We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byRyder Pettyjohn
Modified about 1 year ago
5–1 C H A P T E R 5 Individuals in Organizations: Perception, Personality, and Cultural Differences Jon L. Pierce & Donald G. Gardner with Randall B. Dunham Management Organizational Behavior PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook An Integrated Perspective Copyright © 2002 by South-Western
5–2 Part 2 Individuals as Organizational Members Perception, Personality, and Cultural Differences Attitudes in Organizations Motivation in Organizations Behavior in Organizations
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–3 Management Practices and Organizational Affect Employees FIGURE II–1 Management Practices Organizational Design Employee Perceptions, Attitudes, Motivation & Behavior
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–4 Learning Objectives 1.Define perception, describe the perceptual process, and explain how perception affects organizational behavior. 2.Explain what a self-fulfilling prophecy is and its importance to managers. 3.Describe the Johari window and how it is used to improve employee interactions. 4.Describe attribution theory and how it is used to circumvent perceptual problems in organizations. 5.Define personality and how knowledge of employees’ personalities may be used by managers to promote organizational effectiveness.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–5 Learning Objectives (cont’d) 6.Describe the relevance of the following personality traits to organization behavior: organization-based self-esteem, locus of control, Machiavellianism, and the “Big Five.” 7.Define culture and explain its importance to the management of organizations. 8.Describe Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–6 Chapter Concepts PerceptionPerception The process by which people organize and obtain meaning from the sensory stimuli they receive from the environment. PersonalityPersonality The collection of psychological characteristics or traits that determines a person’s preferences and individual style of behavior. CultureCulture The way in which a society as a whole perceives the world and how it should operate.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–7 The Importance of Perception PerceptionPerception The process by which we become aware of, and give meaning to, events around us. Perception helps define “reality.” Objective reality—what truly exists in the physical world to the best abilities of science to measure it. Perceived reality—what individuals experience through one or more of the human senses, and the meaning they ascribe to those experiences. Behavioral problems arise when an individual’s perceived reality does not match objective reality.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–8 The Perceptual Process FIGURE 5–1
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–9 The Perceptual Process 1.Sensation An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. 2.Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. 3.Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” 4.Translation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–10 Physical Characteristics of Stimuli ContrastContrast The difference between one stimulus and surrounding stimuli that makes that stimulus more likely to be selected for perceptual processing. NoveltyNovelty When the stimulus an individual senses differs from stimuli experienced in the past. IntensityIntensity The forcefulness that enhances the likelihood that a stimulus will be selected for perceptual processing. ChangeChange The variety that causes a stimulus to be selected for perceptual processing.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–11 Contrast Effect FIGURE 5–2 EFFECT FROM OLD WERE WANT HALF MUST NEED WOULD BEEN LIST EACH FROM HIGH MADE MANY END SHOULD TIME TAKING UNDER AFTER BASIS BECAUSE EVEN NOTE WOULD FOUND ORDER HELP WOULD MORE TOWARD THESE WHICH OTHER BEFORE YET PULL PUSH WOULD SEND BACK SPARE SMALL FULLY WOULD FOR USUAL THE
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–12 Characteristics of the Perceiver MotiveMotive Increased notice of a stimuli due to an individual’s current active motives such as a deficiency (e.g., hunger) that is associated with the subject (e.g., food) of the stimulus. PersonalityPersonality An individual characteristic that creates an increased likelihood that a particular stimulus related to the characteristic will be noticed.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–13 The Perceptual Process (cont’d) OrganizationOrganization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” Stimuli become associated when they: Are similar in physical resemblance. Occur in close physical (space) proximity. Occur in close time proximity. Are used for figure-ground differentiation. Are used together to achieve closure—a perception of the whole or to piece together a message.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–14 Figure-Ground Illustration Field-ground differentiationField-ground differentiation The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background. FIGURE 5–3
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–15 Closure ClosureClosure The tendency to organize perceptual stimuli so that, together, they form a complete message. FIGURE 5–4 Source: Reprinted with permission from Introduction to psychology: Explorations and applications by Dennis Coon. Copyright © 1977 by West Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–16 The Perceptual Process (cont’d) TransitionTransition The stage in the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning. Transition errors that distort perceptions (i.e., subjective reality) of objective reality : Primacy effect Recency effect Stereotyping Halo effect Projection Selective perception Expectancy effects
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–17 Transition Errors Primacy effectPrimacy effect The disproportionately high weight given to the first information obtained about a stimulus. Recency effectRecency effect The disproportionately high weight given to the last information obtained about a stimulus. StereotypingStereotyping The generalization (application) of a person’s prior beliefs about a class of stimulus objects during encounters with members of that class of objects.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–18 Transition Errors (cont’d) Halo effectHalo effect The process of generalizing from an overall evaluation of an individual to specific characteristics of the person. ProjectionProjection The process by which people attribute their own feelings and characteristics to other people.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–19 Transition Errors (cont’d) Selective perceptionSelective perception The selection of things consistent with one’s own personal viewpoint and the rejection of things that are inconsistent with that viewpoint; A perceptual defense is the retention of existing beliefs that conflict with new information. Expectancy effectExpectancy effect The perception of stimuli by persons in ways that confirm expectations. Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion) effect-occurs when people unconsciously adjust their behaviors to reflect their expectations in a situation.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–20 Self Perceptions: The Johari Window FIGURE 5–5 Openly shared data A’s unshared data B’s blind spots Unknowns in the relationship Future potential B’s unshared data A’s blind spots Known to A Relationship from A’s position Unknown to A Unknown to B Known to B Relationship from B’s position One way to conceptualize the possible combinations of what you know about yourself and what others know about you. Source: This model is a modification of the “Johari Window, “ a concept presented in J. Luft. 1970. Group Processes. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–21 Characteristics Affecting the Perception of Others Person Perceived OrganizationOrganization PerceiverPerceiver Group membership Status Organizational culture Competitive conditions Attribution errors
