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Oracle of Delphi By: Kristy and Jocelyn. Delphi History Located on the southern sloped of Mount Parnassos. Located on the southern sloped of Mount Parnassos.

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Presentation on theme: "Oracle of Delphi By: Kristy and Jocelyn. Delphi History Located on the southern sloped of Mount Parnassos. Located on the southern sloped of Mount Parnassos."— Presentation transcript:

1 oracle of Delphi By: Kristy and Jocelyn

2 Delphi History Located on the southern sloped of Mount Parnassos. Located on the southern sloped of Mount Parnassos. Delphi was sacred to Apollo, the god of prophecy and patron of philosophy and the arts, whose famous temple and prophetic shrine were there. Delphi was sacred to Apollo, the god of prophecy and patron of philosophy and the arts, whose famous temple and prophetic shrine were there. In honor of the killing of the monster Python by Apollo, the Pythian Games were held in Delphi every four years. In honor of the killing of the monster Python by Apollo, the Pythian Games were held in Delphi every four years. A priestess was known as the Pythia in honour of Apollo’s slaying of a mythical beast called the Python. A priestess was known as the Pythia in honour of Apollo’s slaying of a mythical beast called the Python. The trancelike state in which the Delphic oracle (always a woman) delivered her prophecies was induced by vapors that rose from the earth underneath the temple of Apollo. Long dismissed as a legend, this story received confirmation from the findings (2001) The trancelike state in which the Delphic oracle (always a woman) delivered her prophecies was induced by vapors that rose from the earth underneath the temple of Apollo. Long dismissed as a legend, this story received confirmation from the findings (2001)

3 Outline of the oracle

4 The Theatre Theatre- Theatre- Above the Temple of Apollo is an outdoor theater with 33 tiers of stone seats that could hold up to 5,000 people. Above the Temple of Apollo is an outdoor theater with 33 tiers of stone seats that could hold up to 5,000 people. It was built partially out of the living rock with some of the supporting masonry dating to fifth century BCE. It was built partially out of the living rock with some of the supporting masonry dating to fifth century BCE. The north side had 12 rows of seats and a platform to accommodate the presidents of the games. The north side had 12 rows of seats and a platform to accommodate the presidents of the games. the curved west end and the south side only had 6 rows of seats. Four pillars remain of the Roman Triumphal Arch which formed the entrance at the south-eastern corner, built by Herodes Atticus, the famous Athenian philanthropist. the curved west end and the south side only had 6 rows of seats. Four pillars remain of the Roman Triumphal Arch which formed the entrance at the south-eastern corner, built by Herodes Atticus, the famous Athenian philanthropist.

5 Temple of Apollo The ancient Greek shrine of Apollo rests on the side of Mount Parnassus The ancient Greek shrine of Apollo rests on the side of Mount Parnassus where the Oracles made their predictions where the Oracles made their predictions centre piece of Delphi, built with donations from every Greek city-state and from abroad centre piece of Delphi, built with donations from every Greek city-state and from abroad the base of the temple still stands, with half a dozen of the original columns the base of the temple still stands, with half a dozen of the original columns on the outside of the base are over 700 inscriptions, most announcing the release of slaves, which was considered a special act of piety (devotion to religion) to be performed at Delphi on the outside of the base are over 700 inscriptions, most announcing the release of slaves, which was considered a special act of piety (devotion to religion) to be performed at Delphi At the far end of the temple is the altar, originally decorated with memorials, ex-votos, statues, and offerings At the far end of the temple is the altar, originally decorated with memorials, ex-votos, statues, and offerings

6 Sacred way Upon arriving at Delphi, the supplicants registered and paid a fee; when their appointments neared, they purified themselves at the Castalian Spring, where the bathing trough is still visible. They then proceeded along the Sacred Way, a zigzag flagstone walk up the hill. The Sacred Way was lined with statues and offerings, most of which have long disappeared, although a few surviving examples can be seen in the Delphi Museum. Also along the way were a series of treasuries, small shrines sponsored by various Greek cities as thank-offerings for important victories. Upon arriving at Delphi, the supplicants registered and paid a fee; when their appointments neared, they purified themselves at the Castalian Spring, where the bathing trough is still visible. They then proceeded along the Sacred Way, a zigzag flagstone walk up the hill. The Sacred Way was lined with statues and offerings, most of which have long disappeared, although a few surviving examples can be seen in the Delphi Museum. Also along the way were a series of treasuries, small shrines sponsored by various Greek cities as thank-offerings for important victories. The Sacred Way ended outside the temple, there the pilgrims would sacrifice a sheep or goat, whose entrails( inner parts) were examined by the priests for omens( future). Then the pilgrims entered one by one to ask the sibyl their question. A carved domed rock, the omphalos, or centre of the earth, was kept at the place of prophecy. In an ancient flood story about the human race, the omphalos was the first thing to emerge from the waters as they receded. In addition, Zeus sent two ravens out from the ends of the earth to find its center, and their beaks touched at the omphalos. The stone is presently kept in a museum. The Sacred Way ended outside the temple, there the pilgrims would sacrifice a sheep or goat, whose entrails( inner parts) were examined by the priests for omens( future). Then the pilgrims entered one by one to ask the sibyl their question. A carved domed rock, the omphalos, or centre of the earth, was kept at the place of prophecy. In an ancient flood story about the human race, the omphalos was the first thing to emerge from the waters as they receded. In addition, Zeus sent two ravens out from the ends of the earth to find its center, and their beaks touched at the omphalos. The stone is presently kept in a museum.

