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CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 1 The Crime Picture.

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Presentation on theme: "CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 1 The Crime Picture."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Crime Picture CHAPTER 2

2 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Value of Data Data are valuable and can be used to  Shape public policy  Analyze and evaluate existing programs  Create new programs  Plan new laws  Develop funding requests

3 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Sources of Data Nationally, crime statistics come from two major sources: 1.Uniform Crime Reports (also known as the UCR/NIBRS Program) 2.National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Additionally, data are available from:  Professional organizations (example: PERF)  Offender self-reports  Other regular publications (example: Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics)

4 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Criminal Justice Funnel

5 Pearson Education, Inc The UCR/NIBRS Program

6 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Uniform Crime Reports  The reports began in  Data are collected by F.B.I.  Approximately 16,000 police agencies provide data.  Only crimes known to the police are included.  Law enforcement agencies submit reports voluntarily.  Until 2006, the UCR presented data in a Crime Index.

7 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ UCR: Crime Index The Index is made up of Part I Offenses. Part I Offenses Violent Crime murder, rape, robbery, assault Property Crime burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson (1979)

8 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ NIBRS: The New UCR National Incident Based Reporting System Incident driven, rather than summary based (Table 2.1-Page 41).  FBI started this program in  City, county, state, and federal law enforcement agencies furnish detailed data on crime and arrest activities at the incident level.  The NIBRS isn’t a separate report; it’s the new methodology underlying the modern-day UCR system

9 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ NIBRS The new UCR/NIBRS is much more detailed than the old UCR system, including data on:  place of occurrence  weapon used  type and value of property damaged or stolen  the personal characteristics of the victim and offender  nature of victim-offender relationship  case disposition It also replaced the old Part I and Part II offenses with 22 general offenses

10 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ

11 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ

12 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ

13 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ UCR/NIBRS 22 offenses include:  kidnapping  larceny  motor vehicle theft  pornography  prostitution  narcotics offenses  embezzlement  extortion  arson  assault  bribery  burglary  counterfeiting  vandalism  gambling  homicide  fraud  weapons violations  robbery  forcible sex offenses  non-forcible sex offenses  receiving stolen property

14 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ UCR/NIBRS Also collects data on:  bad checks  vagrancy  disorderly conduct  driving under the influence  drunkenness  non-violent family offenses  liquor law violations  “peeping Tom” activities  runaways  trespassing  general category of all “other” criminal law violations

15 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ UCR/NIBRS: Crime Rates Crime Rate = number of crimes 100,000 population Rates allow for comparison across areas and times. Most UCR/NCVS information is reported as a rate of crime.

16 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Major Shifts in Crime Rates Since the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program began, there have been three major shifts in crime rates— and we may now be at the start of the fourth.

17 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Major Shifts in Crime Rates 1.Early 1940s—Sharp drop in crime rate as many young men went to WWII s-early 1990s—Dramatic increase in crime rates as police professionalism and victim reporting grew —Significant decline in most major crime rates as funding for crime fighting increase and many embrace a “get tough” attitude on—Violent crime rates starting to rise again pushed by economic uncertainty, more teens, copycat crimes, and social disorganization.

18 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Actual and Projected Rates of Crime (1950–2010)

19 Pearson Education, Inc UCR/NIBRS in Transition

20 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Transition Reports of crime data available through the UCR/NIBRS program are now going through a transitional phase, as the FBI integrates more NIBRS-based data into its official summaries. Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook

21 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ UCR/NIBRS: Clearance Rates Clearance Rate = number of crimes solved number of crimes committed Clearances are based on arrests, not judicial dispositions.

22 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Crimes Cleared by Arrest, 2006

23 Pearson Education, Inc Major Crimes UCR Classifications of Part I Offenses

24 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Murder …the unlawful killing of a human being by another. Includes:  All willful and unlawful homicides  Nonnegligent manslaughter Excludes:  Suicides  Deaths caused by accidents or negligence  Attempted murders

25 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Data on Murder  Least likely Part I offense to occur  High clearance rate  Murders are more common during warmer months and in southern states  Most victims and perpetrators are age 20–24  Weapon most often used: firearms  Victim and offender are often “acquaintances”

26 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Murder: Multiple Killings  Spree—two or more people, killed on more than one occasion.  Mass — three or more people, killed in a single event.  Serial — several victims killed in three or more separate events and over time.

27 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Forcible Rape …the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Includes:  Assault or attempt to commit rape by force or threat of force Excludes:  Assault if victim is male  Statutory rape (without force)  Same-sex rapes  Other sex offenses

28 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Forcible Rape: One of the most underreported violent crimes Many victims do NOT report because they:  Think the police won’t be able to catch the suspect.  Believe that the police will be unsympathetic.  Want to avoid the embarrassment of publicity.  Fear reprisal by the rapist.  Fear additional “victimization” by court proceedings.  Want to keep family/friends from knowing.

