3 The Minor Prophets Sir Isaac Newton was a Christian, and he was a prophet. He foretold this class! “About the time of the end, a body of men will be raised up who will turn their attention to the prophesies, and insist on their literal interpretation, in the midst of much clamor and opposition.” This will be an ‘E’ ticket ride!
4 Introduction What is Prophecy? Thayer’s Greek lexicon defines it like this: “A discourse emanating from divine inspiration and declaring the purposes of God, whether by reproving and admonishing the wicked, or comforting the afflicted, or revealing things hidden; or by foretelling future events.” Basically it is presenting God’s message to His people.
5 Why Study Prophecy? We study prophecy to increase our faith – our foundation on Jesus Christ: Ephesians 2:19-20 “ So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God's household, (20) having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone ” We are about to embark on a great journey – into the past and into the future.
6 Interpretive Rules 1. Always take the literal, natural, and common meaning of the passage unless there is overwhelming evidence that you can not interpret the word or concept in that manner. 2. If a word or concept is defined in scripture and carries an inferred meaning, you must use this meaning first, and change the meaning only if there are overwhelming proofs in scripture to do so. 3. Find out who the author is talking to and which of the three major prophetic groups the prophecy applies: a. Israel -Messiah b. The Church c. Gentiles/the World 4. Any symbolism we are meant to understand will be clarified in other scripture.
11 Today… We no longer need Priests – Christ is our High Priest We are priests of our own temple of God- our bodies! We still need prophets! Prophecy – “To proclaim God’s Word” Paul told us all to desire to be prophets!!!!
12 1Co 14:1 Pursue love, yet desire earnestly spiritual gifts, but especially that you may prophesy. 1Co 14:2 For one who speaks in a tongue does not speak to men but to God; for no one understands, but in his spirit he speaks mysteries. 1Co 14:3 But one who prophesies speaks to men for edification and exhortation and consolation. 1Co 14:4 One who speaks in a tongue edifies himself; but one who prophesies edifies the church. 1Co 14:5 Now I wish that you all spoke in tongues, but even more that you would prophesy; and greater is one who prophesies than one who speaks in tongues, unless he interprets, so that the church may receive edifying.
13 WHAT DID THE PROPHETS DO? Proclaim God’s Word to His people. Proclaim God’s heart to His people. Give Godly counsel to His people. Instruct God’s people in the right path to take
14 True Prophets pass this test… But the prophet who shall speak a word presumptuously in My name which I have not commanded him to speak, or which he shall speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die. 21 And you may say in your heart, "How shall we know the word which the LORD has not spoken?" 22 When a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the thing does not come about or come true, that is the thing which the LORD has not spoken. The prophet has spoken it presumptuously; you shall not be afraid of him. (Deuteronomy 18:20-22).
15 Two types of Prophecy… Predictive – Foretell the future Didactic – Proclaim God’s Word
21 Literary Prophets of the Divided Kingdom Obadiah: Prophesied of Edom Joel: Date uncertain -Future Jonah: God’s attitude to Gentiles Hosea: Israel’s Unfaithfulness Amos: Social Injustice Isaiah: To Judah Micah: To Judah and Israel
22 721 B.C. Nahum: Judgment against Nineveh Zephaniah: Day of the Lord against Judah Habakkuk: Prayer Pre-Exilic Prophets of Judah
23 Prophets of the Exile Jeremiah: “The Weeping Prophet” Daniel: Historical Narrative and Prophetic Visions Ezekiel: Common Captivity
24 Post-Exilic Prophets Joel - The Day of the Lord and Ultimate Restoration Haggai: Encouragement to rebuild the Temple Zechariah: Visions of God’s Working in History Malachi: A call to faithfulness
25 During the 400 silent years… The feast of lights – Hanukah The Maccabees took back the temple mount – 160 something BC
31 Greater and Lesser Leviticus 26 Verses 14-33 Promises of Curses Verses 1-13 Promises of Blessing Rain for crops Security in land Victory over enemies God with His people Disease Invasion Defeat “Seven times more” Removed from Land
33 The word which came to Jeremiah from the LORD saying, 2 "Arise and go down to the potter's house, and there I shall announce My words to you." 3 Then I went down to the potter's house, and there he was, making something on the wheel. 4 But the vessel that he was making of clay was spoiled in the hand of the potter; so he remade it into another vessel, as it pleased the potter to make. Jeremiah 18:1-4
34 Then the word of the LORD came to me saying, 6 "Can I not, O house of Israel, deal with you as this potter does?" declares the LORD. "Behold, like the clay in the potter's hand, so are you in My hand, O house of Israel. Jeremiah 18:5-6
37 Types of Predictive Prophecy… Conditional Predictions: “If… then” clauses Unqualified Predictions “This will happen”
38 Minor vs. Major Prophets The distinction is made because of the length of the books. The major prophets are Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.
