – Day 2 Class – Day 3 – Team Exercise Class – Day 3

38 Reading Secondary Sources Sometimes a historian is presenting the point of view of an individual or individuals in a different historical period. Sometimes a historian is presenting the view of another historian, with which he/she may or may agree. Sometimes a historian is presenting his/her own interpretation of a historical period. Sometimes a historian is presenting his/her own values or world view.

39 How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1 On Web – Week 1 – “What Readings are Aavailable to Help Me?” On Web – Week 1 Assignment Class – Day 2 Class – Day 3 – Team Exercise Class – Day 3 On Web – Week 2 Assignment

40 How can we model for students the processes that we go through in reading? Class – Day 1 On Web – Week 1 – “What Readings are Aavailable to Help Me?” On Web – Week 1 Assignment Class – Day 2 Class – Day 3 – Team Exercise Class – Day 3 On Web – Week 2 Assignment Class – Day 4 – Processing Question on Assignment

41 What is the Basic Thesis in This Paragaph? –While Catholic doctrine increasingly moved away from end-time speculation, apocalyptic thinking survived. In his 1970 work. The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages, Norman Cohn focused on the proliferation of millenialism in “the obscure underworld of popular religion” among “the underprivileged, the oppressed, the disoriented, and the unbalanced.” Cohn’s medieval Europe, far removed from the society Henry Adams imagined as united in veneration of the Virgin in vast cathedrals such as Chartres, is a veritable cauldron of hermit messiahs, wandering visionaries, self-taught prophecy interpreters, and doomed social revolutionaries inflamed by apocalyptic expectations. For Cohn, the fearful speculation aroused by the approach of the year 1000 was only one incident in a succession of turbulent mass movements that germinated in a rich loam of popular millennialism.

42 What is the Basic Thesis in This Paragaph? –In reality, as Bernard McGinn and other scholars have made clear in recent years, apocalyptic speculation flourished at all levels of medieval society. Eschatological hope formed part of the ground of Christian belief, and thus of the medieval mentality. Monastic scholars and the most erudite theologians contributed to, and often cited, the vast body of verse prophecies known collectively as the Sibylline oracles, Modeled on Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic Jewish writings, these literary works wove images from Daniel and Revelation into imaginative narratives that were revised periodically as historical circumstances changed. In the later Middle Ages, guilds supported by the urban elites produced open- air dramas or miracle plays (the Oberammergau Passion Play is a surviving example) in which the Last Judgment and other end-time events figured prominently.

43 Which of these statements most clearly presents the issues discussed in this paragraph? 1.Boyer wants to explain the origins of the apocalyptic thought and how this began to play a part in everyday Christian learning, and also how this belief withstood the hands of time. 2.During the Middle Ages, apocalyptic ideas were thought by all of society and were rooted from many different religious texts and beliefs. 3.The basic idea of the passage is that every culture had its own views of the apocalypse. 4.In the Middle Ages, Catholic doctrine focused much less on the apocalypse, but it was still a major presence in the lives and thoughts of people regardless of class. 5.Round the time of the first millennium both scholars and lay people alike became increasingly fixated on the idea of an upcoming apocalyptic end.

44 Which thesis does Boyer believe is more convincing? What tells you that this is his position? –In reality, as Bernard McGinn and other scholars have made clear in recent years, apocalyptic speculation flourished at all levels of medieval society.

45 Which thesis does Boyer believe is more convincing? What tells you that this is his position? –In reality, as Bernard McGinn and other scholars have made clear in recent years, apocalyptic speculation flourished at all levels of medieval society.

46 Why does Boyer believe that this evidence makes McGinn’s position more convincing than Cohn? –Eschatological hope formed part of the ground of Christian belief, and thus of the medieval mentality. Monastic scholars and the most erudite theologians contributed to, and often cited, the vast body of verse prophecies known collectively as the Sibylline oracles, Modeled on Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic Jewish writings, these literary works wove images from Daniel and Revelation into imaginative narratives that were revised periodically as historical circumstances changed. In the later Middle Ages, guilds supported by the urban elites produced open- air dramas or miracle plays (the Oberammergau Passion Play is a surviving example) in which the Last Judgment and other end-time events figured prominently.

47 Why does Boyer believe that this evidence makes McGinn’s position more convincing than Cohn? –Hildegaard of Bingen, a brilliant twelfth-century German abbess, religious writer, and composer, recorded her visions of Antichrist and end-time events in works that enjoyed a wide influence. Issues of prophetic interpretation sparked immense debate at Oxford and the University of Paris in the late thirteenth century. As Marjorie Reeves observes in her study of prophecy in the later Middle Ages, not only society’s marginal members but ‘somber historians and politicians’ took very seriously speculation about the last days rooted in biblical apocalyptic.


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