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SELF-CONFIDENCE: THE KEY TO SPORT SUCCESS Damon Burton and Bernie Holliday Vandal Sport Psychology Services University of Idaho.

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Presentation on theme: "SELF-CONFIDENCE: THE KEY TO SPORT SUCCESS Damon Burton and Bernie Holliday Vandal Sport Psychology Services University of Idaho."— Presentation transcript:

1 SELF-CONFIDENCE: THE KEY TO SPORT SUCCESS Damon Burton and Bernie Holliday Vandal Sport Psychology Services University of Idaho

2 What is self-confidence?

3 SELF- CONFIDENCE DEFINED  True Self-Confidence – is a realistic belief or expectation of achieving success.  Self-Confidence is:  not what you hope to do but what you realistically expect to do  not what you tell others but your innermost thoughts about your realistic capabilities,  not pride in past deeds but a realistic judgment about what you are able to do

4 Does self-confidence enhance performance?

5 SELF-CONFIDENCE ENHANCES PERFORMANCE SELF-CONFIDENCE ENHANCES PERFORMANCE  Mahoney & Avener (1976) 1976 Olympic qualifiers were more confident than nonqualifiers.  Feltz’ (1988) review found moderate to strong relationships between confidence and performance (i.e., mean r =.54).  Research finds a reciprocal relationship between self-confidence and performance.

6 HOW SELF-CONFIDENCE IMPACTS PERFORMANCE  lowers anxiety by creating positive expectations of success,  increases motivation by raising perceived competence,  enhances concentration by eliminating distraction from negative thoughts and personal putdowns.

7 What are the three types of self-confidence?


9 OPTIMAL SELF-CONFIDENCE  Competence -- possess the knowledge, strategies, skills and abilities necessary for success,  Preparation – sufficiently prepared so you can successfully perform those skills and strategies in a particular competitive situation.  Villanova’s 1984 upset of Georgetown in the NCAA Championship Game.

10 DIFFIDENT ATHLETES...  confuse “what is” with what they “wish would be” or with what “ought to be,”  see themselves as losers and act accordingly,  mistakes devastate their competence,  self doubts fuel self-fulfilling prophecies that create a vicious negative spiral,  focus on their shortcomings and overlook their accomplishments, and  are underachievers whose confidence limits their development

11 TYPES OF OVERCONFIDENCE  inflated confidence, and  false confidence.

12 INFLATED CONFIDENCE  People who believe they are better than they really are and have an inflated opinion of themselves and their skills.  They overestimate their abilities while underestimating their opponents’ skills.  Pampering from parents/coaches, playing weak competition, and excessive media hype are its primary causes.  Often they are competent but don’t prepare adequately.

13 FALSE CONFIDENCE  act confident on the outside but inside fear failure and are really diffident,  pretend to be brash, cocky and arrogant,  difficulty admitting errors and filled with excuses,  difficult to coach because they won’t accept responsibility for mistakes, and  normally prepare hard but lack the competence to be successful.

14 What is the difference between performance and outcome confidence?

15 PERFORMANCE- VERSUS OUTCOME CONFIDENCE  Performance Confidence – performers’ belief that they can execute the skills and strategies necessary to perform well and attain their goals.  Outcome Confidence – performers’ belief that they will socially compare well and win the competition.

16 What are some specific strategies you use to boost your self-confidence?

17 CONFIDENCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES  general confidence development strategies,  six confidence development tips for practitioners, and  strategies for developing and maintaining confidence during competition.

18 ENHANCING SELF-CONFIDENCE Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experiences Verbal Persuasion Physiological Arousal Control Self- Confidence Thoughts Behaviors Performance

19 ENHANCING SELF- CONFIDENCE Performance Accomplishments 1. Vicarious Experiences 1. 2. Verbal Persuasion 1. 2. Physiological Arousal 1. 2. Hierarchical ModelInterventions

20 GENERAL CONFIDENCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES  performance accomplishment  goal-setting,  vicarious experiences,  modeling/demonstrations – Namath’s Jets,  imagery – Russell “déjà vu,”  verbal persuasion,  reinforcement – enhances feelings of competence,  self talk – confidence script,  arousal control.

21 CONFIDENCE-DEVELOPMENT TIPS FOR PRACTITIONERS CONFIDENCE-DEVELOPMENT TIPS FOR PRACTITIONERS  develop a systematic goal setting program and log and graph progress,  create a personal Hall-of-Fame,  design a systematic conditioning program and maximize preparation,  use effective modeling strategies,  replay past successes and imagine future triumphs, and  emphasize confidence-building thoughts.

22 How do you maintain your self-confidence during competition?

23 DEVELOPING & MAINTAINING COMPETITIVE CONFIDENCE  appraise situations as challenges rather than threats,  develop readiness, performance and recovery plans to deal with problems,  emphasize problem-focused coping strategies to reduce threat,  use emotion-focused coping techniques to feel less threatened, and  focus on more controllable process and performance goals.

24 What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?

25 SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY  Self-Fulfilling Prophecies – occur when coaches’/teachers’ expectations prompt athletes/students to behave or perform in a way that conforms with those expectancies.  Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that a group teachers believed were “academic late bloomers” made greater educational gains than did a control group for whom they had neutral expectancies.  Expectancies of teachers, coaches and parents can significantly raise or lower performers’ self-confidence.

26 What are the four (4) steps of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Process?


28 SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY PROCESS  STEP 1 – Coaches Develop Expectations  STEP 2 – Coaches’ Expectations Influence their Treatment of Athletes (i.e., frequency, duration, and quality of interactions)  STEP 3 – Athletes’ Learning and Performance Is Impacted by Differential Treatment  STEP 4 -- Athletes’ Behavior Conforms to Coaches’ Expectations

29 STEP 1: COACHES FORM EXPECTATIONS  Person Cues  race,  gender  socioeconomic status,  size,  body type, and  style of dress.  Performance Information  conditioning and skills tests,  previous performance history,  evaluation of others, and  tryout information.

30 STEP 2: DIFFERENTIAL EXPECTANCIES IMPACT COACHING BEHAVIORS  type, frequency and warmth of interactions,  nature of instructional behaviors (e.g., skills taught, difficulty of skills, and persistence)  nature of feedback behaviors (e.g., valence, specificity, and corrective content)  attributions for success and failure.

31 STEP 3: COACHES’ BEHAVIOR IMPACTS ATHLETES’ PERFORMANCE  quantity and quality of learning,  quality of competitive cognitions and performance, and  long-term development.

32 STEP 4: ATHLETES’ PERFORMANCE CONFORMS WITH COACHES’ EXPECTATIONS  Athletes most susceptible to Self- Fulfilling Prophecy effects are...  younger,  less experienced,  lower in self-esteem,  more coachable, and  value success more.

33 How do we maximize positive Self-Fulfilling Prophecy effects?

34 HOW TO MAXIMIZE POSITIVE SFP EFFECTS 1. Determine what sources of information are used to form expectations. 2. Realize initial expectancies may be inaccurate, requiring adjustment as performers skill changes. 3. Equalize skill-development time across athletes. 4. Provide all performers sufficient time to fully master skills. 5. Respond to errors with corrective instruction. 6. Focus on product as a means to attain product. 7. Develop good coach-athlete relationships. 8. Create a performance-oriented team climate.

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