Presentation on theme: "1. The Injustice of the Treaty of Versailles Signed in the hope of preventing further wars. The Germans were to be taught a lesson- $32 billion in reparation."— Presentation transcript:
1. The Injustice of the Treaty of Versailles Signed in the hope of preventing further wars. The Germans were to be taught a lesson- $32 billion in reparation payments.
France had suffered terribly during the war and they wanted Germany forced to give up her colonies and overseas investments. The loss of Rhineland, creation of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Poland had displaced 6,500,000 Germans into these countries (and natural resources of iron, coal, lead and zinc). Germany and Austria were not to form a union again or have anything more than a limited navy and army (they are not to rearm in anyway). The German people were humiliated- they felt they couldn’t live with these conditions so they looked for a solution to their problems.
2. The Rise of Fascism (Italy, Japan and Germany) a)Italy unhappy with Treaty of Versailles because they had fought with allies but had received little territory – they had high unemployment after WW1. In 1922 Benito Mussolini comes to power, he is a Fascist dictator (no freedom of the press – anti communist, very patriotic). He promises a return to the glory “Days of the Roman Empire”
Jobs, security, law and order improve but when the Depression hits Europe very hard. “Il Duce” (Mussolini) looks for a distraction from poverty and in 1935 he sends troop into Abyssinia (now Ethiopia) to fight.
b) Japan is a growing industrial power looking for more space and natural resources (oil, coal and iron). Japan has a powerful navy and military and a desire to be the strongest power in Asia – 1931 they invade Manchuria
c) The German economy is destroyed due to Treaty of Versailles. The war payments can’t be met, unemployment is high, money is worthless, people’s saving are gone and then the Depression hits. The German people have no loyalty to government that signed the Treaty. People felt that democracy didn’t work and Adolf Hitler offered people a better life through the Nazi Party. In his book “Mein Kampf” Hitler lays out his plan to glorify Germany.
1933-Hitler seizes power in Germany – he is the “Fuhrer” and begins a campaign against “Non Aryans” – he blames Marxist, gypsies and Jews for Germany’s problems –“they controlled economy” he says (visible target or scapegoat). Hitler hated communist, he promised jobs, he appealed to German pride and created a sense of nationalism in the German people
1935- Hitler begins to re-arm Germany and regains control of the Saar Valley. In 1936- reoccupies the Rhineland. In 1938- Germans invade and annex Austria and then the Sudetenland The Germans had jobs factories, new highways and the Volkswagen. Germans had regained pride and reunited German peoples 1939- Germany takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia and sign Non-Aggression Pact with Soviets
3. The Appeasement of the League of Nations 1938-Munich Agreement- Chamberlain announces “Peace in our Time”- a hope that diplomacy would prevent another Great War -Feeling that the Treaty had been unjust and now the German people should be reunited
Neville Chamberlain believed the Germans would be satisfied. He was convinced Hitler was an honest man. Mackenzie King said “he was a man of deep sincerity” and “A Germany with her self respect restored would be the means of dispelling the war clouds hanging over Europe ”.
The public didn’t want to go to war again there are too many bad memories of too many killed in WWI. There had been too much money spent on the last war and economic problems of depression had to be dealt with. Both the U.S. and Canada focus on an “isolationist” approach to Europe’s problems.
On September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland. Poland falls within a month due to the very effective German “Blitzkrieg” -a massive assault involving a coordinated attack by: -dive bombers from Luftwaffe attacking in massive amounts -Panzer tanks smashing through weak defences -Motorized troops moving quickly in behind defences -Paratrooper and elite forces cut communications and transport lines of enemy Poland’s army of 700,000 is defeated by German and Soviet forces due to the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939
A seven-month period follows where both sides sit and wait –This becomes known as the “Phoney War” or “Sitzkrieg”. April 1940 Germany invades Denmark and Norway to secure supply lines for iron ore to build weapon and armaments.
In May of 1940 the Germans sweep into France (around the Maginot Line) and within six weeks France has fallen forcing British troops to retreat to Dunkirk where they are evacuated by an emergency flotilla across the English Channel. The “Miracle of Dunkirk” was Hitler’s first mistake of the war.
Hitler had withdrawn his army (Wehrmacht) to let the Luftwaffe deal the final blow to the stranded troops – a fog set in and the troops escaped (340,000). The Allies must now regroup in Britain. Meanwhile the Italians invade southern Mediterranean and Egypt.
1940 -Battle of Britain In the summer of 1940 a combination of U-boats attacks attempting to cut off the Allies supply lines by destroying British navy (Battle of the Atlantic 1940- 43) and aerial bombardment campaign that lasts 113 days (BR introduce radar). The goal was to break the Allies spirit and finish off the RAF before the invasion of Britain (Operation Sea Lion)
The campaign saw the RAF successfully defend Britain (with huge costs). Nightly England was attacked by the German Luftwaffe trying to take out RR, seaports and all major cities.