29 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Rate of Reported Rape, 1960–2006

30 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Forcible Rape  Most rapes are committed by acquaintances of victim, as in the case of date rape.  Most rapists appear to be motivated by the need to feel powerful.  Use of the “date rape drug” Rohypnol is rising.

31 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Robbery …the unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. Excludes:  Pick pocketing  Purse snatching

32 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Robbery (2006 Data) Characteristics of Targets:  Most are individuals  Banks, gas stations, convenience stores, and other businesses  Residences targeted in less than 15% of cases  Urban areas have a much higher robbery rate than rural areas.

33 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Robbery (2006 Data) Characteristics of robbers:  Most are male  More than half are under age 25  About half are minorities

34 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Aggravated Assault …unlawful inflicting of serious injury upon the person of another. Includes:  Attempted assaults, especially when a deadly weapon is used  The possible use of a gun, knife, or other weapon that could result in serious injury Excludes:  Simple assaults

35 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Aggravated Assault (2006 Data)  54% clearance rate  Summer months highest number reported  February, November, and December lowest number reported  Most were committed with:  Blunt object 34%  Hands and feet 25%  Firearms 22%  Knives 19%

36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Burglary …unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. Types of burglaries:  Forcible entry  Unlawful entry without force  Attempted forcible entry

37 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Burglary (2006 Data) More than 2.1 million reported burglaries:  More than half were forcible entries  $4 billion in losses (average: $1,834)  Almost 2/3 were of residential structures.  Most residential burglaries during the day  The clearance rate was only 12.6%.

38 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Larceny–theft …unlawful taking or attempted taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another. Motor vehicles thefts are excluded.

39 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Larceny–theft Includes (in declining order of frequency) :  Theft from motor vehicles  Shoplifting  Theft from buildings  Theft of motor vehicle parts and accessories  Bicycle thefts  Theft from coin-operated machines  Purse snatching  Pocket picking

40 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Larceny–theft  Is the most frequently reported crime (yet still greatly underreported).  2006 data  6,947,685 larcenies nationwide  $5.1 billion of stolen property  Average value of items—$727 per offense

41 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Motor Vehicle Theft …the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. A “motor vehicle” is a self- propelled vehicle that runs on land and not on rails.

42 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Motor Vehicle Theft Includes automobiles motorcycles motor scooters trucks buses snowmobiles Excludes trains airplanes bulldozers most farm equipment ships boats spacecraft

43 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Characteristics of Motor Vehicle Theft (2006 Data) There were an estimated 1.2 million reported motor vehicle thefts:  High report rate  12.6% clearance rate  Clearance rates are higher in rural areas  $7.9 billion in losses (average: $6,649)  Typical offender: young male

44 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Motor Vehicle Theft  Legally, carjacking is a type of robbery, not a motor vehicle theft.  It accounts for just over 1% of all car thefts. Carjacking...the taking of a motor vehicle directly from the owner by force

45 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Arson …the burning or attempted burning of property, with or without the intent to defraud. …does not include fires of unknown or suspicious origins …became a Part I offense in 1979

46 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Characteristics of Arson Most common type of arson is the burning of structures, followed by the burning of vehicles  Low clearance rate—18%  40% of cleared arsons involved only juvenile (<18 years old)  Average loss per offense—$13,325

47 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Major Crimes Known to the Police, 2006 (UCR/NIBRS Part I Offenses) OffenseNumberRate per 100,000 Clearance Rate Personal/Violent Crimes Murder17, % Forcible rape92, % Robbery447, % Aggravated assault860, % Property Crimes Burglary2,183, % Larceny-theft6,607,0132, % Motor vehicle theft1,192, % Arson69, % U.S. total11,470,3683,834.5

48 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Part II Offenses Part II offenses are less serious than Part I offenses and include many social order offenses, such as:  Simple assault  Driving under the influence  Prostitution  Vandalism  Receiving stolen property  Fraud  Embezzlement

49 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ UCR/NIBRS Part II Offenses, 2006 OFFENSE CATEGORY NO. OF ARRESTS Simple assault1,305,757 Forgery & counterfeiting 108,823 Fraud280,693 Embezzlement20,012 Stolen property122,722 Vandalism300,679 Weapons200,782 Prostitution…79,673 Sex offenses87,252 OFFENSE CATEGORY NO. OF ARRESTS Drug law violations1,889,810 Gambling12,307 Offenses against the family 131,491 DUI1,460,498 Liquor law violations645,734 Public drunkenness553,188 Disorderly conduct703,504 Vagrancy36,471 Runaways159,907 Curfew violations114,189

50 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ NCVS National Crime Victimization Survey  Began operation in 1972  Based on victim self-reports  Designed to measure the “dark figure” of crime  Uses data collected by the Bureau of Justice Statistics  More than 50,000 households are surveyed twice per year  Measures “households” touched by crimes

51 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Dark Figure of Crime dark figure crimes known to the police all crime

52 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ NCVS Includes data on:  Robbery  Assault  Burglary  Personal and household larceny  Motor vehicle theft  Rape

