2Gender is not the same as sex Gender – non physiological aspects of being male or female – the cultural expectations of being masculine or feminine.Gender identity – An individuals private experience of the self as female or maleGender role – set of behaviors socially defined as appropriate for one’s self.
3StereotypeStereotypes are socially shared beliefs that certain qualities can be assigned to individuals based on their membership in a particular group – gender, race, national origin, social class, age, religion or even height.
10DeLisi & Soundaranayagam, 1990 There were agreement on the following:Female core traits:Niceness/nurturance dimensionMale core traits:Potency/power dimensionDifferences:Females saw themselves as capable, competent, dependable, intelligent and responsible.Males saw females as attractive, good-looking, sexy and sofe.
11Do stereotypes imply prejudice? Prejudice: The negtive valuation of persons or their activities because of thei memebership in a particular group.Sexism: The brand of prejudice that is based on a person’s sexual category.Discrimination???
23Gender SchemaSchemas are cognitive structures that derive from the integration and organization of particular types of knowledge. Once developed, they influence the categorization, interpretation, and comprehension of social events and behaviors. Self-schemas, in particular, are those cognitive structures that contain integrated and organized information about the self--the unique aspects of people's personality, abilities, achievements, interests, and appearance
29How are stereotypes maintained Childrearing practicesToys and clothingMedia – ads, stories, movies, sit-comsOther
30Self–fulfilling prophecy The concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be summarized in these key principles:We form certain expectations of people or eventsWe communicate those expectations with various cues.People tend to respond to these cues by adjusting their behavior to match them.The result is that the original expectation becomes true.This creates a circle of self-fulfilling prophecies.