Review: Key Concepts Kovel: racism (institutional) vs. prejudice (individual) Malcolm X:overt vs. covert blatant vs. Subtle deliberate vs. unintentional Kovel: dominative vs. aversive vs. meta-racism
Psychoanalytic Theory Prejudice based on projection of repressed wishes, fears, & negative self-images Applies to all prejudices – sexism, homophobia, etc.? Applies to all instances?
Psychoanalytic Theory Helps explains content of stereotypes, but not prevalence & intensity of prejudice? Explains some individuals but not others? Authoritarian personality –(Aronson ’ s “ prejudiced personality ” )
Chapter 7: Prejudice The Social Animal Elliot Aronson
Definitions Historical change in definitions of “ stereotype ” –Negative neutral –Emotional cognitive Prejudice vs. ethnocentrism –William Graham Sumner: Folkways
How Stereotypes Work 1.“ On ” victims –In situations when stereotypes made salient –When stereotypes internalized 2. “ For ” the prejudiced
Stereotype Threat Claude Steele Stanford blacks taking GRE tests –Testing IQ-s vs. testing the test Replications: –Women taking math tests –Latinos taking verbal (English) tests –White engineering majors in study of “ why Asians excel ” –White guys can ’ t jump!
Attribution Theory Study of social forces influencing how we make inferences about: –Events –Others ’ behavior & personality traits –Own behavior & personality traits
“ Luck ” vs. “ Skill ” Tennis players losing first sets: –Men: luck or laziness –Women: lower ability than opponent Turner & Pratkanis: –Women hired for “ affirmative action ” gave less effort, performed poorly
How Stereotypes Work for Prejudiced Attribution Theory – “ Fundamental Attribution Error ” –“ Ultimate Attribution Error ” Cognitive Dissonance Theory –“ Blaming the Victim ” Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Attribution Theory Fundamental attribution error: –Own behavior attributed to situations –Others ’ behavior attributed to dispositions (personality traits, values, beliefs, etc.) T. Pettigrew: Ultimate attribution error –Others ’ successes attributed to situations –Others ’ failures attributed to traits
Cognitive Dissonance Theory Inflict harm dissonance (tension) with positive self image denigrate victim = “ Blaming the Victim ”
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Carl Word: job interview experiment –Interviewer subtly elicits expected stereotypic behavior Michelle Hebl field replication –“ homosexuals ” : no overt discrimination –but: shorter & less engaging interviews
Theories of Prejudice Economic & Political Competition Scapegoat Theory Low Status / Relative Deprivation Prejudiced Personality Prejudice through Conformity
Economic & Political Competition = “ Realistic Group Conflict ” Real conflict denigration & de- humanization of Other Sherif (Robber ’ s Cave) experiment + interdependence as solution
Scapegoat Theory = Displaced Aggression Frustration aggression research –Kovel: class conflict within white society diminished by displaced aggression toward non-whites (Joe?)
Scapegoat Theory Hovland & Sears: Price of cotton 1882 – 1930 predicts lynchings in American South
Maintain Self-Image & Status = Low Social Status = Relative Deprivation Tajfel & Turner: “ social identity theory ” –In-group identity & pride can raise self- regard and status over disadvantaged ethnic out-groups
Prejudiced Personality = Authoritarian Personality = Right Wing Authoritarianism Personality structure organized by subordination to conventional authorities, conservative social values, and hostility toward deviants and out- groups
Conformity Prevailing social norms strongly influence individual prejudice above and beyond other factors. –People change views in accordance with community into which they move. –Pettigrew: conformity to norms perhaps most important factor
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