Presentation on theme: "Verbals Verbals are words that look like verbs, but act like something else (nouns, adjectives, or adverbs)"— Presentation transcript:
1VerbalsVerbals are words that look like verbs, but act like something else (nouns, adjectives, or adverbs)
2Three Types of VerbalsGerundsParticiplesInfinitives
3Verbal #1: GerundsGerunds are words that look like verbs but act like NOUNS and end in ING.How do they function?Subject: Reading is fun!Predicate Noun (Nominative): My favorite hobby is reading. Direct Object: I love reading!Indirect Object: I gave reading a try.Object of the Preposition: I am talking about reading.
4NOTE:An –ing word must be preceded by a helping verb in order to be a verbEXAMPLE:The freshmen taking the test.The freshmen have been taking the test.
5NOTE:A noun that follows a gerund and answers the question who or what is the OBJECT OF THE GERUND!He made a complaint by writing a letter to the president.Writing a what?A letter!! (OG)
6Try it out! Hiking is an excellent way to stay in good shape. I love stomping in puddles.My goal is graduating from high school and attending college.I gave swimming my best effort.I was thinking about traveling over the summer.
7Write your own Subject: Predicate Noun (Nominative): Direct Object: Indirect Object:Object of the Preposition:
8Using Gerunds in Your Writing Use gerunds to emphasize what has occurred rather than who is actingEXAMPLE:I like softball. It is a lot of fun. I have fun with my friends on the team.Playing softball is fun. My teammates have become some of my good friends.
9Gerund phrasesGerunds can be attached to prepositional phrases or other words to form phrases.Reading a book is food for the brain.Climbing a tree can be fun but dangerous.Running through the mall might get you kicked out.Singing in the shower is sometimes a very bad habit.
10Write your own Gerund phrase as a subject Gerund phrase as a predicate nominativeGerund phrase as a direct object
11NOTE:Use gerunds to correct dangling participles at the end of sentencesHe misses the bus, causing him to be late to class.Missing the bus caused him to be late to class.
12Using Gerunds in Your Writing Combining Sentences by using a gerund.EXAMPLES:I used to hate English. Then I took Mrs. Avanessian. She gives clear explanations of grammar. Now I think English is interesting.Hating English was part of my life until my first class with Mrs. Avanessian. Her clear explanations make English interesting.
13On to the Practice…Work in classFinish for HOMEWORK!
14Participles and participial phrases Participles are verbalsParticiples look like verbs, but act like ADJECTIVES
15Present and Past Participles End in INGFrighteningEntertainingUsually end in EDFrightenedEntertainedSometimes end in T or ENBurstWritten
16Examples Present participle Limping, the hiker favored his aching ankle.Limping describes hikerAching describes anklePast participleConfused, Nan returned to her interrupted work.Confused describes NanInterrupted describes work
17Try it out!Think of three words that look like verbs, but act like adjectives.Whip around
18More examples Jessica’s shining eyes betrayed her excitement. The shattered window needs replacement.The beating heart fascinated Billy.The lost boys screamed in the night.The policeman found the stolen car.
19The present participles being and having may be followed by a past participle. Being informed, I knew what to expect.Having decided, Adele acted quickly.
20Verb or participle? The dog is snarling at the plumber. The singers delighted their audience.The snarling dog attacked the plumber.Delighted, the audience applauded.
21Verb, participle or gerund? Do we have any wrapping paper left?The detective was wrapping up the case.Wrapping the gifts took longer than expected.
22Let’s try that againEmily must have been dreaming about her boyfriend.The dreaming girl stared absently out the window.I often remember dreaming.
23Try it out!Think of a verb which can be used as a verb, a participle, and a gerund.Write three sentences:VerbParticipleGerund
24Participial phrases Jumping high, Brad hit his head on the ceiling. The chemist, blinded by smoky fumes, stumbled.Scanning the book, Angelica spotted the answer.
25N.B.If you use a participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence, it absolutely must modify the subject of the sentence.Looking down the street, I saw the rabid dog.Looking down the street, the rabid dog came toward us.
26Try it outWrite three sentences with introductory participial phrases.
28Preposition or Infinitive? At the outdoor market, my grandmother likes to bargain.Would you try to explain?Give an explanation to Glen.To believe took considerable faith.Lindsey wrote letters to friends.
29Infinitive or preposition? After working so hard, he wanted to rest.Our trip to China was filled with surprises.Baxter’s gift to me was too extravagant.When do you plan to graduate?On Vicky’s way to town, she had a flat tire.
30Infinitives Infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs They are the only thing in the English language that canN.B. An infinitive can NEVER be the verb of the sentence
31Infinitives as nouns An infinitive as a noun can function as The SUBJECT To read is fun!The P.N My ambition is to win!The D.O I love to read!The O.P The parachuter was about tojump.Appositive You have only one choice,to go.
32Try it out! Write one sentence for each function: Infinitive as subjectInfinitive as direct objectInfinitive as predicate nominativeInfinitive as object of the prepInfinitive as an appositive
33Infinitives as modifiers Infinitive as adjective:Adjectives answer which one or what kindThe children showed a willingness to cooperate.What kind of willingness?To cooperate modifies willingnessThe time to start is now.Which time?To start modifies time
34A little practice That is the way to live. Derek has the ability to succeed in business.The man to hire is that applicant in the dark glasses.My desire to travel has taken me all over the world.These are the songs to sing at the concert.
35Try it out!Write three of your own sentences using infinitives as adjectives.Circle the infinitive and draw an arrow to the word it modifies.Label the sentence pattern.
36Infinitive as adverb:Adverbs answer WHY, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, TO WHAT EXTENTThey fought to win.Why did they fight?To win modifies fought.Some people are unable to adjust.How are they unable?To adjust modifies unable.
37A little practiceThe contract was written to provide the rights and laws you must know.The LA Zoo is fun to visit in the morning.The winner was excited to accept the new car.Chris is coming to discuss the location for the picnic.Editors are trained to find grammatical errors.
38Try it out!Write three of your own sentences using an infinitive as an adverb.Circle the infinitive and draw an arrow to the word it modifies.Label the sentence pattern.
39Infinitive Phrases Infinitives can be expanded into phrases by adding Adverbs: Jeff’s entire family likes to rise early.Adverb phrases: To skate on the ice without falling was not too easy for him.Direct objects: He hated to discuss emotions.Indirect objects and direct objects: They promised to show us their slides.Subject and Complement: I would like her to determine her own goals.
40Identifying Infinitive Phrases To describe the hockey game in an understandable manner required gestures.The birdwatcher’s ambition was to see one hundred different species.My friends and I went to see the exhibit on Indian art and to gather material for our report.Huck and Tom swore to keep the secret about Injun Joe.
41Put it all togetherChoose an infinitive and use it as a noun, adjective, and adverb.Example: to singI love to sing to my students.My ability to sing has been questioned by some of my closest friends.It is fun to sing grammar songs.