Presentation on theme: "HATE GROUPS AMANDA, JAMAL, JOY, MARISSA. DEFINITION OF HATE: Hate, a complex subject, divides into two general categories: rational and irrational. Unjust."— Presentation transcript:
DEFINITION OF HATE: Hate, a complex subject, divides into two general categories: rational and irrational. Unjust acts inspire rational hate. Hatred of a person based on race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or national origin constitutes irrational hate. Therefore: hate crimes=irrational hate Both irrational and rational fear mask personal insecurities, all individuals feel a level of personal insecurity in their lives, The more insecure a person feels, the larger the hate mask. irrational hate bleeds through day-to-day activities in the form of racial barbs and ethnic humor. “With respect to rational hate, haters do not focus as much on the wrong done to them or others, but, rather, on their own helplessness, guilt, or inability to effect change. The object of rational hate often is despised or pitied. In the same way, irrational hate elevates the hater above the hated. Many insecure people feel a sense of self-worth by relegating a person or group of people to a lower status.” Important to note: Not all insecure people have hate masks, but all people with hate masks are insecure people.
Current federal law defines hate crimes as any felony or crime of violence that manifests prejudice based on “race, color, religion, or national origin” (18 U.S.C. §245). Hate crimes can be understood as criminal conduct motivated in whole or in part by a negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons. Hate crimes involve a specific aspect of the victim’s identity (e.g., race). Hate crimes are not simply biases, they are dangerous actions motivated by biases (e.g., cross burnings, physical assault).
THE SEVEN-STAGE HATE MODEL: THE PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF HATE GROUPS The proposed hate model consists of seven stages, including how hate groups define themselves, how hate groups target their victims and taunt them with verbal insults and offensive gestures, and how hate groups attack their victims with or without weapons.
THE HATE MODEL: In America we typically identify three types of bias crime offenders: the thrill seeker, the reactive offender, and the hard-core offender. The reactive offender is described as one "who grounds his attack on a perceived transgression, such as an insult, interracial dating, or a neighborhood integration.” Often interplays of aggressors and victims, if victims react to taunting verbal speech that reaction is seen psychologically as an act of aggression against the original aggressor—perpetuating a feeling of always needing to defend yourself.
STAGE ONE: The Haters Gather: “Irrational haters seldom hate alone. They feel compelled, almost driven, to entreat others to hate as they do. Peer validation bolsters a sense of self-worth and, at the same time, prevents introspection, which reveals personal insecurities. Further, individuals otherwise ineffective become empowered when they join groups, which also provide anonymity and diminished accountability.”
STAGE TWO: The Hate group defines itself: “Hate groups form identities through symbols, rituals, and mythologies, which enhance the members' status and, at the same time, degrade the object of their hate. For example, skinhead groups may adopt the swastika, the iron cross, the Confederate flag, and other supremacist symbols. Group-specific symbols or clothing often differentiate hate groups. Group rituals, such as hand signals and secret greetings, further fortify members. Hate groups, especially skinhead groups, usually incorporate some form of self-sacrifice, which allows haters to willingly jeopardize their well-being for the greater good of the cause. Giving one's life to a cause provides the ultimate sense of value and worth to life. Skinheads often see themselves as soldiers in a race war.”
STAGE THREE: The Hate Group Disparages the Target: “Hate is the glue that binds those with hate masks to one another and to a common cause. By verbally debasing the object of their hate, haters enhance their self-image, as well as their group status. In skinhead groups, racist song lyrics and hate literature provide an environment wherein hate flourishes. In fact, researchers have found that the life span of aggressive impulses increases with ideation. In other words, the more often a person thinks about aggression, the greater the chance for aggressive behavior to occur. Thus, after constant verbal denigration, haters progress to the next more acrimonious stage.”
STAGE FOUR: The Hate Group Taunts the Target: “Hate, by its nature, changes incrementally. Time cools the fire of hate, thus forcing the hater to look inward. To avoid introspection, haters use ever-increasing degrees of rhetoric and violence to maintain high levels of agitation. Taunts and offensive gestures serve this purpose. In this stage, skinheads typically shout racial slurs from moving cars or from afar. Nazi salutes and other hand signals often accompany racial epithets. Racist graffiti also begins to appear in areas where skinheads loiter. Most skinhead groups claim turf proximate to the neighborhoods in which they live. One study indicated that a majority of hate crimes occur when the hate target migrates through the hate group's turf.”
