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Theories of Prejudice: Introduction. Review: Key Concepts Kovel: racism (institutional) vs. prejudice (individual) Malcolm X:overt vs. covert blatant.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Prejudice: Introduction. Review: Key Concepts Kovel: racism (institutional) vs. prejudice (individual) Malcolm X:overt vs. covert blatant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Prejudice: Introduction

2 Review: Key Concepts Kovel: racism (institutional) vs. prejudice (individual) Malcolm X:overt vs. covert blatant vs. Subtle deliberate vs. unintentional Kovel: dominative vs. aversive vs. meta-racism

3 Psychoanalytic Theory Prejudice based on projection of repressed wishes, fears, & negative self-images Applies to all prejudices – sexism, homophobia, etc.? Applies to all instances?

4 Psychoanalytic Theory Helps explains content of stereotypes, but not prevalence & intensity of prejudice? Explains some individuals but not others? Authoritarian personality –(Aronson ’ s “ prejudiced personality ” )

5 Chapter 7: Prejudice The Social Animal Elliot Aronson

6 Historical Change Well-documented decline in overt prejudice & internalization by victims –Kenneth Clark doll experiments –Phillip Goldberg “ author gender ” experiments Covert / subtle prejudice remains pervasive = “ Meta-racism ” ?

7 Definitions Historical change in definitions of “ stereotype ” –Negative neutral –Emotional cognitive Prejudice vs. ethnocentrism –William Graham Sumner: Folkways

8 How Stereotypes Work 1.“ On ” victims –In situations when stereotypes made salient –When stereotypes internalized 2. “ For ” the prejudiced

9 Stereotype Threat Claude Steele Stanford blacks taking GRE tests –Testing IQ-s vs. testing the test Replications: –Women taking math tests –Latinos taking verbal (English) tests –White engineering majors in study of “ why Asians excel ” –White guys can ’ t jump!

10 Attribution Theory Study of social forces influencing how we make inferences about: –Events –Others ’ behavior & personality traits –Own behavior & personality traits

11 “ Luck ” vs. “ Skill ” Deaux & Emsweiler: –Male success  skill –Female success  luck 50 replications Stipek & Gralinski: –Boys ’ math success  skill –Girls ’ math success  luck

12 “ Luck ” vs. “ Skill ” Tennis players losing first sets: –Men: luck or laziness –Women: lower ability than opponent Turner & Pratkanis: –Women hired for “ affirmative action ” gave less effort, performed poorly

13 How Stereotypes Work for Prejudiced Attribution Theory – “ Fundamental Attribution Error ” –“ Ultimate Attribution Error ” Cognitive Dissonance Theory –“ Blaming the Victim ” Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

14 Attribution Theory Fundamental attribution error: –Own behavior attributed to situations –Others ’ behavior attributed to dispositions (personality traits, values, beliefs, etc.) T. Pettigrew: Ultimate attribution error –Others ’ successes attributed to situations –Others ’ failures attributed to traits

15 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Inflict harm  dissonance (tension) with positive self image  denigrate victim = “ Blaming the Victim ”

16 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Carl Word: job interview experiment –Interviewer subtly elicits expected stereotypic behavior Michelle Hebl field replication –“ homosexuals ” : no overt discrimination –but: shorter & less engaging interviews

17 Theories of Prejudice Economic & Political Competition Scapegoat Theory Low Status / Relative Deprivation Prejudiced Personality Prejudice through Conformity

18 Economic & Political Competition = “ Realistic Group Conflict ” Real conflict  denigration & de- humanization of Other Sherif (Robber ’ s Cave) experiment + interdependence as solution

19 Scapegoat Theory = Displaced Aggression Frustration  aggression research –Kovel: class conflict within white society diminished by displaced aggression toward non-whites (Joe?)

20 Scapegoat Theory Hovland & Sears: Price of cotton 1882 – 1930 predicts lynchings in American South

21 Scapegoat Theory

22 Maintain Self-Image & Status = Low Social Status = Relative Deprivation Tajfel & Turner: “ social identity theory ” –In-group identity & pride can raise self- regard and status over disadvantaged ethnic out-groups

23 Prejudiced Personality = Authoritarian Personality = Right Wing Authoritarianism Personality structure organized by subordination to conventional authorities, conservative social values, and hostility toward deviants and out- groups

24 Conformity Prevailing social norms strongly influence individual prejudice above and beyond other factors. –People change views in accordance with community into which they move. –Pettigrew: conformity to norms perhaps most important factor

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