1941- Invasion of Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) Hitler breaks Non-Aggression Pact and invades (largest invasion in history). Hitler hates communists and plans a quick victory (he’s wrong). German offensive stalls at Stalingrad and winter sets in.
1941- War in the Pacific- Japan enters the war with surprise attack on Pearl Harbour on Dec.7/1941 “A day that will live in infamy”. This attack cripples the US navy at port. The U.S. enters the war. Japanese quickly take the Eastern Pacific from Aleutian Islands to the Philippines. Hong Kong falls with 5000 poorly trained Canadian troops trying to help defend it.
1941-After the attack on Pearl Harbour the Japanese storm through Asia where two battalions of poorly trained troops are sent to help defend Hong Kong – they are defeated quickly(six days) and spend the rest of the war in inhumane Japanese POW camps.
1930’s Canada had supported the appeasement policy 1935-King was elected to deal with Depression. When the war starts Canada does not want to become heavily involved. With the fall of France, Canada knew it had to be a total war effort. In 1939 there are 10,000 troops in Canada – one month later 60,000 (23,000 in Britain)
Canada recalls Parliament and declares war one week later on Sept. 10 th 1939. (Lester Pearson is sent to Britain to find out how to declare war). Politically King knew conscription would be a problem. He hopes to supply food and weapons but not soldiers to the war effort.
Canada develops a seven part plan 1. the defence and security of Canada 2. support food supply to Britain 3. create a massive industrial program for munitions 4. train allied pilots 5. develop the Royal Canadian Air Force for home defence and overseas duty 6. develop the Royal Canadian Navy for home defence and convoy escort duty 7. develop a sizable army for home defence and overseas duty Canadian factories begin to open again to produce war goods
1940 -King calls an election to show he has support of people and deals with the conscription issues – he says he won’t introduce conscription. In 1940, the National Resources Mobilization Act in passed (conscription for home defence only)
By 1942 King was forced to hold a plebiscite over conscription due to demand for manpower but by using this slogan he gets support:” Conscription if necessary, but not necessarily conscription”. A masterpiece of calculated ambiguity Results: Quebec 73%-NO The rest of Canada 80% - YES
By 1944 conscription begins – riots in Montreal but most felt King had tried to keep his promise. King decides to use the NRMA men –“Zombies” and 13000 sent overseas- 2500 see battle and only 69 die in action. King makes it through the war without tearing apart the nation over the conscription issues. In 1945 he wins the election with Que. Support
1941- Fear of a Japanese invasion takes hold and huge pressure on government to clear the West coast of Japanese, despite RCMP report of “no threat to security”. After Pearl Harbour in early 1942 –all male Japanese age 14-45 are relocated – followed a month later by all Japanese-Canadians being expelled to interior work camps, old mining towns, in Alberta, or in Eastern Canada.
In 1943, under the War Measures Act the government confiscates farms, houses, fishing boats and personal goods (which are auctioned off). There are no trials, charges or due process. 22,000 forced to move inland (75% Canadian born), 1300 fishing boats lost, 443million in confiscated property, families split up for years.
After the war Japanese Canadians can be stripped of their citizenship at “loyalty commissions” to see if they were faithful to Canada The result is 4000 opted to return to Japan – half were Canadian born and more than a third were under 16 who didn’t speak Japanese and had never been there. 1988- Mulroney Government apologizes for treatment and attempts to compensates victims ($21,000).
1939- Canadian factories dormant for a decade and will now move to full scale production – after the shock of Dunkirk 1940 - C.D. Howe heads up the Dept. of Munitions and Supply If it was needed for the war effort – they got it. Howe brings home huge contract from Britain to supply war effort and he creates Crown Corporations (28) where needed. Canada will produce guns, trucks, radios, radar, aircraft, naval vessels
1942- National Selective Service Act was passed where workers were directed to essential jobs. This act limited industrial disputes, strikes and lock-outs. Under the War Time Prices and Trade Board inflation and profiteering were curtailed (non-essential consumer goods were curtailed) rationing programs for butter, rubber, gas, coffee, meat, sugar, silk etc. “Loyal citizen do not hoard” was a slogan.
Resources of mine, forest, and farm were appropriated for war industries for maximum production and the government drew on “experts” in every field to coordinate the effort and production of war goods and food supplies. Sixty percent of all national production was for the war with one million employed by DMS (1 in 12 directly or indirectly). And Canada produces 4,500 naval craft (corvettes mainly), 16,000 aircraft 800,000 motor vehicles(Rommel wanted Can. Jeeps- didn’t get stuck), 40,000 artillery guns and 1,767,392 small arms
J.L. Ilsley – Minister of Finance decides Canada will pay for war with war bonds, saving stamps, higher income tax ($10 billion for war effort), he negotiates the Hyde-Park Agreement between Canada and the US-reciprocal trade of war time goods The war effort creates a competition for manpower (men are only permitted to work to support the war effort) and women are put back to work in the factories.