STAGE FIVE: The Hate Group Attacks the Target Without Weapons “This stage is critical because it differentiates vocally abusive haters from physically abusive ones. In this stage, hate groups become more aggressive, prowling their turf seeking vulnerable targets. Violence coalesces hate groups and further isolates them from mainstream society. Skinheads, almost without exception, attack in groups and target single victims. Research has shown that bias crimes are twice as likely to cause injury and four times as likely to result in hospitalization as compared to non-bias crimes.” “In addition to physical violence, the element of thrill seeking is introduced in Stage 5. Two experts found that 60 percent of hate offenders were "thrill seekers.“ The adrenaline "high" intoxicates the attackers. The initial adrenaline surge lasts for several minutes; however, the effects of adrenaline keep the body in a state of heightened alert for up to several days. Each successive anger- provoking thought or action builds on residual adrenaline and triggers a more violent response than the one that originally initiated the sequence. Anger builds on anger. The adrenaline high combined with hate becomes a deadly combination. Hard-core skinheads keep themselves at a level where the slightest provocation triggers aggression.”
STAGE SIX: The Hate Group Attacks the Target with Weapons “Several studies confirm that a large number of bias attacks involve weapons. Some attackers use firearms to commit hate crimes, but skinheads prefer weapons, such as broken bottles, baseball bats, blunt objects, screwdrivers, and belt buckles. These types of weapons require the attacker to be close to the victim, which further demonstrates the depth of personal anger. Attackers can discharge firearms at a distance, thus precluding personal contact. Close-in onslaughts require the assailants to see their victims eye-to-eye and to become bloodied during the assault. Hands- on violence allows skinheads to express their hate in a way a gun cannot. Personal contact empowers and fulfills a deep-seated need to have dominance over others.”
STAGE SEVEN The Hate Group Destroys the Target: “The ultimate goal of haters is to destroy the object of their hate. Mastery over life and death imbues the hater with godlike power and omnipotence, which, in turn, facilitate further acts of violence. With this power comes a great sense of self- worth and value, the very qualities haters lack. However, in reality, hate physically and psychologically destroys both the hater and the hated.”
MODEL APPLICATION: “Anecdotal evidence suggests that this hate model has a wider application. For example, when a coworker becomes a hate target for reasons other than race, sex, or national origin, the hater immediately seeks out others in the office who dislike, or can be persuaded to dislike, the hated coworker (Stage 1). The group establishes an identity using symbols and behaviors. They use a lifted eyebrow, a code word to exclude the hated coworker from a lunch invitation, or any number of other actions to demean and isolate. The haters even may adopt a name for their group (Stage 2). At this point, the haters only disparage the hated coworker within their group (Stage 3).” “As time passes, the haters openly insult the hated coworker either directly or indirectly by allowing disparaging remarks to be overheard from afar (Stage 4). One morning, the hated coworker discovers his desk rearranged and offensive images pasted over a picture depicting his wife and children (Stage 5). >From the sophomoric to the terroristic, acts of hate have the same effect. Eventually, the haters sabotage the hated coworker's projects and attempt to ruin the individual's reputation through rumors and innuendoes (Stage 6). In so doing, the haters make the work environment intolerable for the hate target (Stage 7). Scenarios like this occur every day across America and, indeed, around the world. The targets of hate may change, but the hate process remains constant.”
EFFECTS ON VICTIMS: “While violent crime victimization carries risk for psychological distress, victims of violent hate crimes may suffer from more psychological distress (e.g., depression, stress, anxiety, anger) than victims of other comparable violent crimes (Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999; McDevitt, Balboni, Garcia, & Gu, 2001). Survivors of violent crimes, including hate crimes, are also at risk for developing a variety of mental health problems including depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD emerges in response to an event that involves death, injury, or a threat of harm to a person. Symptoms of PTSD may include intrusive thoughts or recurring dreams, refusal or inability to discuss the event, pulling away emotionally from others, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and disturbed sleep. Depression, anxiety, and PTSD may interfere with an individual’s ability to work or to maintain healthy relationships, can lead to other problems such as substance abuse or violent behavior, and may be associated with other health problems such as severe headaches, gastrointestinal problems, and insomnia. Similar to other victims of traumatic stress, hate crime victims may enjoy better outcomes when appropriate support and resources are made available soon after the trauma.”
