Key Vocabulary (I will explain) Definitions on later slides: Apology Sophist Socratic Method Civic Religion
Apology Current Meaning =To say I am sorry for my action ↓ Older Meaning =To explain my actions ↓ Oldest Meaning =To defend my action
Main Characters Socrates- the philosopher [accused] Meletus - a craftsman[accusing]
Who was Socrates? Socrates was married to a woman named Xanthippe and had three children. He did not write anything down He questioned the claims of others TWO SOURCES: Plato – uses Socrates as main character in dialogues Aristophanes – portrays Socrates as crazy.
The accusation against Socrates Socrates says: “What is the accusation from which arose the slander in which Meletus trusted … It goes something like this: Socrates is guilty of wrongdoing in that he busies himself studying things in the sky and below the earth; he makes the worse in to the stronger argument, and he teaches the same thing to others” (19b; Cf. 18b). Three parts in this accusation. What are they?
Accusation Part 1 “ that he busies himself studying things in the sky and below the earth ” Hint: Who/What is normally in charge of the sky? He is concerned with strange things He thinks he can explain nature without God He is idle
Accusation Part 1 – Atheism Accusation of atheism: “I cannot be sure whether you mean that I teach the belief that there are some gods – and therefore I myself believe that there are god s and am not altogether an atheist … Or whether you mean that I do not believe in gods at all, and that this is what I teach to others” (26c) [wrong gods or no gods] Meletus: no gods (26c / 26e).
Accusation Part 1 – Who cares? Atheism mattered because of civic religion. Civic religion （市民宗教） means that politics and religion are mixed To be a good citizen, you need to do religious ceremonies E.g., God-talk in America, 国家神道 Greek civil religion: Sacrifices ( いけにえ ), Oaths （誓い）
Accusation Part 2 “ he makes the worse in to the stronger argument” Hint: Which should be stronger? The worse argument or the better argument? He tricks people with a smooth tongue. He is a Sophist
Sophist Wandering teachers in Greece Entertaining Charged a Fee Often made arguments to say bad things are okay Did not do work 現代英語 sophist = someone who makes bad arguments
Accusation Part 3 “ and he teaches the same thing to others ” Hint: Don’t think too hard! He is a teacher that passes these ideas onto others The Danger = he will teach others to argue and be atheists
Accusations Summary Accusations: Atheism[does not believe in gods] Sophism [makes worse argument win] Bad Teacher[corrupts the youth] Socrates Adds: Complaint Wise man
Socrates’ Apology: Complaint Socrates says about the accusers Meaning Socrates says about Socrates himself Meaning “hardly anything they say is true” (17a) I am “the man who speaks the truth” (17b) plainly. “They are skilled lawyers” “From me you will hear the whole truth, though not, by Zeus, gentlemen, expressed in embroidered and stylized phrases …” (17b-c)
Socrates’ Apology: Complaint Socrates says about the accusers Meaning Socrates says about Socrates himself Meaning “hardly anything they say is true” (17a) LiarsI am “the man who speaks the truth” (17b) plainly. Honest “They are skilled lawyers” Good at speaking “From me you will hear the whole truth, though not, by Zeus, gentlemen, expressed in embroidered and stylized phrases …” (17b-c) Bad at Speaking
Socrates’ Apology: You are a Sophist Against you are a sophist. I am not like a sophist. (“I have no part in it” (19c)) They charge moneyBUTI don’t I am not famous like Gorgias or Prodicus or Hippias (19e) [ 有名人 ] I cannot work as a tutor ( 家庭教師 ): I would pride and preen if I had the knowledge, but I do not have it” (20b).
Socrates’ Apology: Wise Man 1 “What has caused my reputation is no other than a certain kind of wisdom … human wisdom” (20d). “I shall call upon the god at Delphi as witness [ 証しする人 ] to the existence and nature of my wisdom” (20e-21a). Oracle’s Claim: Socrates is the wisest (21b)
Stopping Point on Day 1 of Apology G.komasin.com/jinbunkagakunyuumon
Socrates’ Apology: Wise Man 2 Socrates’ Argument to show he is not the wisest (21c): 1) If someone is wiser then Socrates, then the oracle is wrong 2) [X] is wiser than Socrates. 3) Therefore, Socrates is not the wisest! Just need to find someone wiser!
