Presentation on theme: "Color Palette by GamehenGraphics"— Presentation transcript:
1Color Palette by GamehenGraphics ReconstructionUSHC 3.3Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the southern states and on the role of the federal government, including the impact of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments on opportunities for African Americans.Color Palette by GamehenGraphics
2With Malice Toward None… “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds… to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”-- Abraham LincolnSecond Inaugural AddressMarch 4, 1865MAGNANIMOUS
6Johnson’s Reconstruction President Andrew Johnson continued Lincoln’s lenient Reconstruction plan.
7African Americans during Presidential Reconstruction Thirteenth AmendmentFreedmen’s BureauSharecroppingBlack CodesFRANCHISEAnd Not This Man?
8RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: Thirteenth AmendmentRatified December 6, 1865Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS:131415
10Black CodesPassed in many Southern states to restrict the activities of freedmen
11Freedmen’s BureauEstablished by Congress in 1865 to help former slaves.EducationHealthcareJob PlacementFrom Harper’s Weekly, 1868
12A Tale of Two Reconstructions PresidentialCongressional(aka, Radical)
13“Radical” Republicans Thaddeus Stevens (PA)HOUSEGOALS:Punish the South.Protect African Americans.
14Conquered ProvincesThe Radicals proposed dividing the former Confederate states (minus Tennessee) into five military districts.
15Military Occupation of the South of the Fourteenth Amendment Reconstruction Acts123Military Occupation of the SouthIMMEDIATE Suffragefor African AmericansForced Ratificationof the Fourteenth AmendmentPhoto Credits: Peter Clark (soldier)FutUndBeidl (ballot box)
16An Exercise in Futility Congress overrode all of Johnson’s vetoes of the Reconstruction Acts.2/3
19Presidents have been impeached by Congress. 2Presidents have been impeached by Congress.Photo Credit: Nancy Lehrer
20President has resigned from office. 1President has resigned from office.
21Presidents have been removed from office. Photo accessed at Copyright UnknownPresidents have been removed from office.
22But Johnson was only ONE vote shy. Photo accessed at Copyright UnknownBut Johnson was only ONE vote shy.
23RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: Fourteenth AmendmentRatified July 9, 1868Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States… are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS:131415
24RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: Fifteenth AmendmentRatified February 3, 1870Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS:131415
26Reconstruction in the South USHC 3.4Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including the role of anti–African American factions and competing national interests in undermining support for Reconstruction; the impact of the removal of federal protection for freedmen; and the impact of Jim Crow laws and voter restrictions on African American rights in the post-Reconstruction era.
40Compromise of 1877 184 166 185 DISPUTED ELECTION “Rutherfraud” Rutherford B. Hayes(R-OH)Samuel Tilden(D-NY)185“Rutherfraud”By 1876, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida were the only states that still had garrisons of federal troops supporting the Republican state governments through force of arms. All three states had disputed election returns due to massive fraud by both parties. An Electoral Commission, voting on party lines, certified the election for Hayes, who had been twenty votes shy of victory (while Tilden had been only one vote shy). Democrats in Congress staged a filibuster in protest, but a compromise was reached in which the Democrats would accept the result in return for the removal of federal troops from the South and a promise from Hayes not to intervene in the Southern states’ internal politics (i.e., not enforcing the Fifteenth Amendment).
41“Redeemer” Governments Southern White “Bourbon” Democrats re-assert authority“Solid South”DEMOCRATIC STRONGHOLDRepublican Party a non-entity in Southern politics until the 1960sGov. Wade Hampton (SC)
43Jim Crow Segregation and Voting Restrictions Literacy Tests Grandfather Clause“Jim Crow” LawsRacial SegregationLiteracy TestsPoll TaxDesigned to keep Black citizens from voting
44The Supreme Court and Civil Rights (Late Nineteenth Century) In the late 19th century, the Supreme Court upheld Jim Crow, as well as restrictions on voting (since these restrictions did not explicitly discriminate based on race).
45Plessy v. Ferguson 14 (1896) Louisiana Racial Segregation Case “Separate But Equal”Overturned by Brown v. Board (1954)14