39 The Minor Prophets or “The Twelve” in Rabbinic thought; 1.Obadiah – “Servant of Jehovah” (845 BC)Obadiah 2.Joel – “Jehovah is God” (830 BC)Joel 3.Jonah – “Dove” (780 BC)Jonah 4.Amos – “Burden-bearer” (755 BC)Amos 5.Hosea – “Salvation” (750-725 BC)Hosea 6.Micah – “Who is like the Lord?” (740-700 BC)Micah 7.Zephaniah – “Jehovah Hides” (625 BC)Zephaniah 8.Nahum – “Consolation” (630-612 BC)Nahum 9.Habakkuk – “Embrace” (612-606 BC)Habakkuk 10.Haggai – “Festive or Festival” (520 BC)Haggai 11.Zachariah – “Whom Jehovah Remembers” (520-518 BC)Zachariah 12.Malachi – “My Messenger” (445-432 BC)Malachi
40 Important Dates to Remember 975 BC – The Kingdom of Israel was divided into two parts: The Northern Kingdom of Israel with Samaria as its capital. The Southern Kingdom of Judah with Jerusalem as its capital. 722 BC – The Northern Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) was destroyed by the Assyrians under King Tiglathpileser III (2 Kings 15:29). As was the Assyrian custom, the Israelites were deported to Assyria. 586 BC – The Southern Kingdom of Judah is taken captive and Jerusalem is destroyed by the Babylonians under the rule of King Nebuchadnezzar.
41 Obadiah Obadiah means “servant of Jehovah” Date: Most likely 845 BC (2 Chronicles 21:8- 10,16-17) Message: Edom was to be destroyed for its cruelty and pride (vs. 3-4) History: Edomites were descendants of Esau (Genesis 36:6-9). Struggle began in the womb (Genesis 25:21-28). Always had a “rocky” relationship with Israel.
43 “The pride of your heart has deceived you, you who dwell in the clefts of the rock, whose habitation is high; you who say in your heart, ‘Who will bring me down to the ground?’ Though you ascend as high as the eagle, and though you set your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down,” says the Lord. – (Obadiah 3-4)
45 Edom was located in the mountainous region of the Dead Sea. Sela (now Petra) was it’s capital. From mount strongholds like this the Edomites launched their raids on Israel.
46 Obadiah Obadiah means “servant of Jehovah.” Date: Most likely 845 BC (2 Chronicles 21:8-10,16-17). Message: Edom was to be destroyed for its cruelty and pride (vs. 3-4). History: Edomites were descendants of Esau (Genesis 36:6-9). Struggle began in the womb (Genesis 25:21- 28). Always had a “rocky” relationship with Israel. Outline: –National Security will be taken away (vs. 1-9) –Watched and participated in Judah’s destruction (vs. 10-14) –Edom’s destruction foretold (vs. 15-16) –Israel would recover but Edom would never (vs. 17- 21)
47 Joel Joel means “Jehovah is God.” Probably around 830 BC. Message: Warning to Judah that “the day of the Lord is at hand, and as a destruction from the Almighty shall it come” (1:15). A plague of locusts covers the land and strips every living green thing bare (vs 7). This message is brought during the reign of Joash (835 – 796 BC).
50 Joel Joel means “Jehovah is God.” Probably around 830 BC. Message: Warning to Judah that “the day of the Lord is at hand, and as a destruction from the Almighty shall it come” (1:15). A plague of locusts covers the land and strips every living green thing bare (vs 7). This message is brought during the reign of Joash (835 – 796 BC). The book is divided into two parts: –The prophet’s call to repentance (1:1 – 2:17). –God’s direct message (2:18 – 3:21).
51 Jonah Jonah means “Dove”. Probably around 780 BC. Message:God cared for all nations of the earth, and He was willing to save even the heathen nation of Assyria if they would repent. God wanted all men to recognize Him as the One True God.