53 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ NCVS Statistics Reveal  About 1/2 of all violent crime is reported.  Slightly more than 1/3 of all property crime is reported.  Victims are more likely:  Men  Younger people  African American  City residents  Lower income (for violent victimization)

54 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ NCVS Household crime rates are highest for households:  Headed by younger people  Headed by African-Americans  With six or more members  Headed by renters  Located in central cities

55 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Problems with the UCR/NIBRS and the NCVS UCR/NIBRS Not everyone reports Some crimes are rarely reported Victims inaccuracies Bureaucratic influences Hierarchical counting system Contains only data that FBI thinks is appropriate NCVS There is potential for false or exaggerated reports False reports may be generated by overzealous interviewers Some people won’t respond Respondents may suffer from faulty memories Respondents may misinterpret events Hierarchical counting system Contains only data that BJS thinks is appropriate

56 Pearson Education, Inc Special Categories of Crime

57 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Special Categories of Crime  Crime against women  Crime against the elderly  Hate crime  Corporate and white-collar crime  Organized crime  Gun crime  Drug crime  High-technology and computer crime  Terrorism

58 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Women and Crime  Compared to men, women are:  Likely to be less victimized in every major personal crime other than rape.  More likely than men to be injured as a result of crime.  More likely to make lifestyle modifications because of threat of crime.

59 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Findings of the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS)  52% of women surveyed have been physically assaulted as a child or as an adult.  Approximately 1.9 million women are physically assaulted in the U.S. each year.  25% of women, compared to 8% of men surveyed, said they had experienced partner violence.  18% of women have experienced a completed or attempted rape; more than half of these were under 18 when first raped.  Women are significantly more likely to be injured during an assault.  Violence against women is primarily partner violence.  8% of women have been stalked.

60 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Bureau of Justice Statistics  Women living in central cities are more likely to be victimized than suburban women.  Suburban women are more likely to be victimized than women in rural areas.  Low-income women experience the most violent crime.  Women age 20–24 are most at risk for violent victimization.  Victimization of women falls as family income rises.  Women who are unemployed, students, or in the armed forces are most likely to experience violent victimization.  African-American women are most likely to be victims of violent crime.  Hispanic women are victimized more frequently than whites.

61 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)  Seeks to eliminate violence against women.  Act extends the Rape Shield Law to civil cases and to all criminal cases.  Provided federal funding to: 1.Educate police, prosecutors, and judges about special needs of female victims. 2.Encourage pro-arrest policies in cases of domestic abuse. 3.Provide specialized services for female victims of crime. 4.Fund battered women's shelters. 5.Support rape education.

62 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Anti-Stalking Laws  All states have anti-stalking laws, which give additional protection to women.  80% of stalking victims are women.  Cyberstalking involves using the internet, , or other electronic communication technologies to stalk another person.

63 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Elderly Crime Victims The elderly generally experience the lowest rate of victimization—both violent and property—of any age group.

64 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Elderly Crime Victims Elderly victims are more likely than younger victims to:  Be victims of property crime than of violent crime.  Face offenders who are armed with guns.  Be victimized by strangers.  Be victimized in or near their homes during daylight hours.  Report their victimization to the police.  Be physically injured.  Be less likely to try to protect themselves during victimization.

65 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Hate Crimes Hate crimes are motivated by hatred, bias, or prejudice, based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals.  Most consist of intimidation, but they may also include vandalism, simple and aggravated assault, and murder.  Most are motivated by racial bias.

66 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Corporate Crime  A violation of a criminal statute by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of and for the benefit of the corporation, partnership, or other form of business entity.  Corporate criminals are called white- collar criminals.

67 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Created tough provisions to deter and punish corporate and accounting fraud and corruption and to protect the interests of workers and shareholders.

68 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Organized Crime The unlawful activities of members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods and services, including gambling, prostitution, loan-sharking, narcotics, labor racketeering, and in other unlawful activities.

69 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Guns, Crime, and Gun Control  Each year, approximately 1 million serious crimes involve the use of a handgun.  In a typical year, there are 10,000 murders in the United States using firearms.

70 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (1994)  Prior to purchasing a handgun, there will be a  5-day waiting period  Instant criminal background check  Licensed importers, manufacturers, and dealers are required to:  Check photo ID  Submit purchaser’s application  Acquire a unite identification number authorizing the purchase

71 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Brady Law Impact  Most offenders obtain weapons from friend or family or “on the street.”  Some applicants try to circumvent Brady Law by using fake identification.  Problems may lead to ballistic fingerprinting.

72 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Drug Crime  The rate of drug related crime has more than doubled since  Federal drug prosecutions increased from 11,854 in 1984 to nearly 40,000 in  Studies link drug abuse to other serious crimes.

73 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Cybercrime Cybercrime—any crime perpetrated through the use of computer technology. Also, any violation of a federal or state computer crime statute.

74 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 10E© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc by Dr. Frank Schmalleger Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Terrorism To assist in the developing protection of U.S. infrastructure, The Homeland Security Act of 2002 created the Department of Homeland Security and made its director a Cabinet member.


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