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Review from last class…. Higher order conditioning Overshadowing (Stimulus Features) Blocking & Latent Inhibition (Prior Experience)

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Presentation on theme: "Review from last class…. Higher order conditioning Overshadowing (Stimulus Features) Blocking & Latent Inhibition (Prior Experience)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Review from last class…. Higher order conditioning Overshadowing (Stimulus Features) Blocking & Latent Inhibition (Prior Experience)

2 Higher Order Conditioning Need to maintain 1 st order conditioning Tone-Food Note that Light is still never directly paired with food! first-order CS tone (CS1)food (US) second-order CS Light (CS2) Phase 1: Tone  Food Phase 2: Light  Tone But what would happen to the Tone? - Extinction! Tone  Food

3 Overshadowing (Stimulus Features) A more salient stimulus will interfere with learning about less salient stimuli e.g. compound stimuli Loud noise & dim light  food Light not learned about

4 Blocking (Prior Experience) Novel stimuli presented in compound with an existing CS will not be learned about CS must be informative (i.e. add new information) Light won’t be learned about

5 Latent Inhibition (Prior Experience) Pre-exposure to a CS makes it harder to condition Learn first that CS does not signal US Phase 1: Buzzer  No Food Phase 2: Buzzer  Food “Regular” Classical Conditioning: Buzzer  Food MORE TRIALS!

6 Pavlovian (Classical) Applications


8 Conditioned Suppression Conditional Response (CR) involves suppress behaviour that would otherwise be performed 1) Train rat to press bar for food 2) Classical Conditioning: Pair light with shock Scared rats “freeze” i.e. when shock is coming, the rat will freeze While the rat is “frozen with fear”, it will NOT be pushing the bar After conditioning, the rat should freeze in response to the light (CR) Compare the amount of bar pressing when light is off and when light is on

9 Conditioned Emotional Response Emotional reactions Learned Classical conditioning

10 Little Albert Watson & Rayner (1920) Hard line behaviourist Nature vs Nurture Fear previously thought to be: Innate Faulty reasoning Initial studies showed that infants NOT afraid of many “innately frightening” stimuli E.g. snakes, fire, rats Conditioned fear

11 Methodology Albert (11 months old) Present rat … observe No initial fear Present rat … bang metal bar (loud noise) UR = startle Present rat … Albert cries, avoids CR Present other furry objects generalization

12 Terminology US = noise UR = startle response/fear CS = rat CR = fear/avoidance

13 Conclusions Fear response produced through classical conditioning Watson suggests fear, hate, love conditionable

14 Albert Issues Sample size Replication Generalization to other objects

15 Prejudice Prejudice related to hate and fear Hate and fear conditionable Staats & Staats (1958) Paired positive, negative, neutral words with nationalities Subjects rate nationalities Ratings correspond with conditioning

16 In real life… Where do these associations come from? Political speeches Media coverage Negative images, words, impressions paired with identifiable group

17 Counter Conditioning Mary Cover Jones (1924) Eliminate phobia via classical conditioning Peter feared rabbits Peter eats snack (US) … present rabbit (CS) Associate positive US with CS

18 Systematic Desensitization A type of Counter-conditioning Also Aversion therapy Relaxation techniques Gradual introduction of phobic stimulus Imagination up to real situation

19 Flooding “Flood” patient with exposure to fear-inducing stimulus Not counter-conditioning Kind of like habituation but… … not discreet trials!


21 First-Order C.C. in Ads Product (initially neutral --> CS) Pair with stimulus that elicits positive emotion (US) Consumer sees product, has positive CR

22 Example Sausages US = funny situation UR = happiness CS = brand CR = happiness, amusement, positive emotion

23 Example

24 Second-Order C.C. Use previously conditioned celebrity, situation, etc. CS 1 & US Now, pair brand (CS 2 ) with CS 1

25 Example Sprint Peyton Manning = CS 1 Positive feeling = CR Attractive, successful, lifestyle = US Positive feeling = UR Sprint mobility = CS 2 Assumption: buy phone, be rich, popular, laser rocket arm

26 Example Brad Pitt and 503 Jeans Brad Pitt Pitt (CS 1 ), leading man, celebrity, rich, pretty = desirable (US), 503s (CS 2 ) Performance-void

27 Problems Celebs don’t always maintain status Tom Cruise spoof Michael Jackson


29 Paraphilia “Incorrect love” Fetishism, masochism, pedophilia, etc. More common in males Freud: unconscious forces Classical conditioning: association formed

30 Example: Masochism Generally, CS is previously neutral But, a US, by pairing with another strong US, can become a CS Pavlov: shock (CS) for food (US) Masochism: pain (CS) for sexual pleasure (US)

31 Counter Conditioning Pair undesired CS with strongly aversive US (e.g., nausea) Aversion therapy Awareness not necessary for conditioning

32 Treatment Very difficult with some types of paraphilia Pedophilia, rape? Evolutionary Psychology Male attraction to youthfulness Desire for dominance and power


34 Typically Long-delay or trace conditioning US is food poisoning, illness, etc. UR is nausea induced pain CS is novel food/flavour CR is avoidance, nausea Violation of contiguity?

35 Explanations? Sensitization Aftertaste Biological preparedness Taste aversion a special case

36 Biological Preparedness in Taste-Aversion Garcia & Koelling (1966)

37 Explanation Biological predisposition Taste and nausea Audiovisual and shock Must know about CS-US relationship before predicting nature of CR Certain stimuli more easily associated than others


39 Allergic Reaction Release of histamines Body’s immune response to allergens Not all allergic responses biological Can be learned

40 Examples Patient sneezes when presented artificial rose Allergies to pets; sometimes not as bad if don’t know if pets are in house

41 Russell et al. (1984) Expose guinea pigs to BSA Becomes allergen (US for histamine release) Pair BSA with odour of fish or sulphur (CSs) Expose guinea pigs to odours and get increased histamines (CR) in bloodstream Preparatory value of classical conditioning

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