52 Dunkleosteus This skull was about three and a half feet tall. Its body length would be incredible. This huge fish would be a fright to anyone who saw it. It's mouth would have the ability easily swallow an average size human being
54 Jonah Jonah means “Dove”. Probably around 780 BC. Message:God cared for all nations of the earth, and He was willing to save even the heathen nation of Assyria if they would repent. God wanted all men to recognize Him as the One True God. Chapter 1 – God calls Jonah to go to Ninevah Chapter 2 – Jonah’s prayer and deliverance Chapter 3 – God repeats His call to Jonah Chapter 4 – Jonah reacts to Ninevah’s repentance
55 Amos Amos means “burden-bearer”. Probably around 755 BC. Messenger: Amos was a herdsman and a dresser of sycamore trees, a strong rural character (7:14-15). Message:A message of doom for both Israel and Judah. Each were given some rest from the threats of Assyrian invasion. In this state of comfort, moral and political corruption began to flourish. They began to adopt the worship of the gods of the Assyrians, and thus of apostasy from the One True Jehovah. In short, luxury and wealth had bred moral decay and spiritual disinterest.
56 Amos Outline: –Introduction of the Prophet (1:1-2) –Coming of divine judgment upon sinful nations Damascus – for cruelty in war and greed (1:3-5) Gaza (Philistia) – for their slave trade (1:6-8) Tyre (Phoenicia) – remembered not the covenant (1:9-10) Edom – for their hatred and mistreatment of Israel (1:11- 12) Ammon – intense and uncalled-for cruelty (1:13-15) Moab – vengeance even on a king’s carcass (2:1-3) Judah – for her apostasy (2:4-5) Israel – for all their sins (2:6-16)
57 Amos Outline (continued) –Israel’s crimes (3-4) Upon wealthy ruling classes for social sins and injustices (3:1- 4:5) Chastisement upon the nation had gone unheeded (4:4- 13) –Israel's inevitable condemnation (5-6) –Five Visions explained (7:1–9:10) The vision of the locust (grasshoppers) in which the mercy of God averts catastrophe (7:1-3) The vision of devouring fire – an even more severe judgment again averted by God’s mercy (7:4-6)
58 Amos Outline (continued) –Five Visions Explained (continued) The vision of the plumb-line – the destruction of the nation of Israel for its idolatry (7:7-9) –Interlude – Amaziah’s complaint against Amos (7:10-17) –Five Visions Explained (continued) The vision of the basket of summer fruit – the ripeness of Israel for judgment (8) The vision of the smitten sanctuary – destruction for the sinful kingdom (9:1-10) –The promise of a bright future in the hope of the Messiah (9:11-15) – Acts 15:14-18
59 Hosea Hosea means “salvation”. Probably around 730 BC. Messenger: Hosea was probably a citizen of the northern kingdom of Israel. He appears to be a sympathetic man who mourns the digression of Israel and laments their pending fall. At the same time he is filled with a righteous indignation over their departure from the one true God. His work reflects these moments of sympathy and indignation.
60 Hosea Message: The excesses of Israel had now become even more pronounced than in the time of Amos. Hosea sums up his indictment against Israel by emphasizing the theme of “whoredom”. A theme that he would know first hand. Israel was committing spiritual adultery. They had embarked upon a path of idolatry, and they were giving praise to these pagan gods for the prosperity they were enjoying (Hosea 2:12-13). Hosea’s work emphasizes the judgment of God against the wicked while yet reminding his hearers of God’s love and forgiveness.
61 Baal Worship Baal is mentioned widely in the Old Testament as the primary pagan idol of the Phoenicians, often associated with the heathen goddess Ashtaroth. This photo shows Baal's fictitious image from an ancient stone carving. He was the supposed son of the non-existent god Dagon. Unfortunately, to their eventual bitter regret, the Israelites became deeply involved in the cult of the Baals. The evil "worship" included perverted sexual behavior, and even sacrificing their infants in fire.
62 Hosea Outline: –Israel’s adultery against God (1-3) Hosea’s personal marriage to adulterous Gomer parallels that of God’s relationship with Israel (1:2–2:1) Chastisement, repentance & final restoration of idolatrous Israel (2:2-23) –Jehovah’s controversy with Israel (4-6) –Israel’s corrupt political situation (7-8) –Israel’s religious & moral apostasy resulting in punishment, exile & destruction (9-11) –Israel’s apostasy versus God’s fidelity (12-13) –Israel’s conversion and pardon (14)
63 Micah Micah means “Who is like the Lord?”. Dated from anywhere between 740 – 700 BC. Messenger: Micah was from a very rustic, productive, fertile and agricultural area called Moresheth-gath (1:1,14) which was a small village on the border between Judah and Philistia. The village was about 25 miles southwest of Jerusalem. With the viewpoint of the humble peasant from an obscure village he harshly condemns the idolatry, the impiety, and the social corruption of both Judah and Samaria. Using vivid terms, Micah serves as the voice of God to all.
