Presentation on theme: "Hate crime UCLan This presentation has been produced with the financial support of the Daphne III Programme of the European Union. The contents are the."— Presentation transcript:
Hate crime UCLan This presentation has been produced with the financial support of the Daphne III Programme of the European Union. The contents are the sole responsibility of the University of Central Lancashire and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Commission
Hate Crimes and Incidents ‘Hate crimes: any crime or incident where the perpetrator’s prejudice against an identifiable group of people is a factor in determining who is victimised’. Incidents: not a crime, but based upon prejudice as above. UK Strands of prosecuted Hate Crime groups: Disability, Race, Religion, Sexual Orientation and Transgender UK Monitored groups: the above, plus members of subcultures, such as goths and emos.
Is ‘Hate’ essential? Hostility not hate –”In the absence of a precise legal definition of hostility, let us consider dictionary definitions including 'unfriendliness', 'antagonism' and 'meanness” – Director of Public Prosecutions October 2008
‘Perception’ Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Definition Importance of ‘Perception’ Controversial, but still a key principle
Importance of defining as ‘hate crime’? Highlights the particular prejudicial bias Has a greater impact on the victim ‘Ripple effect’ on wider community Impacts on community cohesion Affects confidence in Legal system and the police It is a government priority
Legislation UK Incitement to hatred Race Religion Sexual Orientation Racially and Religiously Motivated Offences Limited Creates Unintended Hierarchy Enhanced Sentencing Section 145 and 146 Criminal Justice Act 2003 Racially and Religiously Aggravated Offences
Specific Cases Stephen Lawrence 1993 London Johnny Delaney 2003 Cheshire Anthony Walker 2005 Merseyside Jody Dobrowski 2005 London Brent Martin 2007 Sunderland Fiona Pilkington (and daughter) 2007 Leicester Sophie Lancaster 2007 Lancashire
Official data 2010 Sample EU EU StateRacism/ Xenophob ia ReligionDisabilitySexual orientatio n Transgend er UK (not Scotland) 31486200715694883357 Sweden3786552-77031 Netherlan ds 1168108766017 Finland7415220435
Associated crimes? Rise in Neo-Nazism /far right in Europe Extremism Trafficking in Human Beings “In 2006, Merseyside police declared crimes against sex workers hate crimes. In 2009 Liverpool police convicted 90% of those who raped sex workers. In 2010, the overall conviction rate in Merseyside for crimes against sex workers was 84%, with a 67% conviction rate for rape. 6.5% is the national average conviction rate for rape.” (Ruth Jacobs)
Issues EU wide emphasis upon reporting and recording ‘Hierarchy of Hate’ ? – fears of ‘diluting the message’ Need for training to identify crimes and incidents Criminal justice agencies Local partnerships Third sector?- eg., Disability hate crime toolkit
Successes 1993 Murder of Stephen Lawrence-watershed 2005 Murder of Anthony Walker “The handling of the Anthony Walker prosecution has indeed set a standard which we can and surely must aim to achieve in all similar cases” - Baroness Scotland, Nov 2007 2005 Murder of Jody Dobrowski "This is unacceptable. We cannot accept this. No intelligent, healthy or reasonable society could." – Dobrowski family statement 2006
But… Significant under recognition Significant under-reporting Many ‘Gaps’ in service Gypsy and Traveller Communities Asylum and Refugee communities Transgender Victims Disability Groups
Our Resources Radio documentary with experts on hate crime, including voluntary agencies Video presentations of conferences and Continuing Professional Development workshop, (and accompanying materials Presentations for continuing staff development, (and accompanying materials) Numerous Articles Literature reviews Fictional novel Videos Material for schools- fact sheets, posters, brochures, lesson plan Links to agencies Our blogs, Twitter and Facebook.
Our reports and suggestions State of the Union Report EU Suggested Best Practice Modified Delphi Report All material available via our websites : http://h8crime.eu/index.htm and http://www.uclan.ac.uk/research/environment/projects/wh en_law_and_hate_collide.php