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Racial Discrimination against foreigners in Japan: Exist or Not? Yuri Sato B11612.

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Presentation on theme: "Racial Discrimination against foreigners in Japan: Exist or Not? Yuri Sato B11612."— Presentation transcript:

1 Racial Discrimination against foreigners in Japan: Exist or Not? Yuri Sato B11612

2 Universal Periodic Review ⇒ 48states are reviewed per year in a 4 year cycle According to the Human Rights council ⇒ 170 recommendations for Japan to improve its human rights record “prohibiting all forms of discrimination: religion, ethnicity or nationality and adopting specific legislation to outlaw direct and indirect racial discrimination and guaranteeing access to effective protection and remedies through competent national courts” On the other hand… In JAPAN… (United Nations Human Rights:2012)

3 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan ( 外務省 ) AIM: contributing to maintenance of peaceful and safe international society, and develop harmonic foreign relationships The Constitution of Japan guarantees fundamental human rights to foreign residents in Japan Government actively pursues the goals of (1) ensuring equal rights and opportunities for foreigners (2) respecting foreigners' own cultures and values (3) promoting mutual understanding to realize a society in which Japanese and foreigners can live together comfortably (MOFA:2013)

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5 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

6 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

7 Defining terms Racial Discrimination against Foreigners in Japan: Exist or Not?

8 Defining terms Racial Discrimination: To treat differently a person or group of people based on their racial origins. Power is a necessary precondition, for it depends on the ability to give or withhold social benefits, facilities, services, opportunities etc., from someone who should be entitled to them, and are denied on the basis of race, color or national origin (racism.org:2008) 人種差別

9 Defining terms Foreigners: A person born in or coming from a country other than one’s own (oxford dictionary:2013) People who do not have Japanese racial origin. (Non-Japanese race) 外国人・在日外国人

10 Defining terms Racial Discrimination against Foreigners in Japan: Exist or Not?

11 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

12 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

13 3. Evidence for Exist 3.1 Hate speech 3.2 Signs and labels

14 3.1 Hate Speech Hate speech consists of verbal and nonverbal expression that is used to promote violence against someone on social or ethnic groups. In many cases, hate speech is created by people who are part of a majority population directed toward a minority population. Different than simply teasing, shouting an ugly word at them in a single moment of anger or frustration Examples: Racist cartoons Ethnic slurs or other derogatory labels for a group Burning a cross in the yard or an ethnic minority

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16 To treat differently a person or group of people based on their racial origins

17 3. Evidence for Exist 3.1 Hate speech 3.2 Signs and labels

18 3.2 Signs and Labels  1993 onsen at Otaru, Hokkaido posted a JAPANESE ONLY sign  2000: Debito Arudou 有道 出人 (Natualized Japanese citizen) → refused for his foreign appearance

19 Supporo(ramen restaurants, bars) Kyoto(Hotels) Shizuoka(internet café) Okinawa ( karaoke) Osaka(real estate agent) Osaka( Optician's shop) To treat differently a person or group of people based on their racial origins and are denied on the basis of race, color or national origin

20 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

21 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

22 4. Evidence for Not 4.1 Foreign workers 4.2 Foreign tourists

23 4.1 Foreign workers Nippon Keidanren Recommended that the Japanese government take advantage of the diversified sense of values, experiences and skills of workers from other countries to increase Japan's capacity to create added value. Non-Japanese people should be admitted to introduce different cultural ideas and sense of values into Japanese society and corporations and to promote the creation of new added value, as this would accelerate innovation The need for Japan to admit more foreign workers Energize their organizations and increase their international competitiveness through the addition of a variety of sense of values It is predicted: in the future, Japan will not have enough skilled personnel in such sectors as nursing, care giving, agriculture, manufacturing, construction and machine assembly (Keidanren:2007)