64 Micah Message: In common with all the eighth century prophets, Micah preached the supreme righteousness of God in contrast to the ungodly character of the luxury-loving age in which they lived. In contrast with the destruction which shall be visited upon the wicked nations of that age, God will bless and keep those who continue to be his servants. Micah declares the nature of true service which God has always sought (6:6-8). There is also a considerable amount of Messianic prediction, comparable to that of Isaiah.
65 Micah Outline: –Authorship & time of the prophet’s work (1:1). –Judgment upon Israel & Judah with a remnant to be saved (1-3). –Coming of Christ and His church (4-5). –Condemnation for sins (6:1 – 7:6). –Ultimate blessing (7:7-20). Messianic prophesy: –Forecast of the establishment of the church (4). –Birth of the Messiah in Bethlehem (5:2).
67 Zephaniah Zephaniah means “Jehovah hides”. Probably around 625 BC. Messenger: Zephaniah wrote during the reign of Josiah who was a young king trying to reform the sinful nation after his father, Amon, and his grandfather, Manasseh, brought the religion and morality of Judah to an all-time low. Zephaniah was the great-grandson of Hezekiah, the last good king prior to Josiah. This indicates that he was a descendant of royal blood.
68 Zephaniah Message: Zephaniah spells out the judgment of God against all who are guilty of idolatry (1:4-6), violence and fraud (1:9), and all who sit by in idle indifference (1:12). They will be set apart for destruction (1:7), and their cry will be heard in every quarter of Jerusalem (1:10-11). The only hope for God’s people is to seek Him, and begin living by His standards. If they do not, they will share the fate of the nations around them: Philisita to the west, Moab & Ammon to the east, Ethiopia to the south and Assyria to the north. Jerusalem will be punished for her sins (3:1-8), but a remnant shall be saved (3:9-20).
69 Nahum Nahum means “consolation”. Dated anywhere from 630 to 612 BC. Messenger: We know nothing definite regarding Nahum other than this prophecy. There is no indication as to where and Elkoshite would come from. Message: This prophecy deals directly with the impending destruction of Nineveh. The book declares the reasons for this destruction and shows that the fall is God’s vindication against this wicked place.
70 Nahum Outline –God’s majesty in mercy and judgment (1:1-14) –The siege & destruction of Nineveh (1:15-2:13) –The reasons for Nineveh’s doom (3:1-19) Summary –Nahum & Jonah were the 2 prophets primarily charged with foretelling the fortunes of Nineveh, the capital city of the Assyrian Empire. Jonah’s warnings were delivered around 780 BC. And repentance resulted (Jonah 3:5-10). Nahum speaks about 150 years later and reminds them of the consequences of forgetting their repentance – DOOM! (1:3)
72 Habakkuk Habakkuk means “embrace”. Date: Assyria fell to the Babylonians in 612 BC and Nebuchadnezzar pushed westward toward Judah. The first group of captives were carried away in 605 BC., so the date of this writing would fall somewhere between 612 to 606 BC. Habakkuk was waiting for the invasion (3:16) Messenger: We know nothing about Habakkuk except that he was a prophet (1:1; 3:1). He is mentioned nowhere else in the scriptures. We do not know his home or occupation
73Habakkuk Message: This prophecy is a bit different in its style of writing. Where most of the literary prophets address the people speaking the words of God unto them, Habakkuk presents his writing as a representative of the people, addressing God to reason with him about His ways. His first problem is how to account for the fact that social injustice and immorality prevail in the land and the evil-doers seem to go unpunished. God tells him that chastisement will come from the Chaldeans who are being raised up for that very purpose. Habakkuk does not see the justice in this act and questions God again on his ways. God replies that the Chaldeans, too, will be judged for all their sins. The book ends in Habakkuk’s song of praise to God for his complete justice and mercy.
74 Habakkuk Outline –Title and name of author (1:1) –Jehovah is to judge Judah by the Chaldeans (1:2- 2:3) Prophet laments sins of the land (1:2-4) God sees this and will judge them (1:5-11) Prophet questions God’s justice (1:12-17) God answers that they will be judged, too (2:1-3) –God’s eventual judgment of the Chaldeans (2:4-20) “The just shall live by faith” (2:5) Woes upon the Chaldeans (2:6-19) –“The Lord is in His holy temple: let all the earth keep silent before Him” Song /Prayer of Habakkuk (3:1-19)
76 The Fall of Judah (3 Major Movements) 605 BC. - Nebuchadnezzar sent his army to punish Judah. Nebuchadnezzar took Jehoiakim (2 Chronicles 36:6) and others (possibly Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach, & Abednego) as the first captives carried away to Babylon. 597 BC. – Jehoiachin (Jehoiakim’s son) was the next king of Judah and was 18 when he began to reign. He also proved disloyal to the Babylonians and he, his family and a large number (10,000) of other captives were carried back to Babylon. These captives included the best workmen of the city, and the prophet Ezekiel was also in this group.
