Presentation on theme: "George Herbert Mead’s “Symbolic Interactionism”"— Presentation transcript:
1George Herbert Mead’s “Symbolic Interactionism” Chris Walden
2IntroductionGeorge Herbert Mead was born in South Hadley, Massachusetts in February of 1863.In 1894 , Mead moved from The University of Michigan to Chicago, Illinois, where he would later become the center of the sociological department at The University of Chicago.
3Introduction Cont’dAfter Mead’s death in 1931 his students at the University published his Mind, Self, and Society teachings.Herbert Blumer, Mead’s pupil, further developed his theory and coined it “Symbolic Interactionism.”
4Introduction Cont’dThis theory is the process of interaction in the formation of meanings for individuals.In simple form, people act based on symbolic meanings they find within a given situation.The goals of our interactions are to create a shared meaning.
5Herbert Blumer came up with three basic principles for his theory. Meaning, Language, and Thought.These three principles lead to conclusions about the creation of a persons self and socialization into a larger community.
61st Principle Meaning: “Making is a community project” Meaning is something that has to be assigned and who assigns it?The definition of this word states that it is a intention for a particular purpose or destination.Blumer says that the principle of meaning is central in human behavior
7Meaning Cont’dMeaning is based on human interaction and how we act towards other people.We as humans, base things upon the meanings that they have been given.An example would be me saying, “Hey you look great, have you lost a lot of weight?” This statement could be taken a lot of different ways. Perhaps the person that I said this to takes it in the way of a compliment, (Which is what I was giving them) or a negative remark. The meaning that we assign to the statement is how we react to people and what they say.
8Meaning Cont’dThis theory tells us that its how people interpret messages and statements.Each one of us has a different meaning assigned to different things.To us humans the word “grass” is something that can be defined as green, or something needed to be cut. To animals, the word “grass” could mean shelter or food.Now in the case of symbols, meanings also depend on the number of consensual responses of those who use it. If someone uses a particular word such as hey, to those that use it a lot, it means hello. Now for those people that are ambiguous to it, it could mean a totally different thing to them.
92nd Principle Language: “Symbolic naming for the human society” Language gives humans a means by which to negotiate meaning through symbols.Mead believed that when you named something, it is assigned a meaning. An example of this would be me naming my dog Lucifer. The meaning of this name would be the devil, because maybe the dog is extremely mean or bites people all of the time.
10LanguageIn simple terms, this principle says that when we talk to each other, symbolic interaction means that humans identify meaning, or naming, and then they develop discourse, which is communication orally
113rd Principle Thought: “Interpretation of symbols” Thought is based on language. While in a conversation, your mind is imagining or thinking about the different points of view or meanings to what the other person is saying to you.What this means is that once your hear someone say something, you automatically start thinking about what you are going to say next.
12LanguageMead believes that “We naturally talk to ourselves in order to sort out the meaning of a difficult situation.”Whatever you think of before acting to an action or responding to a phrase is your thought. We do this all the time without knowing or realizing it. It is your own personal meaning that you put on words.
13ConclusionGeorge Herbert Mead was a professor whose teachings were transformed into a theory that is well known and taught throughout the world.Symbolic Interactionism has only one variable in it. The individual has its own set of meanings for things and people.A problem with this theory is that it does not state whether or not an individual wants to win and get their own way or not. Sometimes we think that people can also construct a sample and ask someone if they should have a certain meaning for this and a meaning for that.
14This theory doesn’t tell you if you think this way because a person told you to or if you think a certain way because you feel that you need to.George Herbert Mead died in Although he never got around to publishing his own teachings, he still is considered to be one of the top sociological theorists that have ever walked this earth.
16Symbolic Interactionism LanguageDealing with MeaningThoughtWhere interpretation is modified.
17Things to Keep in MindBoth Language and Thought arise out of people socializing with one another (Symbolic Interactionism).Much of the time Language and Thought go hand in hand.I like to teach with examples.