24 4.1 Foreign Workers Company NameTotal Recruits…of which non- Japanese Panasonic1390*1100* Fast Retailing (Uniqlo) 1200** 1500*** ** 1200*** Rakuten410**120** Hitachi750**5-6%** Lawson99**23** 7-Eleven250**20** Sony187***56 (30%)*** Yamato Transport100***20*** Toshiba500**50 (10%)** Source: Yomiuri Shimbun (2011); Japan Times (2012a); Asahi Shimbun (2012); Nikkei Business (2010). Notes: *2011 Figures **2012 Figures. ***2013 Figures Japanese Companies Foreign Hiring 2012/2013 To treat differently a person or group of people based on their racial origins, and are denied on the basis of race, color or national origin

25 4. Evidence for Not 4.1 Foreign workers 4.2 Foreign tourists

26 4.2 Foreign tourists Tourism agency: # of tourists visiting Tohoku have fallen 20% to 40% from the 3.11 earthquake 『 Destination Tohoku 』 tourism campaign ⇒ help promote and revive tourism in the Tohoku region started March (Japantimes:2012)

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28 Translations

29 (AgriNews:2013)

30 2020 Tokyo Olympics Abe Shinzo: “Large numbers of overseas visitors will come to visit Japan. It is also incumbent upon us as the host nation to welcome them with the greatest possible hospitality.” (Prime minister of Japan and His Cabinet: 2013) To treat differently a person or group of people based on their racial origins, and are denied on the basis of race, color or national origin

31 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

32 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

33 3.1 Hate Speech Anti-hate speech group launched in Japan (9/26/2013) The group, called "An international network overcoming hate speech and racism" (Norikoenet), held a press conference on Sept. 25 to announce its establishment. (Mainichi Japan:2013) Norikoenet: Anti-Hate speech group ⇒ Organization opposed to hate speech against ethnic Koreans and other minorities in Japan. (Mainichi Japan:2013)

34 'Stop discrimination!' Citizens raise their voices in march on Tokyo (10/11/2013) More than two thousand people--Diet members, lawyers, musicians, residents--took to the streets of Tokyo's Shinjuku district, shouting slogans in unison. September 22, 2013 (ajwAsahi:2013) 5

35 3.2 Signs and Labels  1993 onsen at Otaru, Hokkaido posted a JAPANESE ONLY sign

36 3.2 Signs and Labels Reason: Russian sailors ignored the bathhouse rules Drove away Japanese costumers February 2001: sued the city of Otaru for violation of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, a treaty which Japan ratified in 1996 Each received 1 million yen Took down label 6

37 4.1 Foreign Workers Company NameTotal Recruits…of which non- Japanese Panasonic1390*1100* Fast Retailing (Uniqlo) 1200** 1500*** ** 1200*** Rakuten410**120** Hitachi750**5-6%** Lawson99**23** 7-Eleven250**20** Sony187***56 (30%)*** Yamato Transport100***20*** Toshiba500**50 (10%)** Source: Yomiuri Shimbun (2011); Japan Times (2012a); Asahi Shimbun (2012); Nikkei Business (2010). Notes: *2011 Figures **2012 Figures. ***2013 Figures BUT Japanese Companies Foreign Hiring 2012/2013

38 Visa Requirements in Japan It is necessary to get a VISA in order to live in Japan 27 types of visas in Japan ⇒ divided into 3 main groups: 1. Working visa 2. Non-working visa 3. Family related visa ONLY cover the kind of work that requires high level of professional knowledge or skills. NOT POSSIBLE: manual/ simple labor 3

39 4.2 Foreign Tourists The Attitudes of Japanese Accommodations towards Foreign Tourists by Types of Facility, 2008 MAJOR REASONS: 1. Can’t speak foreign languages 2. Facility is not suitable to accept foreigners 3. Afraid of dealing with problems 4. Worried about payment methods 5. Prefer domestic travelers 6. Not enough tourists attractions near the facility MAJOR REASONS: 1. Can’t speak foreign languages 2. Facility is not suitable to accept foreigners 3. Afraid of dealing with problems 4. Worried about payment methods 5. Prefer domestic travelers 6. Not enough tourists attractions near the facility (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications: 2009) 5

40 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

41 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion

42 Exists Not Racial Discrimination against foreigners in Japan EXISTS

43 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Defining terms 3. Exist 4. Not 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion


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