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Research & Analysis Chapter Two Dr. Jack Piel. Chapter 2 --Key Terms Self-fulfilling Prophecy Effect Sustaining Expectation Effect Brophy & Good Model.

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Presentation on theme: "Research & Analysis Chapter Two Dr. Jack Piel. Chapter 2 --Key Terms Self-fulfilling Prophecy Effect Sustaining Expectation Effect Brophy & Good Model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research & Analysis Chapter Two Dr. Jack Piel

2 Chapter 2 --Key Terms Self-fulfilling Prophecy Effect Sustaining Expectation Effect Brophy & Good Model of Teacher Expectations Differential Teacher Expectations Proactive, Overreactive & Reactive Teachers

3 Definition of Prophecy A prediction of something that is to happen The power or act of predicting the future

4 Two types of Teacher Expectations Self-fulfilling Prophecy Effect—An originally false or unjustified expectation leads to behavior that causes the expectation to become true Sustaining Expectation Effect– Teachers expect students to sustain previously demonstrated patterns

5 Brophy & Good Model of Teacher Expectation Effects A teacher forms differential expectations for student behavior and achievement Consistent with these expectations, the teacher behaves differently toward different students Treatment communicates to students how they’re expected to behave and perform academically

6 If treatment is consistent over time, and if students don’t actively resist or change it, it will affect their self-concept, motivation, behavior, and academic achievement These effects will complement and reinforce the teacher’s expectations Ultimately, student behavior & achievement are affected. High expectation students will be led to achieve at or near their potential, but low expectation students will not gain as much as they could have if taught differently

7 Differential Teacher Expectations Communication Teachers communicate differential expectations to higher achievers by: 1.Creating warmer social-emotional relationships with them, 2.Offering them richer and more challenging learning opportunities, 3.Providing them more opportunities to pursue their own learning interests, or 4.Get high-quality feedback on their progress.

8 Teacher treatment of high vs. low achievers Waiting less time for low achievers to answer a question (before giving the answer Giving low achiever answers or calling on someone else (rather than giving clues or repeating or rephrasing questions) Inappropriate reinforcement: rewarding inappropriate behavior or incorrect answers by low achievers

9 Critcizing low achievers more often for failure Praising low achievers less often for success Failing to give feedback to the responses of low achievers Calling on low achievers less often to respond to questions Generally paying less attention to low achievers or interacting with them less frequently Seating low achievers farther away from the teacher Demanding less from low achievers

10 Weinstein and McKown (1998) 8 Dimensions of Students’ Perceptions 1)Grouped for instruction 2)Tasks and materials 3)Motivational strategies 4)Self-directed learning for high achievers 5)How evaluated- (output & feedback) 6)Quality of classroom relationships 7)Quality of parent-classroom relationships 8)Quality of classroom-school relationships

11 Factors that Affect Expectation Communication Factors that Affect Expectation Communication Context and Time of Year Grade Level and Subject Matter Nature of the Learning Environment

12 Teachers’ Personal Characteristics  Proactive- Guided by their own beliefs about what is appropriate in setting goals for the class as a whole and for individual students, they are more likely to move students systematically toward fulfilling the expectations associated with these goals *** most likely to have positive expectation effects on their students

13  Overreactive – Guided by their first impressions and perceptions based on students’ prior records, these teachers treat students a stereotypes rather than as individuals, and they are more likely to set rigid, stereotyped goals based on these expectations *** more likely to have negative expectation effects on their students, through positive self-fulfilling prophecy effects can occur

14  Reactive- Guided by lightly held expectations and adjusting these expectations as a result of new feedback, they are more apt to allow goals to evolve based on student input and behavior ***most likely to have minimal expectation effects, since they tend to maintain differences between, for example, high and low achievers

15 Group Expectation Effects High Achievers Low Achievers Longer reading assignments & more time for discussion Less emphasis on meaning & less interesting instruction Asked higher level questionsMore rote & drill exercises Offered contextual clues (semantic & syntactic) rather than a single word Frequently disrupt lesson & inattentive during lesson

16 Class Expectation Effects Teachers with a strong sense of self efficacy are:  Capable as shown by praising & smiling  Capable by less criticizing & punishing  Capable in managing their classrooms  Capable by being less defensive & more accepting of student disagreement or challenges  Capable by effectively stimulating student achievement gains

17 School Effects High expectations about student achievement are part of a pattern of: ⅓ = attitudes ⅓ = beliefs ⅓ = behaviors that characterize schools which are successful in maximizing student’s learning gains ********************************************************** Teachers view student failure as a challenge

18 In summary Remediation defeats Challenge strengthens Affirm their potential Credit them with their achievements INSPIRE THEM!

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