Presentation on theme: "Review from last class…. Higher order conditioning Overshadowing (Stimulus Features) Blocking & Latent Inhibition (Prior Experience)"— Presentation transcript:
Review from last class…. Higher order conditioning Overshadowing (Stimulus Features) Blocking & Latent Inhibition (Prior Experience)
Higher Order Conditioning Need to maintain 1 st order conditioning Tone-Food Note that Light is still never directly paired with food! first-order CS tone (CS1)food (US) second-order CS Light (CS2) Phase 1: Tone Food Phase 2: Light Tone But what would happen to the Tone? - Extinction! Tone Food
Overshadowing (Stimulus Features) A more salient stimulus will interfere with learning about less salient stimuli e.g. compound stimuli Loud noise & dim light food Light not learned about
Blocking (Prior Experience) Novel stimuli presented in compound with an existing CS will not be learned about CS must be informative (i.e. add new information) Light won’t be learned about
Latent Inhibition (Prior Experience) Pre-exposure to a CS makes it harder to condition Learn first that CS does not signal US Phase 1: Buzzer No Food Phase 2: Buzzer Food “Regular” Classical Conditioning: Buzzer Food MORE TRIALS!
Conditioned Suppression Conditional Response (CR) involves suppress behaviour that would otherwise be performed 1) Train rat to press bar for food 2) Classical Conditioning: Pair light with shock Scared rats “freeze” i.e. when shock is coming, the rat will freeze While the rat is “frozen with fear”, it will NOT be pushing the bar After conditioning, the rat should freeze in response to the light (CR) Compare the amount of bar pressing when light is off and when light is on
Little Albert Watson & Rayner (1920) Hard line behaviourist Nature vs Nurture Fear previously thought to be: Innate Faulty reasoning Initial studies showed that infants NOT afraid of many “innately frightening” stimuli E.g. snakes, fire, rats Conditioned fear
Methodology Albert (11 months old) Present rat … observe No initial fear Present rat … bang metal bar (loud noise) UR = startle Present rat … Albert cries, avoids CR Present other furry objects generalization
Terminology US = noise UR = startle response/fear CS = rat CR = fear/avoidance
Conclusions Fear response produced through classical conditioning Watson suggests fear, hate, love conditionable
Albert Issues Sample size Replication Generalization to other objects
Prejudice Prejudice related to hate and fear Hate and fear conditionable Staats & Staats (1958) Paired positive, negative, neutral words with nationalities Subjects rate nationalities Ratings correspond with conditioning
In real life… Where do these associations come from? Political speeches Media coverage Negative images, words, impressions paired with identifiable group
Counter Conditioning Mary Cover Jones (1924) Eliminate phobia via classical conditioning Peter feared rabbits Peter eats snack (US) … present rabbit (CS) Associate positive US with CS
Systematic Desensitization A type of Counter-conditioning Also Aversion therapy Relaxation techniques Gradual introduction of phobic stimulus Imagination up to real situation
Flooding “Flood” patient with exposure to fear-inducing stimulus Not counter-conditioning Kind of like habituation but… … not discreet trials!
Allergic Reaction Release of histamines Body’s immune response to allergens Not all allergic responses biological Can be learned
Examples Patient sneezes when presented artificial rose Allergies to pets; sometimes not as bad if don’t know if pets are in house
Russell et al. (1984) Expose guinea pigs to BSA Becomes allergen (US for histamine release) Pair BSA with odour of fish or sulphur (CSs) Expose guinea pigs to odours and get increased histamines (CR) in bloodstream Preparatory value of classical conditioning
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