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Lesson 18.1: Rebuilding the Union

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1 Lesson 18.1: Rebuilding the Union
Today’s Essential Question: How did conflicts between the president and Congress affect Reconstruction efforts?

2 Vocabulary Reconstruction – process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states to the Union pardon – legal forgiveness for a crime carpetbagger – Northerner who supported Reconstruction as an opportunity for personal gain scalawag – Southerner who supported Radical Reconstruction

3 Check for Understanding
What is today’s Essential Question? What was supposed to be ‘rebuilt’ during Reconstruction? Who receives a pardon? What did carpetbaggers and scalawags have in common?

4 What We Already Know At Lincoln’s urging, Congress had adopted the Thirteenth Amendment, banning slavery in every state.

5 What We Already Know Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address called for “malice toward none, with charity for all,” in hopes that Northerners would resist the desire to punish the South.

6 What We Already Know Lincoln’s assassination ended all hope of an easy return of the seceded states to the Union.

7 Reconstruction Begins
The issue in 1865 – building a new Southern society not based on slavery The process of readmitting the Confederate states is known as Reconstruction. Reconstruction lasted from 1865 to 1877.

8 Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan
Pardon for Confederate officials Once 10% of a state’s voters in the 1860 election took a pledge of loyalty to the Union, that state could hold elections and send representatives to Congress. To assist former slaves, the president established the Freedmen’s Bureau.

9 The Freedmen’s Bureau Established
Set up schools and hospitals for African Americans Distributed clothes, food, and fuel throughout the South

10 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

11 1. Why was Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan called the ‘ten-percent plan’?

12 1. Why was Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan called the ‘ten-percent plan’?
It allowed a state to return to the Union if ten percent of its citizens took an oath of loyalty to the United States. Only ten percent of the population supported it. It required ten percent of Southern states to guarantee civil rights for blacks. It required the Confederacy to repay only ten percent of its debts to Northern citizens.

13 2. How did the Freedmen’s Bureau help former slaves?
Choose all that are true!

14 2. How did the Freedmen’s Bureau help former slaves?
It arranged for each Negro family to be given a mule and 40 acres of land. It set up schools and hospitals for former slaves. It gave clothes, food, and fuel to former slaves. It protected former from scalawags and carpetbaggers. It helped blacks register to vote. Choose all that are true!

15 Andrew Johnson succeeded Lincoln as president.
Andrew Johnson was a Tennessee Democrat who hated secession, a former slaveholder, and a stubborn, unyielding man. Reconstruction was the job of the president, not Congress.

16 Johnson’s Plan Although he was not concerned about what happened to the freedmen, Johnson based his plan on Lincoln’s. New state governments must ratify the Thirt-eenth Amendment and must recognize the supreme power of the federal government over the states.

17 Johnson’s Plan Johnson offered amnesty to most white Southerners if they pledged loyalty to the United States. Large plantation owners, top military officers, and ex-Confederate leaders had to apply for amnesty to Johnson personally.

18 Rebuilding Brings Conflict
New Southern state governments seemed very much like the old ones. Some states flatly refused to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment.

19 Rebuilding Brings Conflict
The Southern states passed black codes, which limited the freedom of former slaves. Examples: written proof of employment, no guns, no meeting in unsupervised groups Such laws made many people in the North suspect that white Southerners were trying to bring back the “old South.” Radical Republicans were angry and frustrated, and blamed Johnson’s lenient Reconstruction plan for this situation.

20 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

21 Which of the following was NOT part of Johnson's Reconstruction plan?

22 Which of the following was NOT part of Johnson's Reconstruction plan?
Confederate states had to give up slavery. Plantation owners had to give part of their land to former slaves. Confederate states had to accept the supreme power of the federal government. Influential white Southerners had to pledge loyalty and personally ask Johnson for pardon.

23 3. What group was angered and frustrated by President Johnson’s Reconstruction plan?
The Ku Klux Klan The freedmen Radical Republicans. Southern upper classes

24 4. How did white Southerners plan to restore the old South?
By getting a Southerner elected to the presidency as soon as possible By regaining control of Congress and overturning Lincoln's Reconstruction plan By creating laws to return former slaves to plantation labor By seceding again and starting a second Civil War

25 Rebuilding Brings Conflict
When Congress met in December 1865, many of the Southern representatives had been Confederate leaders only months before. Congress refused to seat Southern represent-atives until a committee studied conditions in the South state by state. This let the president know that Congress planned to play a role in Reconstruction.

26 The Radical Republicans
Republicans outnumbered Democrats in both houses of Congress, and most were moderates who believed in limiting the federal government’s involvement in the states’ affairs. The Radical Republicans, however, wanted the federal government to remake Southern politics and society.

27 The Radical Republicans
Pennsylvania congressman Thaddeus Stevens and Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner demanded full and equal citizenship for African Americans.

28 The Radical Republicans
Radical Republicans wanted to destroy the South’s old ruling class, . . .

29 The Radical Republicans
. . . and replace it with small farms, free schools, respect for labor, and political equality for all citizens.