77 The Fall of Judah (3 Major Movements) 586 BC. – The final king of Judah was Mattaniah who took the name Zedekiah. There was little left of value in Judah by this time, and there was a dire lack of leadership. Jeremiah, the prophet, tried diligently to initiate reforms, but it was to no avail. Zedekiah made an alliance with the new Pharaoh in Egypt, and Nebuchadnezzar returned a final time. Jerusalem was burned to the ground (2 Kings 25:9), and the final captives left for Babylon in 587-86 BC. The kingdom of Judah was no more.
78 The Fall of Judah Archaeological Discoveries
79 The Babylonian Chronicles The Babylonian Chronicles make it possible to assign the fall of Jerusalem to the Second of Adar (March 16) in 597 B.C. with complete accuracy, confirming the Biblical accounts of Babylonian attacks on Jerusalem in 597 and 586 B.C. The Babylonian Chronicle records: "In the seventh month (of Nebuchadnezzar-599 BC.) in the month Chislev (Nov/Dec) the king of Babylon assembled his army, and after he had invaded the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine) he laid seige to the city of Judah. On the second day of the month of Adara ( 16th of March) he conquered the city and took the king (Jehoiachin) prisoner. He installed in his place a king (Zedekiah) of his own choice, and after he had received rich tribute, he sent (them) forth to Babylon."
80 The Lachish Letters Important light has been revealed regarding the last days of Judah by the discovery in 1935 of eighteen ostraca (clay tablet with writing in ink) written in an ancient cursive script belonging to the seventh century B.C. They were discovered at Lachish (Tell ed-Duweir) among the ruins of a small guard room just outside the city gate. Then a few years later three inscribed potsherds were also found at the site, and like the others, they contained names and lists from the period just before the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. Most of the letters were dispatches from a Jewish commander named Hoshaiah who was stationed at an outpost north of Lachish, who apparently was responsible for interpreting the signals from Azekah and Lachish during the time when the: Jer. 34:7 "when the king of Babylon's army fought against Jerusalem and all the cities of Judah that were left, against Lachish and Azekah; for only these fortified cities remained of the cities of Judah." These final communications which mentioned the political and religious turmoil of the last days of Judah reveal the intensity of this time period and confirm that which was written in the Bible by the prophet Jeremiah.
81 Jehoiakin Inscription This is one of the clay tablets that reveal the presence of the Judean royal house as prisoners in Babylon. They were excavated from an arched building near the Ishtar Gate of ancient Babylon. The cuneiform texts, which are dated between 595 and 570 B.C., contain lists of rations of barley and oil issued to the captive princes and artisans, including "Yaukin, king of the land of Yahud." This is a direct reference to Jehoiachin, and some of the other tablets also mentioned his 5 sons who accompanied him to Babylon. (Staatliche Museum, Berlin).
82 Haggai Haggai means “festive” or “Festival”. Date: Precisely dated at 520 BC. During the reign of Darius, the Persian king (1:1) Messenger: We know nothing of Haggai except that he was a prophet during the reconstruction of Jerusalem (Ezra 5:1-2; 6:14-16). Since he contrasts Solomon’s Temple with the Temple built by Zerubbabel, some commentators view him as an old man who had witnessed the existence of both buildings. This may or may not be true.
83 Haggai Theme: Rebuild the Temple! Timetable (for the Temple reconstruction): –536 BC – 50,000 Jews return to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel; Altar is built and foundation is laid. Work stops by opposition and indifference. –520 BC – Haggai’s call to build (6 th month). Building begins; Haggai’s second appeal (7 th month); Zechariah’s opening address (8 th month). –516 BC – Temple completed –457 BC – Ezra begins reforms in Jerusalem –444 BC – Nehemiah rebuilds the wall of Jerusalem.
84 Haggai Outline: –Rebuke of indifference. (1:1-4) –Call to serious reflection. (1:5-6) –Israel’s chastenings from God. (1:7-11) –Obedience of the nation. (1:12-15) –Encouragement for the building. (2:1-5) –Promise of future glory. (2:6-9) –Clean and unclean Levitical matters. (2:10-14) –The application of these truths. (2:15-19) –God’s future blessing for Zerubbabel. (2:20-23)
85 Solomon’s Temple The original Temple of God in Jerusalemm was constructed during the reign of King Solomon. Although far greater in size and magnificence, the structure was similar in layout to the small, portable “Tabernacle In The Wilderness” that it effectively replaced. After 7 years of construction, Solomon's Temple had a life of a little over 360 years, from about 950 to 587 B.C. when God permitted it to be looted and burned by the Babylonians.