After the Miracle of Dunkirk- Canadian forces are garrisoned in Britain under the command of General Andy McNaughtonMiracle of Dunkirk
Minister of Defence, J.L. Ralston (at the start of the war) 1939 – 10,000 men to 60,000 men in one month Canada will eventually have one million serve in WWII Of which 45,000 gave their lives and 55,000 were wounded.
Canada supported the war effort through British Commonwealth Air Training Plan -131,500 trained in Canada -50,000 pilots Of the 90,000 Canadian graduates most join RAF (40% serve in RCAF)
“The Battle of the Atlantic” was waged from 1940 on German U-boats in Wolf Pack attempted to cut Allies supply lines. Halifax becomes an international port for supplies. Convoy duty and air support was Canada’s main contribution (12,000 Canadians die).
The Corvette had limited success in the beginning of the war with inexperienced crews and captains. (merchant sailors-only ones who could navigate). The Corvette rolled in rough seas and it had no submarine detection and was outgunned by U-boats. The Canadian government didn’t want to make modification to ships but costs at sea were too high especially in the Black Hole of the Atlantic (no air support).
1942-Dieppe (Operation Jubilee)-Under pressure from Soviet leader Stalin, Canadian troops are sent to attempt to open up a second front in France against the Germans. Canadian troops are sent to attack Dieppe (a small seaport).Operation Jubilee
Intelligence reports are wrong on the resistance and the strategy is poorly planned (far too complex with little air support). The location is wrong for landing craft; they get stuck on rock and pebbles.
The Germans are well prepared for the daylight raid (German fortress) The 2 nd Canadian division ends up being caught in a “shooting gallery”. 5000 troops storm beaches- 3300 end up casualties – 900 killed, 1900 Canadian taken as POW’s. The information that was gained from this attempt will be instrumental in the planning of the D-Day invasion.
1943- The Italian Campaign saw the Canadian 1 st Division sent to attack “soft underbelly” of Europe alongside the British and Americans. Canadians win hard fought battles in the invasion of Sicily (38 days). Ortona – 1372 Canadians die capturing town Ortona
1943-44 winter campaign sees Canadian troops battle up through Italy against Hitler’s best armies (Italians are out of war- Mussolini killed)
1944- D-Day (Operation Overlord) June 6 th - Final Allied Invasion of Normandy. Germans are under extreme pressure due to fighting on three fronts.
Years of preparation are put to work in massive invasion plan-107,000 men -involving aerial bombardment-11,000 planes and 5000 ships- and paratroops being dropped behind German coastal defences. Six days later 30,000 troops ashore in France
There are 14,000 Canadians involved in the invasion and 110 Canadian warships. The Canadians land at Juno beach and are given the task of liberating the seaports along the coast to allow for shipment of supplies, munitions and reinforcements. Germans put up a fierce fight to hang on to their captured ports.
No Allied division lost more men than the Canadian 3 rd division.
Canadians are still honored today in these coastal cities. The Canadian divisions are reunited for final phase of war
In the spring of 1945 Allies defeat Germany - Hitler kills himself and Germany surrenders.
In the Pacific theatre the American have won many battles to get within bombing range of Japan (island hopping). Four months later Harry Truman drops the atomic bomb “Little Boy” on Hiroshima August 6th from the Enola Gay (70,000 killed and 61,000 injured) and then “Fat Man” is dropped on Nagasaki August 14 (40,000 killed). Emperor Hirohito tells military to surrender.
The Manhattan Project involved Canadian scientist and Canadian uranium and was temporally located in a Montreal laboratory. Truman dropped the bomb to bring a quick end to the war and save American troops.
As the Allies closed in and divided up Germany the truth of the Holocaust became apparent. Nazi concentration camps were filled with corpses and mass graves. Anti- Semitism had led to the genocide of six million Jews and the persecution of communists, Gypsies, homosexuals and POW’s.
The persecution of Jews began in the 1930’s with Hitler blaming them for the terrible situation the Germans were in economically. As the war had continued the Nazi forced the Jews into ghettoes and slums while they were forced the wear the “Star of David” on their clothes. Thousands died of starvation and disease
In 1941, the SS (special forces) were to deal with the “Jewish Problem” with the Final Solution being a plan for the extermination of 11 million Jews.
The creation of Death Camps with huge gas chambers followed with Jews being divided into those that can be slave laborers and those that would be sent to the showers and killed (women, children and the elderly). Camps at Auschwitz, Treblinka and Bergen-Belsen were set up for mass-genocide.