EFFECTS ON COMMUNITY: “Hate crimes are different from other crimes in that the offender—whether purposefully or not—is sending a message to members of a given group that they are unwelcome and unsafe in a particular neighborhood, community, school, workplace, or other environment. Thus, the crime simultaneously victimizes a specific individual and members of the group at large. Hate crimes are often intended to threaten entire communities and do so. For example, a hate crime that targeted children in a religious day care center and an ethnic minority postal worker was intended to instill fear in members of these minority communities (Sullaway, 2004). Being part of a community that is targeted because of immutable characteristics can decrease feelings of safety and security (Boeckmann & Turpin- Petrosino, 2002). Being a member of a victimized group may also lead to mental health problems. Research suggests that witnessing discrimination against one’s group can lead to depressed emotion and lower self- esteem (McCoy & Major, 2003). More research is necessary to document the impact of hate crimes on those who share the victim’s identity.”
WHO IS MOST AT RISK?: Race/Ethnicity: Many reported hate crimes are motivated by racial bias. In 2007, more than half of the 7,621 single-bias crimes reported to the FBI (50.8 percent) were racially motivated. Of 1,256 hate crimes in 2007 motivated by bias based on ethnicity or national origin, the FBI found that 61.7 percent were anti-Hispanic.
Religion: Bias and violence against Arab and Muslim Americans reached its height after the tragic events of September 11, 2001. It is estimated that there were more than 700 violent incidents targeting Arab and/or Muslim Americans or those perceived to be Arab or Muslim Americans in the first nine weeks following September 11th. Due to a lack of understanding of religious differences, Sikhs have been mistakenly targeted as Muslims. Since hate crimes are defined as based on real or perceived group membership, these incidents are considered hate crimes. Most religiously motivated hate crimes are acts of vandalism, although personal attacks are also common. In 2007, the FBI reported that th great majority of these crimes were directed against Jews (68.4 percent), followed by anti-other religion (9.5 percent) and anti-Islamic (9.0 percent) hate crimes.
Disability: In 2007, 62 hate crimes against individuals with mental disabilities and 20 hate crimes that targeted those with physical disabilities were reported to the FBI. However, other research suggests that persons with disabilities are four to 10 times more likely to be a victim of a crime than persons without disabilities. There is also evidence that persons with disabilities are at risk of being abused by those whose job it is to serve or protect them. Studies have shown that in cases of sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, 48 percent of the perpetrators were employed in the disability services field and gained access to their victims through the work setting.
Sexual Orientation: In 2007, there were 1,460 hate crimes based upon sexual orientation reported to the FBI, of which 59.2 percent were classified as anti-male homosexual bias. In a study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, researchers found that roughly one-fifth of the women and one-fourth of the men had been the victim of a hate crime since age 16 (Herek et al., 2007). One in eight women and one in six men had been victimized within the last five years.
Gender Identity: Currently, the FBI does not track statistics of hate crimes committed against individuals because of real or perceived gender identity and expression. However, research suggests that transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals (people who dress or look differently than the normative presentation of their biological sex) are at high risk of victimization (D’Augelli, Pilkington, & Hershberger, 2002). It has been suggested that if the FBI did track hate crimes based on gender identity, it would represent the second- largest category of all hate crimes (Gender Public Advocacy Coalition, 2006).
“CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW…ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH, OR OF PRESS.” FIRST AMENDMENT TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION
HISTORY OF HATE SPEECH The First Amendment The right to express oneself and to participate in the democratic process Freedom of speech means that any and all ideas may be heard. It protects both the words people consider important and those they find offensive. Many deeply offensive and hurtful things can be said without fear of criminal punishment This policy was recently reaffirmed and even strengthened by the United States Supreme Court in a celebrated cross- burning case.
HISTORY OF HATE SPEECH Most countries prohibit the expression of offensive racial, religious, or ethnic propaganda In the constitution of Brazil one finds that "propaganda" relating to "religious, race, or class prejudice... shall not be tolerated” The history of the hate speech issue begins in the 1920s. Marks the first political and legal debates over whether to restrict offensive racial and religious speech http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7WVaofEqJSg&feature=player_embedded#!
PAST LAW CASES Suing of Henry Ford (1927) Anti-Semitic newspaper Dearborn Independent Attacked the agricultural cooperative movement Accused Aaron Sapiro of defrauding American farmers to advance an international Jewish conspiracy Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) Brandenburg, a leader in the Ku Klux Klan, made a speech at a Klan rally and was later convicted under an Ohio criminal syndicalism law.