86 Solomon’s Temple A.The Most Holy Place – contained two sculptured cherubim (2 Chron. 3:8-14) B.The Ark of the Covenant – contained the 10 commandments (1 Kings 8:6-7) C.The Altar of Incense (1 Kings 7:48-50) D.The Holy Place (2 Chronicles 3:3-7) E.Table of Showbread (2 Chronicles 4:8) F.Lampstands (2 Chronicles 4:7) G.The Porch (1 Kings 6:3) H.The Pillars (2 Chronicles 3:15-17) I.The Copper Sea (2 Chronicles 4:4-5) J.The Sacrificial Altar (2 Chronicles 4:1) K.The Courtyard (2 Chronicles 4:9-10) L.Storage Rooms (1 Kings 6:10)
88 Zerubbabel’s Temple About 70 years after the destruction of Solomon’s Temple and the Jewish deportation an entirely new Temple was built on Mount Moriah, by a decree of the Persian king. The new Temple was dedicated on March 12, 515 BC, some very old people who could remember Solomon's Temple regarded it a poor thing in comparison with the splendor of the original Temple. Yet their prophet Haggai predicted far greater glory for it in days to come (Haggai 2:3-9).
90 Herod’s Temple None of the restorations or extensions of the Second Temple of Zerubbabel could compare with the work begun by King Herod I (the Great) at the beginning of 19 BC. Herod complained that the Temple of Zerubbabel was built like a fortress and was shorter than that of Solomon’s Temple by about 90 feet because of a decree made by Darius, the Persian king. King Herod no doubt wanted to be remembered forever as the builder of the greatest temple of the Jews. Although the reconstruction was equal to an entire rebuilding, still the Herodian Temple cannot be spoken of as a third Temple, for Herod even said himself, that it was only intended to be regarded as an enlarging and further beautifying of that of Zerubbabel’s.
91 Herod’s Temple While the main part of Herod’s rebuilding was completed before his death in 4 BC, the work went on for more than 60 years after that. When Jesus visited the Temple at the first Passover of his ministry it was said that the place had by then been under construction for 46 years. The work was not entirely finished until 63 AD, only 7 years before the destruction of the entire Temple in 70 AD.
92 Zechariah Zachariah means “whom Jehovah remembers”. Date: Zechariah began prophesying two months after Haggai in 520 to 518 BC., and his last recorded words date some two years after the completion of Haggai. Messenger: Zechariah was of the priestly tribe (Nehemiah 12:12-16), and he returned to Jerusalem in the migration led by Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:1,4,16) around 536 BC. After his work, we are told nothing about him.
93 Zechariah Message: Zechariah is the longest of the minor prophetic books and is also regarded as the most difficult to interpret. In addition to motivating the people to complete the temple, Zechariah opens a window of enlightenment regarding the spiritual temple of God which would one day be established upon the earth with the coming of the Messiah. There are many messianic prophecies found in Zechariah and much of the teaching done by the prophet is done by the relating of visions sent to him by God.
94 Zechariah Outline: –Introduction (1:1-6) –The 8 visions of Zechariah (1:7 – 6:8) Vision of the man on the red horse standing among the myrtle trees (1:7-17) Vision of the Horns and Carpenters (1:18-21) Vision of the man with the plumb line (2:1-13) Vision of Joshua the High Priest accused by Satan but vindicated (3:1-10)
95 Outline (continued) Vision of the Candlestick and the Olive Trees (4:1- 14) Vision of the Flying Roll (5:1-4) Vision of Four Chariots (6:1-8) –Joshua, the symbol of the priest-king (6:9-15) –Fasts become feasts (7:1 – 8:23) –The shepherd-king (9:1 – 11:17) –Deliverance and the Messiah (12:1 – 14:21) Zechariah
96 Zechariah Messianic allusions –“the branch of David” (3:8; 6:12) –humble king riding on a donkey (9:9) –His dominion is universal (6:13; 9:10) –Sold for the 30 shekels of silver (11:12-13) –One pierced for His sheep (12:10) –The scattering of the sheep (13:7) –A remnant to be His (13:9) –Victory of demonic possession (13:1-2)
97 Malachi Malachi means “My messenger”. Date: 445 – 432 BC. Messenger: Uses a different writing style called “didactic-dialectic”. This style became common in later teaching in Jewish schools and synagogues. Malachi follows this form: –A charge or assertion is made –The hearer raises an objection or asks a question regarding the charge or assertion –A rebuttal is made with further amplification of the original charge or assertion
98 Malachi Message: The Jews had started the return to Jerusalem almost 100 years before the date of Malachi’s writing. They returned with great zeal and enthusiasm and renewed faith. God had conditionally promised to bless them but instead of prospering materially they had suffered distress and famine resulting in a weakened faith. They murmured against God’s justice and manifested skepticism. Malachi assures them that God loves them and that sincere service would bring increased blessing. God had not been unfaithful.