30 The Radical Republicans
Urged on by the Radicals, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866.

31 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 Declared that all persons born in the United States (except Native Americans) were citizens, and all citizens were entitled to equal rights regardless of their race.

32 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 Johnson vetoed the bill – ‘too much power to the national government.’ Johnson was opposed to making African Americans full citizens, because it would “. . . operate against the white race.” Congress voted to override Johnson’s veto.

33 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

34 5. What changes did Radical Republicans want to see in the South?
Congressional control of the Reconstruction process Full and equal citizenship for freed African Americans The transformation of the South into a place of small farms, free schools, and political equality Former slaves coming north to buy farms or to work in factories Choose all that are true!

35 6. How did Congress hope the Civil Rights Act of 1866 would improve racial equality?
By establishing the 'separate but equal' doctrine By giving citizenship to all persons born in the United States, including former slaves and their descendants By banning discrimination in public accommodations, such as hotels and restaurants By granting all U.S. citizens the right to vote, regardless of race

36 The Fourteenth Amendment
Republicans were not satisfied with passing laws that ensured equal rights, because laws could be overturned. They wanted equality to be protected by the Constitution itself. To achieve this goal, Congress proposed the Fourteenth Amendment in 1866.

37 The Fourteenth Amendment
All people born in the United States were citizens and all citizens were to be granted “equal protection of the laws.” Any state that kept blacks from voting would lose representatives in Congress.

38 The Fourteenth Amendment
Johnson refused to support the amendment, and all former Confederate states except Tennessee rejected it.

39 The Fourteenth Amendment
This rejection outraged even moderate Repub-licans, who agreed to join forces with Thaddeus Stevens and the Radicals. Together, they passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867.

40 The Reconstruction Acts of 1867
Divided the South into five military districts, each run by an army commander. Members of the ruling class before the war lost their voting rights. To reenter the Union, Southern states would have to approve new state constitutions that gave the vote to all adult men, including African Americans. Each state would also have to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

41 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

42 7. What did the Fourteenth Amendment state?
All states must permit African Americans to vote in statewide elections. Slavery was abolished in all states forever. All people born in the United States were citizens and had equal rights. The "separate but equal" doctrine could no longer be applied in the South.

43 8. What impact did the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 have on the South?
The South was divided into five military districts, each run by an army commander. Members of the ruling class before the war lost their voting rights. The Southern Democratic Party was abolished. Southern states could reenter the Union after they wrote new state constitutions that allowed black men to vote. Southern states must ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. Choose all that are true!

44 Choose all that are true!
9. What did the Radical Republicans require Southern states to do before they could reenter the Union? Allow all adult men to vote, including former slaves. Divide plantations up into family-sized farms for freedmen to buy. Ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. Set up offices of the Freedmen's Bureau. Choose all that are true!

45 The New Southern Governments
In 1867, Southern states began drafting new state constitutions. About three-fourths of the delegates to the constitutional conventions were Republicans.

46 The New Southern Governments
Some were poor whites called scalawags, who supported Reconstruction as a way to get revenge against planters for starting a ‘rich man’s war.’

47 The New Southern Governments
Others were called carpetbaggers, Northerners who rushed to the South after the war. Some of these Northerners sincerely wanted to contribute to Reconstruction, but others came to take advantage of opportunities to enrich themselves at the expense of former Confederates.

48 The New Southern Governments
The rest of the delegates were African Americans. Half of these had been free blacks before the war. Most of these delegates were ministers, teachers, or skilled workers.

49 The New Southern Governments
By 1870, the former Confederate states were back in the Union and had representatives in Congress.

50 The New Southern Governments
During Reconstruction, more than 600 African Americans served in state legislatures, and 14 Southern congressmen were African Americans.

51 Johnson Is Impeached President Johnson opposed many of the reform efforts during Radical Reconstruction. This opposition made many Radical Repub-licans hate Johnson.

52 Johnson Is Impeached Johnson fired Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, in violation of the Tenure of Office Act.

53 Johnson Is Impeached The House of Representatives voted to impeach the president, and the case moved to the Senate for trial. After several weeks of testimony, President Johnson was acquitted by a single vote. Still, Johnson was left powerless, and the Radical Republicans were in complete control of Reconstruction.

54 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

55 Choose all that are true!
10. To what THREE groups did the Republican state constitutional convention delegates belong? Poor white farmers called scalawags Carpetbaggers from the North Free blacks Former Confederate government officials Choose all that are true!

56 11. Why did most Southerners hate carpetbaggers and scalawags?
Those groups often worked with the Democrats. Those groups often became rich and influential. Those groups usually were secret members of the Ku Klux Klan. Those groups usually helped blacks get civil rights and economic opportunities. Choose all that are true!

57 12. What was the real reason for Johnson’s impeachment by the Radical Republicans?
He violated the Reconstruction Acts of 1867. He was a strong supporter of the Fourteenth Amendment. He fought against the Radical Republic-ans for control of Reconstruction. He wanted to give all freedmen forty acres and a mule.

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