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Chapter 2.2: Problems and Solutions in Research Mr. McCormick Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2.2: Problems and Solutions in Research Mr. McCormick Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2.2: Problems and Solutions in Research Mr. McCormick Psychology

2 Do-Now: (Discussion) Discussion: A psychologist wishes to test the effects of listening to classical music on studying/retaining information. To do so, she creates an experiment in which 100 students study a list of 40 terms to be memorized and later tested. 50 participants must listen to classical music while studying, while 50 participants may not. Identify the following: A psychologist wishes to test the effects of listening to classical music on studying/retaining information. To do so, she creates an experiment in which 100 students study a list of 40 terms to be memorized and later tested. 50 participants must listen to classical music while studying, while 50 participants may not. Identify the following: Hypothesis Hypothesis Independent Variable Independent Variable Dependent Variable Dependent Variable Experimental Group Experimental Group Control Group Control Group

3 Problems and Solutions in Research Turn to Pg. 42 “Problems and Solutions in Research” Turn to Pg. 42 “Problems and Solutions in Research” In what way did the woman in this story experience a “self- fulfilling prophecy?” In what way did the woman in this story experience a “self- fulfilling prophecy?” Have you ever experienced a “self-fulfilling prophecy?” Have you ever experienced a “self-fulfilling prophecy?”

4 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Researcher’s expectations influence his/her own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior (e.g. thinking a subject will respond in a certain way, and unassumingly acting in a manner that will cause the subject to then do so) Researcher’s expectations influence his/her own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior (e.g. thinking a subject will respond in a certain way, and unassumingly acting in a manner that will cause the subject to then do so)

5 Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Single-Blind Experiment: Single-Blind Experiment: Participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment (e.g. participants do not know which participants received “Red Bull”) Participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment (e.g. participants do not know which participants received “Red Bull”) Double-Blind Experiment: Double-Blind Experiment: Participants and experimenter(s) are unaware of which participants received the treatment (e.g. participants and experimenter(s) do not know which participants received “Red Bull”) Participants and experimenter(s) are unaware of which participants received the treatment (e.g. participants and experimenter(s) do not know which participants received “Red Bull”)

6 Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy In what way do single-blind and In what way do single-blind and double-blind experiments help avoid self-fulfilling prophecies on behalf of the experimenter and participants?

7 Placebo Effect Placebo Effect: Placebo Effect: A change in a participant’s behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect, rather than the actual treatment (e.g. participant thinks he is receiving “Red Bull,” but instead receives non- caffeinated soda, and still “feels energized”) A change in a participant’s behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect, rather than the actual treatment (e.g. participant thinks he is receiving “Red Bull,” but instead receives non- caffeinated soda, and still “feels energized”)

8 Placebo Effect

9 Review What is a self-fulfilling prophecy in psychological research? What is a self-fulfilling prophecy in psychological research? Identify two ways in which researchers can avoid a self- fulfilling prophecy on behalf of the researcher(s) and participant(s)? Identify two ways in which researchers can avoid a self- fulfilling prophecy on behalf of the researcher(s) and participant(s)? What is a placebo effect? What is a placebo effect? Complete “Vocabulary Activity 2-2” (# 1-8) Complete “Vocabulary Activity 2-2” (# 1-8)


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