99 Malachi Message (continued): Their problem was to be found in the lack of sincerity, devotion and obedience on the part of the Jews. The divorce rate showed that their morals were not good. Offering defective animals for sacrifice betrayed a lack of devotion. The withholding of tithes and offerings revealed their selfishness. The Jews were ritualistically serving God but not in righteousness, holiness, and true devotion. In effect, God informs them that Malachi is to be the last prophet until “Elijah” comes to herald the coming Messiah. It is now up to Judah.
100 Malachi Outline: –The Jews disrespect for God (1:1-14) –The priests and people are rebuked (2:1-16) –God’s requirements (2:17-3:15) –The final lot of the righteous and the wicked (3:16-4:6) 400 YEARS OF SILENCE
101 Key verse “I will betroth you to me forever; I will betroth you in righteousness and justice, in love and compassion. I will betroth you in faithfulness, and you will acknowledge the LORD” (2:19,20)
102 Prophetic Books The prophetic books are divided into the minor prophets and the major prophets The minor prophetic books are also called The Twelve Books The book of Hosea is the first minor prophetic book
103 The man Hosea = “Salvation” Very last great prophet of Northern Kingdom His wife(Gomer, Hos1:3) and children
104 The Date His Prophecy was during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezkiah (Judah) Jeroboam II (Israel) The time of his ministry at 750-725 B.C. –(Fall of Israel : 722 B.C.) Younger than Amos (Israel) and older than Isaiah, Micah (Judah)
105 Background of the Times Northern kingdom of Israel faces imminent judgment -Sin was even more rampant than in Amos -Religious, moral, and political corruption was rampant Israel had become a harlot
106 Key to Understanding the Book Hosea’s adulteress wife, Gomer (Ch 1-3), serves as an analogy of the LORD’s experience with Israel (Ch 4-14)
107 OUTLINE I.Hosea’s life and the analogy with Israel (Ch 1-3) II.God’s Indictment of Israel (Ch 4-7) III.God’s Punishment of Israel (Ch 8-10) IV.God’s Promise of Restoration (Ch 11-14)
108 I. Hosea’s life and the analogy with Israel (Ch 1-3) Hosea’s hard life (ch1-3) Israel’s rejection symbolized in the name of the children (1:1-1:9) Israel’s restoration foretold (1:10-2:1) Israel’s unfaithfulness depicted as harlotry (2:2-13) Israel restored and cured of Idolatry (2:14-23) Israel’s restoration symbolized as a harlot taken back as a wife again (3:1-5)
109 Hosea’s hard life (ch1-3) Hosea’s Hard Life - God led him to harlot woman “Go, take to yourself an adulterous wife..So he married Gomer daughter of Diblaim..” (1:2,3) - She left Hosea “I’ll go after my lovers,…” (2:5) - God led him to take her back “Go show your love to your wife again, though she is loved by another and is an adulteress. Love her as the LORD loves the Israelites..” (3:1)
110 Israel’s rejection symbolized in the name of the children (1:1-1:9) Jezreel, a son, means “God scatters” “Call him Jezreel, because I will soon punish the house of Jehu for the massacre at Jezreel, and I will put an end to the kingdom of Israel” (1:4) Lo-Ruhamah, a daughter, means “No mercy” “Call her Lo-Ruhamah, for I will no longer show love to the house of Israel, that I should at all forgive them” (1:6) Lo-Ammi, another son, means “Not my people” “Call him Lo-Ammi, for you are not my people, and I am not your God.” (1:9)
111 “The people of Judah and the people of Israel will be reunited, and they will appoint one leader and will come up out of the land..” (1:10) Israel’s restoration foretold (1:10-2:1)
112 Israel’s unfaithfulness depicted as a harlotry (2:2-13) “Their mother has been unfaithful and has conceived them in disgrace. She said, ‘I will go after my lovers, who give me my food and my water, my wool and my linen, my oil and my drink.’ (2:5) “she burned incense to the Baals; she decked herself with rings and jewelry, and went after her lovers, but me she forgot,” (2:13) “She has not acknowledged that I was the one who gave her the grain, the new wine and oil, who lavished on her the silver and gold – which they used for Baal.”(2:8)
113 “I will remove the names of the Baals from her lips; no longer will their name be invoked.” ( 2:17) “I will betroth you to me forever; I will betroth you in righteousness and justice, in love and compassion.” (2:19) “I will betroth you in faithfulness, and you will acknowledge the LORD.” (2:20) Israel’s restored and cured of idolatry (2:14-23)
114 Israel’s restoration symbolized as a harlot taken back to be a wife (3:1-5) “The LORD said to me, “Go, show your love to your wife again, though she is loved by another and is an adulteress. Love her as the LORD loves the Israelites, though they turn to other gods and love the sacred raisin cakes.” (3;1)
115 II. God’s Indictment of Israel (4:1-7:16) The Charge Against Israel a. Against the nation “..against you who live in the land: There is no faithfulness, no love, no acknowledgment of God in the land.” (4:1) “my people are destroyed from lack of knowledge” (4:6)
116 b. Against the priests in particular “The more the priests increased, the more they sinned against me; they exchanged their Glory for something disgraceful. They feed on the sins of my people and relish their wickedness.” (4:7,8) c. The imminent sentence “For I will be like a lion to Ephraim, like a great lion to Judah. I will tear them to pieces and go away; I will carry them off, with no one to rescue them.” (5:14) II. God’s Indictment of Israel (4:1-7:16) (cont.)
