2Chapter OutlineThe Global Context: Cross-cultural Variations In EducationSociological Theories of EducationWho Succeeds? The Inequality of Educational AttainmentProblems In The American Educational SystemStrategies For Action: Trends And Innovations In American Education Understanding Problems in Education
3Cross-Cultural Variation In Education Worldwide:Over 100 million children have little or no access to schools.Over 860 million adults are illiterate.In 2001 all countries, except the Russian Commonwealth, had close to universal participation in formal education for youths 5 to 14 years of age.
4Comparison of Education: U.S. and Other Developed Nations In 2001, 64% of U.S. children ages 3 to 5 years were enrolled in preprimary or primary education, a rate higher than all the other nations except Canada.Only England scored higher than the U.S. in a comparison of reading literacy among fourth graders.
5Comparison of Education: U.S. and Other Developed Nations In 2001:Enrollment of 17-year-olds in secondary schools was 75% in the United States, lower than that of Canada, Germany, and Japan at 90%.Almost 25% of 18- to 29-year-olds in the U.S. were enrolled in colleges or universities, the highest enrollment rate of the nations studied.
6Estimated Illiteracy Rates by Region and Gender, 2000
7Unemployment Rate of Individuals 25 Years or Older by Highest Level of Education, 2005
8Structural-Functional Perspective Education serves important functions:InstructionSocializationSorting individuals into various statusesCustodial care
9Conflict PerspectiveEducational institution solidifies class positions and allows the elite to control the masses.Quality education and educational opportunities are not equally distributed.Education provides indoctrination into the capitalist ideology.Cultural imperialism - Indoctrination into the dominant culture of a society.
10Conflict Perspective Education perpetuates racial inequality: Gross inequalities between poor districts and middle-and upper-class districts.Schools in poor districts have inadequate facilities, materials, and personnel.The richest school districts spend 56% more per pupil than the poorest school districts.
11Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Concerned with the individual and small-group issues in education:Teacher-student interactionsStudent self-esteemSelf-fulfilling prophecy - Occurs when people act in a manner consistent with the expectations of others.
12The Self-fulfilling Prophecy Rosenthal and Jacobson experiment:Five random elementary school students were labeled as having superior intelligence and ability.Teachers expected them to do well and treated them in a way that encouraged better school performance.
13QuestionAccording to conflict theorists, what is the socialization function of education?Indoctrination into a capitalist ideology.All of these choices.Promoting awareness for cultural diversity.Teaching students to respect authority.
14Answer: AAccording to conflict theorists, the socialization function of education is Indoctrination into a capitalist ideology.
15QuestionDo you think the government is spending too little, just the right amount or too much on improving the nation's education system?Too littleJust rightToo much
16GSS National Data Age <30 30-49 50 and up Too little 73.2% 75.5% 63.3%Just right23.919.429Too much188.8.131.52
17Highest Level of Education: Individuals 25 and Older, 2002
18Question How far do you intend to go in school? Two years of college Four years of collegeMaster's degreeProfessional degree (law, medicine, dentistry)Ph.D.
19Revenues for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: 2002–2003
20Reasons for Lower Educational Achievement Low-income parents are less likely to expect their children to go to college.Low-income parents are less likely to be involved with child’s education.Low-income parents are often themselves low academic achievers.
21QuestionWhat is the highest level of education completed by your mother?Below high schoolHigh school graduateSome college or postsecondary trainingCollege degreeGraduate or professional degreeDon't know
22QuestionWhat is the highest level of education completed by your father?Below high schoolHigh school graduateSome college or postsecondary trainingCollege degreeGraduate or professional degreeDon't know
23Race and EthnicityIn 2003, 41% of white fourth graders were reading at grade level, compared to 15% of Hispanics and 13% of blacks.Because race and ethnicity are closely tied to socioeconomic status, race or ethnicity alone can determine school success.Some educators advocate bilingual education, teaching children in English and in their native language.
24Educational Attainment by Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, 1970 and 2003 4 or more years of high school19702003MalesFemalesWhite545584.585.7Black30.132.579.680.3Hispanic37.934.256.357.8AsianNA89.586Total51.952.884.185
25Educational Attainment by Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, 1970 and 2003 4 years of college or more19702003MalesFemalesWhite14.48.429.425.9Black4.24.616.717.8Hispanic7.84.311.211.6AsianNA53.946.1Total184.108.40.2065.7
26Racial Composition of Schools Attended by the Average Student of Each Race, 2002–2003 Race in Each SchoolWhiteBlackLatinoAsianNative American7830284544954127813201135222136
27QuestionWhich of the following is not true regarding social class, family background, and education?Disadvantaged parents are less involved in their children's education.Disproportionately, children from low income families do not go to college.Low income families are less likely to take their children to museums and zoos.Working class parents do not value the education of their children.
28Answer: DIt is not true that working class parents do not value the education of their children.
29Functional Illiteracy Inability to read basic signs or maps, complete simple forms, or carry out many of the tasks that require reading.Functionally illiterate adults are disproportionately poor, older than age 55, uneducated, and members of racial or ethnic minority groups.
30Dropout Rates for 15- to 24-year-olds Who Dropped Out of Grades 10–12, by Family Income
31Violence in the Schools Students at school between the ages of 12 and 18 were the victims of 1.9 million crimes in 2002.Theft accounts for 64% of the total crimes against students.Annually, on the basis of a 5 year average, teachers were the victims of approximately 90,000 violent crimes, including rape, sexual assault, aggravated and simple assault, and robbery.
32Innovations In American Education Charter schoolsOriginate in contracts, or charters, which state a plan of instruction that must be approved by local or state authorities.School vouchersTax credits used for public or private school that parents select.
341. Which society of these 8-- US, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, USSR, UK-- has the highest rate of university graduates?JapanUSUKGermany
35Answer: BThe U.S. has the highest rate of university graduates.
362. What is the function of education, as examined by structural functionalism? Teaching students knowledge and skills.Teaching students to respect authority.Socializing youth into the dominant culture.All of these choices.
37Answer: ATeaching students knowledge and skills is the function of education, as examined by structural functionalism.
383. Ms. Gardener has defined Julian as an "at risk" student 3. Ms. Gardener has defined Julian as an "at risk" student. Julian has been moved to a lower level reading group and is not called on to participate in class discussions. The next month's report card shows that Julian's test scores have slipped. What symbolic interactionist idea is this an example of?dramaturgylooking glass selfimpression managementself-fulfilling prophecy
39Answer: DThis an example of self-fulfilling prophecy.