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–22 Perceiving Others Characteristics of the person perceivedCharacteristics of the person perceived Implicit personality theory—the tendency to ascribe personality traits to people because they share certain characteristics (e.g., group membership, status) with others. Characteristics of the organizationCharacteristics of the organization An individual’s association with an organization affects the perception of that individual. Organization culture (e.g., focus on quality) affects how other individuals are perceived within the organization.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–23 Perceiving Others (cont’d) Characteristics of the perceiverCharacteristics of the perceiver Attribution theory—explains how people assign responsibility and the cognitive processes by which they interpret the causes of their own behavior and the behavior of others. Locus of causality—the attribution of the observed behavior of others to internal or external causes. Fundamental error—the tendency to overestimate the effects of internal causes and underestimate the effects of external causes when we judge other people’s actions.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–24 Reducing Perceptual Errors Self-understandingSelf-understanding The acknowledgement that you and people who interact with you are susceptible to perceptual errors. Conscious information processingConscious information processing Carefully considering the “facts” during the perceptual process and consciously questioning the accuracy of what you perceive. Reality testingReality testing The comparison of developed perceptions about a stimulus object to another (objective) measure of the object.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–25 Personality Personality (individual differences)Personality (individual differences) The characteristics or traits that describe how people are likely to behave in a given situation. Determines how a person will react to a managerial practice. Pitfalls in assessing personalityPitfalls in assessing personality Making hasty judgments about personalities. Having the tendency to see only behaviors that affirm judgments.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–26 Determinants of Personality Nature (heredity)Nature (heredity) The assumption that part of personality is biologically- based and predetermined. Nurture (environment)Nurture (environment) The assumption that personality is shaped primarily by life experiences, especially those of early childhood.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–27 Dimensions of Personality Self-esteem (self-concept)Self-esteem (self-concept) How individuals perceive themselves in terms of their abilities, competencies, and effectiveness. LowSelf EsteemHigh Incapable Incompetent Insignificant Unworthy Capable Competent Significant Worthy
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–28 Self-Esteem Dimensions Global self-esteemGlobal self-esteem Role-specific self-esteemRole-specific self-esteem Job-based self-esteemJob-based self-esteem Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE)Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE)
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–29 Other Dimensions of Personality Locus of controlLocus of control The degree to which people believe their actions determine what happens to them in life. Internal locus of control—occurs when people believe that internal factors (their skills and abilities) are the determinants of their destiny. External locus of control— occurs when people believe that external factors such as luck, other people, or organizations are the determinants of their destiny.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–30 Measuring Locus of Control TABLE 5–1 Source: Derived from Rotter’s I-E test. J. B. Rotter. 1971. External control and internal control. Psychology Today 5(1):37–42, 58–59.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–31 Other Dimensions of Personality (cont’d) MachiavellianismMachiavellianism Based on the writings of Niccolo Machiavelli who advocated a psychologically detached and unemotional behavioral approach by individuals to organizational participation in meeting their personal objectives. The belief that it is appropriate to behave in any manner that will meet one’s own needs. The primary focus is on obtaining and using power as a means to further one’s own ends, regardless of its impact on others.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–32 Other Dimensions of Personality (cont’d) The “Big Five” personality theoryThe “Big Five” personality theory The view that all personality traits can be distilled into five big ones: Extroversion—outgoing/withdrawn Adjustment—flexible/rigid Agreeableness—cooperative/uncooperative Conscientiousness—thorough/sloppy Inquisitiveness—curious/disinterested
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–33 Cultural Differences Among Organizational Members Culture definedCulture defined How a society perceives the world and how it should operate based on the beliefs, values, attitudes, and expectations for behavior that the society believes to be good, effective, desirable, and beneficial. Culture Knowledge Beliefs Laws Morals Art Assumptions Customs Habits Institutions Parenting Education Religious activities Law enforcement Entertainment Future Generations
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–34 Cultural Awareness and Managers Culture affects:Culture affects: The success of expatriate employees in overseas assignments. The effectiveness of management practices and leadership styles in different cultures.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–35 Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede) Individualism-collectivismIndividualism-collectivism The degree to which individuals in a society prefer to act as individuals, as opposed to a group. Power distancePower distance The acceptance of large differences in power between the most and least powerful in society. Uncertainty avoidanceUncertainty avoidance The degree to which cultures differ in the extent to which they tolerate uncertainty.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–36 Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede) cont’d Masculinity-femininityMasculinity-femininity The degree to which a society displays mostly traditionally male or traditionally female traits. Time orientationTime orientation The degree to which cultures possess a short or long perspective on time.