7 Castalia Spring/ The Athena Pronoia Temple The Castalia Spring- The Castalia Spring- tucked into a ravine right under the Phaedriades. Apollo is said to have planted a laurel tree here which he brought from the Vale of Tempe. tucked into a ravine right under the Phaedriades. Apollo is said to have planted a laurel tree here which he brought from the Vale of Tempe. All visitors purified themselves here before entering the sanctuary. All visitors purified themselves here before entering the sanctuary. Many poets found inspiration from drinking the waters here and it was said that if you drink of the waters of the Castalia Spring, you would return to Greece. Many poets found inspiration from drinking the waters here and it was said that if you drink of the waters of the Castalia Spring, you would return to Greece. The Athena Pronoia Temple ( "The Marmaria")- The Athena Pronoia Temple ( "The Marmaria")- small sacred terrace small sacred terrace The first Athena temple was built in the Archaic period and was a small peripheral temple and known as the Athena Pronaia temple, the "Athena-in-front-of- the-temple" (Guardian of the Temple). The first Athena temple was built in the Archaic period and was a small peripheral temple and known as the Athena Pronaia temple, the "Athena-in-front-of- the-temple" (Guardian of the Temple). Tholos of Athena Pronoia Tholos of Athena Pronoia

8 Gymnasium Between the Marmaria and the Castalia Spring, south of the Arachova- Delphi road Between the Marmaria and the Castalia Spring, south of the Arachova- Delphi road This two-level complex of athletic building was built in the late Classical and Hellenistic periods and rebuilt during the Roman period. This two-level complex of athletic building was built in the late Classical and Hellenistic periods and rebuilt during the Roman period. On the upper level was the xystos or long colonnade where the athletes practiced in bad weather and a parallel track in the open air. On the upper level was the xystos or long colonnade where the athletes practiced in bad weather and a parallel track in the open air. On the lower level are the remains of a peristyle court which served as a palaestra or wrestling ground, which is the most recognizable of the standing remains. On the lower level are the remains of a peristyle court which served as a palaestra or wrestling ground, which is the most recognizable of the standing remains. A monastery was built into this Palaestra, actually reusing some of the ancient walls. It was moved out when the village was relocated in A monastery was built into this Palaestra, actually reusing some of the ancient walls. It was moved out when the village was relocated in Next to the palaestra were a bath complex with a cold plunge and some sitz baths built into the back of the terrace Next to the palaestra were a bath complex with a cold plunge and some sitz baths built into the back of the terrace

9 The Museum in the museum is a copy of the omphalos stone and the Halos Treasure, religious objects from the sanctuary ritually buried in a pit called a bothros. in the museum is a copy of the omphalos stone and the Halos Treasure, religious objects from the sanctuary ritually buried in a pit called a bothros. The highlight of the museum's collection is a bronze statue known as The Charioteer. It was sculpted in about 470 BC and commemorated the victory of a Syracusan prince in a chariot race of the Pythian games and was probably paid for by Gelon, the tyrant of Syracuse. It is one of the few ancient bronzes to come down to us as most would have been melted down to reuse their valuable raw material. It was part of a group which would have stood on a terrace wall up slope from the Temple of Apollo. It fell from this terrace and was preserved by a landslide to be excavated by the French in It is famous for the contrast between its severe Classical formality and its intensity and life-like aspects. The highlight of the museum's collection is a bronze statue known as The Charioteer. It was sculpted in about 470 BC and commemorated the victory of a Syracusan prince in a chariot race of the Pythian games and was probably paid for by Gelon, the tyrant of Syracuse. It is one of the few ancient bronzes to come down to us as most would have been melted down to reuse their valuable raw material. It was part of a group which would have stood on a terrace wall up slope from the Temple of Apollo. It fell from this terrace and was preserved by a landslide to be excavated by the French in It is famous for the contrast between its severe Classical formality and its intensity and life-like aspects.