18LoveUnlike boom, smack, and thump- words usually have no logical connection to the objects they describe.
19Language Language is the source of meaning. Everything in life has a different meaning.All objects, people, and abstract ideas have been assigned certain names.Meaning has never been inherent.
21Spoken words, written words, and pictures are all apart of our language. Each word or picture means different things to each individual.Each person’s language is shaped by other people.
22Thought Humans come equipped with a mind wired for thought. That mind allows everyone to interpret the symbols of our language.
23“Minding”Minding is the two-second delay where individuals rehearse the next move and anticipate how others will react.George Herbert Mead
24Thought According to Blumer: We as humans have the ability to take the role of the other.This allows us chances to find new meaning and different perspectives in life.
25Taking the Role of the Other This is seeing the world through another’s eyes.Walking in someone else’s shoesGrown up version of having imaginary friends and talking to yourself.
26To concludeSymbolic Interactionism and its premises are built upon communication between individuals.Language and Thought are vital in the interpretation of symbols.We have and always will be affected by Language and Thought.
27The Looking-Glass Self and The Generalized Other Clara Hartlaub
28The self is a basic concept in symbolic interactionism, which requires the understanding of meaning, language and thought.It allows humans to reflect on themselves and argue with themselves helping to develop an accurate self image.The looking-glass self and the generalized other are parts of a larger tool which helps individuals develop their self concepts.These concepts help form who we are as individuals and lead to conclusions about the creation of a person’s self and socialization into a larger community.
29Reflections in a Looking Glass We develop who we are based on ideas that come from, “taking the role of the other”, imagining how we look to another person.Interactionists call this mental image the “looking-glass self”.The self is a combination of “I” and “me”. The “I” refers to what is unpredictable and unorganized about the self while the “me” is the image of the self seen through the looking glass or other peoples’ perceptions.
30Real-Life Application of the Looking-Glass Self Looking-glass self is the process of developing a self-image on the basis of the messages we get from others, as we understand them.There are three components to the looking glass self: 1.Imagine how we appear to others; 2. Imagine what their judgment of that appearance must be; 3. Develop some self-feeling, such as pride or mortification, as a result of our imagining others' judgment.
31Generalized OtherOver-arching looking-glass self that we put together from the reflection we see in everyone we know or the expectations of society that influence every conversation that takes place in peoples’ minds.Shapes how we think and act within a community.As the generalized other develops, children often have imaginary friends that grow into an internal conversational partner which helps children participate in their own socialization. The child then gradually takes on the roles of the community.
32Real Life Application of the Generalized Other Negative responses can consequently reduce a person to nothing.“Cipher in the Snow”Harry PotterThrough the “looking-glass self” and the “generalized other” a person is able to define their self image and develop who they are as an individual.
34Symbolic Interactionism The characteristics of this approach are human interaction, interpretation or definition rather than mere reaction, response based on meaning, use of symbols, and interpretation between stimulus and responseIt is concerned with the interaction order of daily life and experiences, rather than the structure.
35Six Applications of Symbolic Interactionism There are six different applications within the theory of symbolic interactionism:creating realitymeaning-ful researchgeneralized othernamingsymbol manipulationthe self-fulfilling prophecy
36Creating RealitySociologist Erving Goffman argues that everyone is constantly negotiating with others to publicly define our identity and the nature of the situation in the creating reality application.The impression of reality is a delicate and fragile thing that can be shattered.
37Meaning-ful researchIn meaning-ful research, Mead claims that research occurs through participant observation.Mead believes that behavioral experimental and survey research are void of the meaning of the experience.
38Generalized otherGeneralized other is described as the combined mental image of others in a community, their expectations, and possible responses to one’s self.In symbolic interaction, there is a tragic potential of negative responses consequently reducing a person to perceiving themselves as nothing.The generalized other is a combination of all of the looking glass selves that others give us.The looking glass self is imaging how we look to others.