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–37 Cultural Differences for Ten Countries Source: G. Hofstede. 1993. Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive 7(1):81–94. TABLE 5–3
Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 5–1 Chapter 5 PerceptionPerception Understanding PeopleUnderstanding People.
“ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
Perception involves the way we view the world around us. It adds, meaning to information gathered via the five senses of touch, smell, hearing, vision.
1Organizational Behavior / Perception. “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. The Individual Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior Organizational Processes Skills & Abilities Perception Personality Attitudes.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: PERCEPTION. The Individual Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior Organizational Processes Skills & Abilities Perception Personality.
8 Chapter Foundations of Individual Behavior Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.
8 Chapter Foundations of Individual Behavior Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.
Chapter 4 Perception, Attribution, and Learning It’s in the eye of the beholder.
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Perception and Learning in Organizations.
Perception and Attribution Session 4. Organizational Behavior / Perception 2.
PERCEPTION DALEEP PARIMOO.
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved. Chapter 3 Learning, Perception, and Attribution.
ORBChapter 51 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Chapter 5 Perception & Individual Decision Making.
Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
1 Social Perceptions Inter-Act, 13 th Edition Chapter 2.
What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.People’s behavior.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR W W W. P R E N H A L L. C O M / R O B B I N S.
1 Chapter 5. 2 What is Perception and Why is it Important? Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N W W W. P R E N H A L L. C O M / R O B B I N S © 2005 Prentice Hall.
Parts taken from Human Behavior 2ed Chapter 3 Perception.
Chapter 2 Perception, Personality, and Emotion. Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Canadian Edition.
Organizational Behavior, 9/E Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 7 Social Perception and Attribution An Information Processing An Information Processing Model of Perception Model of Perception Stereotypes: Perceptions.
PowerPoint™ Presentations prepared by: Naomi Young University of California, San Diego Human Communication: The Basic Course Twelfth Edition Joseph A.
Prepared by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning All rights reserved. Behavior of Individuals Chapter.
Looking Out/Looking In Fourteenth Edition 3 Perception CHAPTER TOPICS The Perception Process Influences on Perception Common Tendencies in Perception Perception.
Himalaya Publishing House Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa Chapter 6 Perception and Attribution ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR CHAPTER-6 PERCEPTION AND.
BZUPages.COM Department of IT, Institute of Computing, BZU, Multan Perception and Individual Decision Making Presented by : Muhammad Wasif Laeeq BSIT07-01.
Perception, Personality, and Emotion. Perception and Personality, and Emotions What is perception? What causes people to have different perceptions.
PERCEIVING THE SELF AND OTHERS 3 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Human Communication THIRD EDITION ◄ Judy C. Pearson Paul E. Nelson Scott Titsworth Lynn Harter ► C H A P T E R Perception, Self, and Communication.
Perception, Cognition, and Emotion in Negotiation The basic building blocks of all social encounters are: Perception Cognition –Framing –Cognitive biases.
Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 51 Perception and Individual Decision Making Chapter 5.
Dr. Fred Mugambi Mwirigi JKUAT 1 Perception and Individual Decision Making Topic 3b.
Caritas Francis Hsu College General Education PHI1011 Individual and Society Lecture 2: Self 1.
Organizational Behavior Definition: the study of actions OF PEOPLE at work that affect performance in the workplace. Goal? To explain and predict behavior.
Bob Stretch Southwestern College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 13th Edition Perception and Individual Decision Making © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc.
Chapter 13 International Human Relations. 2 Learning Objectives 1)Discuss the four major reasons why businesses become multinational companies. 2)Identify.
Copyright ©2015 Pearson Education, Inc.9-1 Chapter 9 Foundations of Individual Behavior.
Social Cognition AP Psychology 8-10% of AP Exam. Quick Write: Describe when a stereotype has caused you to have a wrong impression about someone, or caused.
Chapter ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or.
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Organizational Behavior: Power, Politics, Conflict, and Stress Chapter 9 Copyright © 2003 South-Western/Thomson.
Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-1 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.
Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Perception and Learning in Organizations Chapter Three.
By Jamal Panhwar1 PERCEPTION 1. By Jamal Panhwar2 2 When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change.
The attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations How organizations can be structured more efficiently.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 2 - 2ChapterChapter McGraw-Hill/Irwin Personality, Stress, Learning, and Perception.
© Pearson Education Limited Chapter 9 Foundations of Individual Behavior.
Organizational Behavior (MGT-502) Lecture-8. Summary of Lecture-7.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.