10 The Oracle Home of the sacred oracle of the sun-god Apollo Home of the sacred oracle of the sun-god Apollo Apollo was believed to send messages to humans through a cleft in the rocks( the omphalos) Apollo was believed to send messages to humans through a cleft in the rocks( the omphalos) These sayings were interpreted by the oracle, a priestess known as the Pythia( got her name in honour of Apollo’s slaying of a mythical beast called the Python. These sayings were interpreted by the oracle, a priestess known as the Pythia( got her name in honour of Apollo’s slaying of a mythical beast called the Python. The oracles replies were usually so ambiguous that it was difficult ever to prove them wrong, but this does not seem to have discouraged supplicants. The oracles replies were usually so ambiguous that it was difficult ever to prove them wrong, but this does not seem to have discouraged supplicants. Greeks and non-Greeks, kings, and commoners, came to consult the oracle of private and public matters Greeks and non-Greeks, kings, and commoners, came to consult the oracle of private and public matters

11 Prophet It was first necessary to sacrifice an animal, then to wait in the inner chamber of the temple It was first necessary to sacrifice an animal, then to wait in the inner chamber of the temple Priestesses ( there were three altogether) were women over 50 years of age. Priestesses ( there were three altogether) were women over 50 years of age. 1. They first cleansed themselves in the scared spring of Kastalia and drank water from another spring. 2. They chewed bay leaves while seated on a tripod suspended over a cleft in the rocks 3. “The vapours issuing from the cleft were supposed to give the priestesses (Pyhtia) a heightened consciousness and cause prophetic utterances.” 4. These cries would then be interpreted by a male prophet usually in ambiguous verse

12 4Stages 1. Castalia Spring 2. Bay Leaves 3.Prophecies 4. Ambiguous Verses

13 Apollo Omphalos Pythia

14 Political During the 8 th century the city states began to seek the oracle’s advice on colonizing ventures, and it grew in importance. During the 8 th century the city states began to seek the oracle’s advice on colonizing ventures, and it grew in importance. Was consulted on a wide range of personal and political problems. Was consulted on a wide range of personal and political problems. Gained importance as a meeting-place with the establishment of the Pythian games about 590BCE Gained importance as a meeting-place with the establishment of the Pythian games about 590BCE Political Figures that visited the Oracle Oedipus—> “ Prophesized that he would kill his father and marry his mother.” Oedipus—> “ Prophesized that he would kill his father and marry his mother.” When grown, Oedipus heard the prophecy about himself and fled Corinth, believing that Polybius was his father. While on the road he killed a stranger, not knowing that it was Laius. Entering Thebes, he found the city dominated by a sphinx who killed anyone who could not solve her riddle: "Who goes on four feet in the morning, on two at noon, and in the evening on three?" Oedipus vanquished her by replying, "Man, in the three ages of his life," and won the hand of the widowed queen. When grown, Oedipus heard the prophecy about himself and fled Corinth, believing that Polybius was his father. While on the road he killed a stranger, not knowing that it was Laius. Entering Thebes, he found the city dominated by a sphinx who killed anyone who could not solve her riddle: "Who goes on four feet in the morning, on two at noon, and in the evening on three?" Oedipus vanquished her by replying, "Man, in the three ages of his life," and won the hand of the widowed queen. Before the Battle of Salamis when the Pythia first predicted doom and later predicted that a 'wooden wall' (interpreted by the Athenians to mean their ships) would save them. Before the Battle of Salamis when the Pythia first predicted doom and later predicted that a 'wooden wall' (interpreted by the Athenians to mean their ships) would save them. king Croesus of Lydia (circa 546 BCE) who asked if he should invade Persian territory. His reply from the oracle was, if he did invade a mighty empire would be destroyed. Croesus thinking he would be victorious invaded, but it was his own empire that fell and subsequently destroyed. king Croesus of Lydia (circa 546 BCE) who asked if he should invade Persian territory. His reply from the oracle was, if he did invade a mighty empire would be destroyed. Croesus thinking he would be victorious invaded, but it was his own empire that fell and subsequently destroyed. Socrates Socrates Alexander the Great Alexander the Great Sophocles Sophocles

15 Economic Short Term Short Term The city states made rich offerings to Apollo to invoke his help. The city states made rich offerings to Apollo to invoke his help. Long Term Long Term Became prosperous Became prosperous The interpretations of the ambiguous verses lead to the downfall of some countries. (economically) The interpretations of the ambiguous verses lead to the downfall of some countries. (economically)