39NamingNaming is what we would call name-calling, such as retard, slut, liar, ugly, etc.Name-calling can be devastating because it forces us to view ourselves through a warped mirror.These grotesque images are not easily dispelled and can be very hurtful and damaging. This is shown in a clip from the T.V. show South Park.
40Symbol manipulationSymbol Manipulation is the process in which symbols incite people to unite into action.
41Self-fulfilling prophecy Each and everyone of us affects how others view themselves.Predictions in the self-fulfilling prophecy may be false but made true by one’s actions. One’s prophecy is simply a possibility that is made into probability by one’s unconscious or conscious actions.Our expectations evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated, resulting in a self-fulfilling prophecy.
43Social Penetration Theory Chapter 8 Bridget Carroll and Derek OldhamApril 10th, 2007
44The Social Penetration Theory Explains relational closeness through the process of honest self-disclosure and social exchange.Griffin, E. (2007). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
45Close Relationships and Intimacy Three categories of personal bonds:FriendshipsRomantic RelationshipsFamilyIntimacy can provide enjoyment, trust, sharing of confidences, respect, mutual assistance, and spontaneity.
46Depth of Penetration Four observations: Peripheral items are exchanged more frequently and sooner than private infoSelf-disclosure is reciprocal where there is an equal exchange of opennessPenetration is rapid at the start, but slows down as inner layers are reachedDepenetration occurs by a gradual process of layer-by-layer withdrawal
47Social Exchange and Comparison Level The closeness of a relationship is dependent upon the cost-benefit analysis of social exchange, where people weigh the risks and rewards of self-disclosure.The Comparison Level evaluates social outcomes through two standardsRelative satisfaction (how happy or sad it makes you feel)By judging outcomes based on past experiences and their sequence.
48Part II: Application You already know: The Social Penetration theory is an approach to how and why relationships form.Each person has inner values and emotions that must be revealed through a process of self-disclosure.This process of revelation is fundamental in forming friendships, romantic relationships, and family bonds.
49How do relationships form? Bonds form through revealing each person’s inner self (self-disclosure).A basic understanding of the personality structure: an onion,And how this model works.
50Why do relationships form? You just want a coffee date!Intimate bonds can: provide enjoyment, trust, sharing of fears and dreamsOne decides that the benefits must outweigh the costs (you can get something out of it).The formation of bonds is a human characteristic that we naturally experience throughout our lives.Or a buddy to fish with you.
51What does this mean to me? By understanding how and why relationships form, we can deepen our current ones and be prepared for the future bonds that will form.The first step in allowing closeness is “letting your guard down”.As we eventually let people in, we are allowing penetration
52What does this mean to me? We gain closeness through:1. Honest self-disclosure--Don’t wear masks!--Let your guard down!2. Understanding people and their complexity
53The Personality Structure The outer layers are the first to be penetrated and include more public information.Gradual disclosure will lead to more understanding of each individual.Once penetrated, it will be easier to return to inner layers.Preferences in food, music, clothesGoals and aspirationsBiographical dataReligious viewsDeeply held fears and fantasiesConcept of selfSource: Griffen, E. (2007). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
54Other Observations of SPT The Law of Reciprocity is important when disclosing; “emotional equity” between the two people.Take turns revealing layersPenetration is rapid at the start, but slows as inner layers are reached. Intimate layers take years to be revealed and some may never be disclosed.--Griffen, E. (2007). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
55Other Observations of SPT cont. Depenetration is a gradual process of layer by layer withdrawal.It is usually mutual and characterized by lack of care and enjoyment.Areas of one’s life are closed off from the other and no new information is shared.--Griffen, E. (2007). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
56ConclusionHumans reveal information in order to gain closeness in relationships. The process of penetrating layers helps them to grow deeper and have a better understanding of each other.One will choose a relationship when it is beneficial or they find the other person interesting.Questions??