Socrates’ Apology: Wise Man 3 The Search for [X]: “After that, I proceeded systematically” (21e) with the result that “In my investigation in the service of the god, I found that those who had the highest reputation were nearly the most deficient, while those who were thought to be inferior were more knowledgeable” (22a).
Socrates’ Apology: Wise Man 4 [X]Issue with [X]Outcome one who claimed to be wise (21c) he turned not to be wise (21d) he hated me (21d) Orators (22a- b) Sound nice but they are actually stupid They hate me
Socrates’ Apology: Wise Man 5 [X]Issue with [X]Outcome Poets “compose … by some inborn talent and by inspiration” (gifted) BUT “thought themselves very wise men in other respects, which they were not” (22c) They hate me CraftsmenWise in craft and think themselves wise in all things but are not wise in general (22d) They hate me
Socrates’ Apology: Wise Man 6 “Coincidence” ( すごい偶然かな！ ) [X]Not as Wise as Socrates Accusing Socrates Orators Yes Hate S Yes Poets Yes Hate S Yes Craftsmen Yes Hate S Yes
Socrates’ Apology: Wise Man 7 Conclusion: The oracle is right: “in fact the god is wise and that his oracular response meant that human wisdom is worth little or nothing, and that when he says this man, Socrates, he is using my name as an example as if he said: ‘This man among you, mortals is wisest, who, like Socrates, understands that his wisdom is worthless” (23a- b). Wisest = to understand that [he has no wisdom]
Wise Man 8 Socratic Method 1 Main idea of Socrates’ Philosophy: Wisest = to understand that [he has no wisdom] Socratic Method: To doubt easy answers and test what we know by asking questions.
Socratic Method 2 Example: X says “I am wise” S: What does wise mean? X says “wise means good at saying things” ? S: “So someone who can make thing is not wise?” X: “Hmm…” S: So we do not know what wisdom is.
Socratic Method 3 Socrates wants to use this to talk about big questions: What is justice ( 正義 )? What is love? He does not want easy answers. He wants to test their understanding.
Socratic Method 4 Socratic method = to teach by asking questions to make sure students understand. Makes sure we understand terms we use Tests to see if students can use ideas. Opposite of memorization.
Socrates’ Apology: Bad Teacher 1 Socrates: I am not a bad teacher. “the young men who follow me around of their own free will, who have most leisure, the sons of the very rich, take pleasure in hearing people questioned” (23c). They like the Socratic method.
Socrates’ Apology: Bad Teacher 2 Meletus: “You corrupt the youth” (25) Socrates: What does it mean to corrupt the youth? Meletus: Corrupt = harm Socrates: harm is either intentional ( わざと ) or accidental ( 偶然の ) Socrates: if intentional, then wicked. If accidental, then stupid. Socrates: so I am either wicked or stupid.
Socrates’ Apology: Bad Teacher 3 … Socrates: if intentional, then wicked. If accidental, then stupid. Socrates: so I am either wicked or stupid. Meletus: you are wicked. Socrates: “Either I do not corrupt the young or, if I do, it is unwillingly, and you are lying in either case” (Socratic Method)
Socrates’ Apology: Atheism 1 Socrates: Meletus, what do you mean by atheism? “I cannot be sure whether you mean that I teach the belief that there are some gods – and therefore I myself believe that there are god s and am not altogether an atheist … Or whether you mean that I do not believe in gods at all, and that this is what I teach to others ” (26c) Meletus: Your atheism = no gods.
Socrates’ Apology: Atheism 2 Socrates: “Does any man, Meletus, believe in human activities who does not believe in humans?” … Does any man who does not believe in horses believe in horseman’s activities?” (27b) Q: What is the pattern?
Socrates’ Apology: Atheism 3 Pattern: Belief in X’s activities or things from X a belief in X. Socrates says he believes in the activities of spirits (27b-d). Q: Does Socrates say he believes in the gods?
Socrates’ Apology: Verdict Socrates is found guilty. Meletus asks for the death sentence ( 死 刑 ). Socrates asks for all-you-can-eat for life ( 寿命中食べ放題 ) Socrates is sentenced to death.