16 Social “ Personal ethics and social morality were given great importance, and the sanction given to overseas settlements enhanced the sanctuary’s influence in the wider Greek world.” “ Personal ethics and social morality were given great importance, and the sanction given to overseas settlements enhanced the sanctuary’s influence in the wider Greek world.” Towns in Greece wanting to establish new settlements abroad, often consulted the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi Towns in Greece wanting to establish new settlements abroad, often consulted the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi Local Greek farmers would consult the oracle for advice on crops and harvesting Local Greek farmers would consult the oracle for advice on crops and harvesting Helped people make decisions Helped people make decisions In conclusion, this advice and ritual of visiting the oracle became imbedded into their every day life. In conclusion, this advice and ritual of visiting the oracle became imbedded into their every day life.

17 Impact on Greece In Greek history the chief significance of Delphi was that it provided a meeting place for the inhabitants of the city- states. In Greek history the chief significance of Delphi was that it provided a meeting place for the inhabitants of the city- states. Pythian games established around 590BCE. Pythian games established around 590BCE. In religion its influence was conservative. In religion its influence was conservative. “On the subject of purification from bloodshed, it took a strong stand and gradually evolved the doctrine that purity was a matter of the spirit rather than of ritual. Its moderate philosophy was well summarized by the maxims inscribed on the wall of the Temple of Apollo "Know thyself" and "Nothing too much.“ “On the subject of purification from bloodshed, it took a strong stand and gradually evolved the doctrine that purity was a matter of the spirit rather than of ritual. Its moderate philosophy was well summarized by the maxims inscribed on the wall of the Temple of Apollo "Know thyself" and "Nothing too much.“ We have fortune tellers in today’s society We have fortune tellers in today’s society Some of the prophecies lead to the destruction of some civilizations. Example: Lydia, Creouses Some of the prophecies lead to the destruction of some civilizations. Example: Lydia, Creouses People became dependent on the prophecies given People became dependent on the prophecies given

18 CONCLUSION In conclusion, the Oracle of Delphi was a place where Greeks, and non-Greeks, kings, and commoners came to consult the oracle on private and public matters. In conclusion, the Oracle of Delphi was a place where Greeks, and non-Greeks, kings, and commoners came to consult the oracle on private and public matters. Delphi was sacred to Apollo, the god of prophecy and patron of philosophy and the arts, whose famous temple and prophetic shrine were there. Delphi was sacred to Apollo, the god of prophecy and patron of philosophy and the arts, whose famous temple and prophetic shrine were there. Delphi was considered the centre of known world. Delphi was considered the centre of known world. ( According to Zeus) ( According to Zeus) The oracle helped people make decisions, such as harvesting crops and going to battle. The oracle helped people make decisions, such as harvesting crops and going to battle. The sanctuary’ had an influence on the wider Greek world. The sanctuary’ had an influence on the wider Greek world.

19 Discussion What was the Oracle of Delphi? What was the Oracle of Delphi? Why did people go there? Why did people go there? Do you believe in Prophecies? Do you believe in Prophecies? Why do people find the need to know their future? Why do people find the need to know their future? If you went to a psychic would you believe what they say about your future? If you went to a psychic would you believe what they say about your future? Can people really predict the future? Can people really predict the future? Do you have control over your destiny, or believe in fate? Do you have control over your destiny, or believe in fate? Do you think that hearing prophecies can lead to your downfall? Do you think that hearing prophecies can lead to your downfall? Do you believe that someone who is intoxicated (bay leaves) would be able to make a clear prophecy of your future? Explain. Do you believe that someone who is intoxicated (bay leaves) would be able to make a clear prophecy of your future? Explain.

20 Work’s Cited Archibald, Zofia. Discovering the World of the Ancient Greeks.London: Quatro Publishing, Archibald, Zofia. Discovering the World of the Ancient Greeks.London: Quatro Publishing, Levi, Peter. Atlas of the Greek World. Levi, Peter. Atlas of the Greek World. North America:Equinox(Oxford),1984. North America:Equinox(Oxford),1984. Margaret E. "Delphi" Mordenhttp://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/delphi/articledelp hi.htm Margaret E. "Delphi" Mordenhttp://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/delphi/articledelp hi.htm (27 April. 2005) Haywood, John. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Civilization of the Near East and Mediterranean. Haywood, John. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Civilization of the Near East and Mediterranean. Oxfordshire: Andromeda Oxford Ltd., Oxfordshire: Andromeda Oxford Ltd., Wolverton, Robert E., "Delphi." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Wolverton, Robert E., "Delphi." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic No Author "The Oracle at Delphi” No Author "The Oracle at Delphi” (27 April, 2005)


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