MODERN DAY HATE SPEECH Technology Social Networks Web pages dedicated to Hate groups and hate speech Colleges and universities decided to restrict hate speech adopted codes of student conduct penalizing offensive forms of expression based on race, gender, religion, marital status, sexual preference, and physical capacity
RECENT LAW CASES San Luis Obispo Cross Burning (2011) Four people charged with burning a cross near a mixed-race family’s Arroyo Grande home Charges against them will include “hate-crime” enhancements. Snyder v. Phelps (2011) Members of the Westboro Baptist Church, leader Fred Phelps Picketing military funerals Chief Justice John Roberts: "Simply put, the church members had the right to be where they were."
HATE CRIME (ALSO KNOWN AS BIAS CRIME) Is a criminal act such as vandalism, arson, assault, or murder that is committed against someone because of his/her religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, disability, age, or gender
HATE CRIME The term “Hate Crime” did not enter the nations of vocabulary until the 1980s, when emerging hate groups like the Skinheads launched a wave of bias-related crime. Well known hate crimes during this time were burning to vandalism to lynching and etc.
WHO COMMITS HATE CRIME According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, race is the most common motivating factor in hate crime offending reported to the police (61%), followed by religion (14%), sexual orientation (13%), ethnicity (11%), and victim disability (1%). The majorities were white (62.3%) 18.5% of blacks commits hate crime 0.9% of American Indian or Alaskan Native 1.3% of Asian or Pacific Islander
PAST AND RECENT HISTORY OF HATE CRIME: Well known hate crimes that occurred in the past and in more recent times include: The Ottoman genocide of Armenians The holocaust (The Nazi “final solution” for the Jews) Apartheid in South Africa Ethnic cleansing in Bosnia Genocide in Rwanda and ongoing genocide in Darfur, Sudan
PAST AND RECENT HISTORY OF HATE CRIME: During the past two centuries, some of the more typical example of hate crimes in North America includes: Lynching of black people Cross burnings Assaults on gay, lesbian and transgender people Painting of swastikas on Jewish synagogues
CONSEQUENCES OF HATE CRIME; Physical violence and verbal threats of violence to instill fear in their victims, which leave them vulnerable more attacks and feeling alienated, helpless, suspicious and fearful. Hate Crimes are most likely to create or exacerbate tensions, which can trigger larger community-wide racial conflict, civil disturbances and even riots.
RECENT STATISTICS OF HATE CRIME (2009) Hate Crime type: Single-bias incident is defined as an incident in which one or more offense types are motivated by the same bias Multiple-bias incident is defined as an incident in which more than one offense type occurs and at least two offense types are motivated by different biases.
CONTINUED… In 2009, 2,034 law enforcement agencies reported 6,604 hate crime incidents involving 7,789 offenses There were 6,598 single-bias incidents that involved 7,775 offenses, 8,322 victims and 6,219 offenders There were 6 multiple-bias incidents reported that involved 14 offenses, 14 victims and 6 offenders
SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HATE CRIME PREVENTION Social Justice Hate Groups Those affected by hate crime or hate speech Prevention Hate Crimes
PRACTICES TO PREVENT HATE CRIMES Local Actions to Improve Communication Community Policing Should Be Well Planned Coalitions Create a Positive Climate http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NEiwBCpiA0E&feature=player_embedded
PRACTICES TO PREVENT HATE CRIMES CONTINUED… Schools and Police Must Work Together The Media Can Be a Helpful Ally Hate Crimes Must Be Investigated and Reported
“In keeping silent about evil, in burying it so deep within us that no sign of it appears on the surface, we are implanting it, and it will rise up a thousand fold in the future. When we neither punish nor reproach evildoers, we are not simply protecting their trivial old age, we are thereby ripping the foundations of justice from beneath new generations.” Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn
BIBLIOGRAPHY Elmore, D. (n.d.). The Psychology of Hate Crimes. Retrieved February 2012, from University of Oregon: http://counseling.uoregon.edu/dnn/SelfhelpResources/ThePsychologyofHateCri mes/tabid/420/Default.aspx Schafer, J. R. (n.d.). The seven-stage hate model: The psychopathology of hate groups. Retrieved February 2012, from http://www.rickross.com: http://www.rickross.com/reference/hate_groups/hategroups355.html http://www.rickross.com/reference/hate_groups/hategroups355.html Walker, S. (1996). Hate speech the history of an american controversy. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91963526 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91963526 Woeste, V. (n.d.). Suing henry ford: America's first hate speech case. Retrieved from http://www.americanbarfoundation.org/research/project/19