Presentation on theme: "Scores on exam 2 q’s 3 B or C, 17 B or C, 89 C or D, 91 A or B, 100, any."— Presentation transcript:
1 Scores on exam 2q’s 3 B or C, 17 B or C, 89 C or D, 91 A or B, 100, any
2 Bio 27 October 29th Chapter 9: Sexual Orientation RuPaul is gaySHY PEOPLE’S DAY
3 Some terminologyHeterosexual: also known as “straight.” Attraction is to other-sex partnersHomosexual: also known as “lesbian” for women and “gay” for men. Attraction is to same sex partnersBisexual: attraction is to both sexesAsexual: lack of attraction to either sex
4 Sexual orientation exists as a continuum Kinsey’s Continuum of Sexual Orientation (1948)Numbers between 1 and 5 indicate bisexuality according to KinseyIncidentally homosexual: some sort of same sex experience
5 AsexualityNot part of Kinsey’s scale, although he acknowledged its existenceDifferent from celibacy in that asexuality is innate, whereas celibacy is a choiceAbout 1% of the population is believed to be asexual73% of asexuals have never had intercourse80% of asexual makes and 77% of asexual females do masturbateMost do not feel distressed about their asexualityUsually lifelong
6 BisexualityNo consensus about what makes an individual bisexual (or gay or lesbian)Many people have same-sex sexual fantasies or experiences, but identify as heterosexual rather than bisexualWomen who identify as heterosexual are 27 times more likely than heterosexual men to express moderate or more same sex attractionMany people dismiss bisexual men as gay
7 Study showed males and females of different sexual orientations videos of bonobos mating and masturbating and measured sexual arousalGay and straight women experienced arousal from both gay and straight videos but only reported arousal consistent with sexual orientationArousal in males was more consistent with sexual orientation
8 Sexual FluiditySome people change their sexual orientation at different times in their livesMore common among women; this may be influenced by the greater social stigma against male homosexualityBelieved to have a biological basis
9 What Determines Sexual Orientation? Psychosocial Hypotheses Focus on role of life experiences, parenting patterns, or psychological attributes of individualTheories:The “By Default” Theory: homosexuality is chosen by people who have negative experiences with the opposite sex; not supported by dataThe Seduction Myth: homosexuality is caused by homosexual experience with an older person; in actuality, most gays have their first sexual experiences with someone of a similar ageFreud’s Theory: poor relationship with father or overly close relationship with mother can lead to male homosexuality; not supported by dataBoy scouts actually founded to prevent homosexuality!
10 What Determines Sexual Orientation? Biological Hypotheses Genetic factorsHomosexuality is heritableIdentical twin studies show thisPatterns of finger length suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure may contribute to male homosexualityGay men also much more likely to be left-handed and have more older brothersImplications if biology is destinyMay lead to greater acceptance75% of gays and 49% of the general population currently say they think homosexuality is innateMales: have longer ring fingers than index fingers, females similar, gay men hyper-male; a
12 Societal attitudes have changed Before 1900s: homosexual behavior is sinfulEarly 1900s: homosexuality is a mental illnessLobotomy, castration, drugs, and shock treatments have been used as “cures”1974 APA removed homosexuality from list of mental disordersNo differences in psychological adjustment across sexual orientation“Conversion” therapy does not work but gay affirmative therapy is helpful“Gay cures” will be illegal in CA as of January 1, 2013!
13 HomophobiaHomophobia: Anti-homosexual attitudes, irrational fear of homosexual people, or loathing of homosexual tendencies in oneselfHomophobes more likely to respond sexually to homosexual imageryT. Haggard resigned in 2006 after revealed he had a 3 yr long relationship with a male prostitute; fought against same-sex marriage in CO,
14 Hate CrimesHate Crimes Laws provide more severe penalties for crimes motivated by race, color, national origin, religion, or, as of 2009, sexual orientationPrior to 2009, many states either had no hate crime laws or had hate crime laws that did not include sexual orientationLarry Craig opposed adding sexual orientation to hate crimes law
15 Causes of Homophobia and Hate Crimes Lack of acceptance and valuingTraditional gender role stereotypesExtreme manifestation of cultural normsThreatened by challenges to traditional gender rolesDenial of homosexual feelings
16 High profile anti-gay hate crimes Brandon Teena, a 21-year-old transgendered man, was sexually assaulted and murdered in 1993 (subject of the movie Boys Don’t Cry)Matthew Shepard, a 21-year-old gay college student was beaten and tied to a fence on a cold night where he was left to die in 1998 (subject of the movie The Laramie Project)Barry Winchell, a 21-year-old male soldier, was murdered by a fellow soldier in 1999 because he was dating a transgendered woman (subject of the movie Soldier’s Girl)Gwen Araujo, a 17-year-old transgendered girl, was murdered by four men in Newark in She had had sex with two of the men, and their lawyers tried the “gay panic” defense
17 Sexual Minorities and the Media: changing attitudes Philadelphia in 1993 the first major Hollywood film to examine the topic of homophobiaGay characters are now common in TV shows and moviesBUT many actors still do not feel like they can “come out” as gayPortrayal of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals as “regular folks” has contributed to acceptanceRisky for Tom Hanks to play gay!
18 Coming Out and Disclosure Self-acknowledgement is the first stepSelf-acceptance is nextDisclosure“Passing” as straight has risks and benefitsTelling family can be difficultSome may be disownedInvolvement in the LGBT communityIndividuals who are both sexual and racial minorities are less likely to come out and more likely to face alienation if they do“On the DL”Black community higher religiosity
19 Same-Sex Relationships Similar challenges and concerns as with heterosexual couplesMore egalitarian than other-sex relationshipsDifferences:Gay couples found to use more humor and affection during disagreementsMore likely to remain positive after a disagreementDisplayed less domineering behavior with one anotherWanda Sykes & wife & twins in 2009
20 Gay & Lesbian family life 33% of lesbian couples and 22% of gay male couples are raising childrenSome are children from previous relationshipsSome are born through assisted fertility techniquesSome are adopted (laws on gay adoption vary)Study found that children of lesbian mothers have no difference in general development, self-esteem, gender role issues or sexual orientationAmerican Academy of Pediatrics has endorsed gay adoption
21 Gay Rights Movement Began in 1969 with the Stonewall Rebellion Goals: Decriminalization of private sexual behaviorTexas sodomy law overturned in 2003Legal protection from discriminationStill no federal law against employment discrimination, although many companies have policies and states have lawsMilitary “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”Legal protection for same-sex familiesHealth careMarriageAdoptionPink triangles
22 There is still much progress to be made No federal protection against workplace discriminationNo federal guarantee of hospital visitation for partnersNo federal right to marry or adopt
23 “Sexual orientation is a choice.” How strongly do you agree or disagree with this statement? Support your answer using specific evidence.