117 Their Appeal Rejected a. The call to repentance “Let us acknowledge the LORD; let us press on to acknowledge him. As surely as the sun rises, he will appear; he will come to us like the winter rains, like the spring rains that water the earth.” (6:3) II. God’s Indictment of Israel (4:1-7:16) (cont.)
118 b. Rejected because of Israel’s true condition “..Your love is like the morning mist, like the early dew that disappears.” (6:4) “For I desire mercy, not sacrifice, and acknowledgement of God rather than burnt offerings.” (6;6) II. God’s Indictment of Israel (4:1-7:16) (cont.)
119 III. God’s Punishment for Israel (8:1-10:15) a. Warning of approaching judgment “Put the trumpet to your lips! An eagle is over the house of the LORD because the people have broken my covenant and rebelled against my law” (8:1) “The days of punishment are coming, the days of reckoning are at hand. Let Israel know this. Because your sins are so many and your hostility so great, the prophet is considered a fool, the inspired man a maniac.” (9:7)
120 b. Assyrian Captivity Foretold “They will not remain in the LORD’s land; Ephraim will return Egypt and eat unclean food in Assyria.” (9:3) c. Israel’s sin and captivity reiterated “But you have planted wickedness, you have reaped evil, you have eaten the fruit of deception. Because you have depended on your own strength and on your many warriors,” (10:13) III. God’s Punishment for Israel (8:1-10:15) (cont.)
121 IV. God’s Promise of Restoration (11:1-14:9) a. God’s love despite Israel’s rebellion “When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son,” (11:1) “It was I who taught Ephraim to walk, taking them by the arms; but they did not realize it was I who healed them” (11:3) “Will they not return to Egypt and will not Assyria rule over them because they refuse to repent?” (11:5)
122 a. God’s love despite Israel’s rebellion (cont.) “How can I give you up, Ephraim? How can I hand you over, Israel? How can I treat you like Admah? Zeboiim? My heart is changed within me; all my compassion is aroused.” (11:8) b. Israel’s rebellion and God’s chastisement “Ephraim has surrounded me with lies, the house of Israel with deceit…” (11:12) IV. God’s Promise of Restoration (11:1-14:9) (cont.)
123 b. Israel’s rebellion and God’s chastisement (cont.) “The LORD has a charge to bring against Judah; he will punish Jacob according to his ways and repay him according to his deeds.” (12:2) “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt; I will make you live in tents again, as in the days of your appointed feasts.” (13:16) IV. God’s Promise of Restoration (11:1-14:9) (cont.)
124 c. Israel’s restoration “Take words with you and return to the LORD. Say to him: “Forgive all our sins and receive us graciously, that we may offer the fruit of our lips. Assyria cannot save us; we will not mount war-horses. We will never again say ‘Our gods’ to what our own hands have made, …” (14:2,3) IV. God’s Promise of Restoration (11:1-14:9) (cont.)
125 c. Israel’s restoration (cont.) “I will heal their waywardness and love them freely, for my anger has turned away from them.” (14:4) “O Ephraim, what more have I to do with idols? I am like a green pine tree; your fruitfulness comes from me.” (14:8) IV. God’s Promise of Restoration (11:1-14:9) (cont.)
126 Conclusion “Who is wise? He will realize these things. Who is discerning? He will understand them. The ways of the LORD are right; the righteous walk in them, but the rebellious stumble in them.” (14:9)