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Color Palette by GamehenGraphics

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1 Color Palette by GamehenGraphics
Reconstruction USHC 3.3 Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the southern states and on the role of the federal government, including the impact of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments on opportunities for African Americans. Color Palette by GamehenGraphics

2 With Malice Toward None…
“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds… to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” -- Abraham Lincoln Second Inaugural Address March 4, 1865 MAGNANIMOUS


4 Louisiana and Arkansas Re-admitted
10% PLAN 10% of 1860 Voters Oath to the U.S. Accept Emancipation YOU’RE IN!!! Louisiana and Arkansas Re-admitted

5 Sic Semper Tyrannis!

6 Johnson’s Reconstruction
President Andrew Johnson continued Lincoln’s lenient Reconstruction plan.

7 African Americans during Presidential Reconstruction
Thirteenth Amendment Freedmen’s Bureau Sharecropping Black Codes FRANCHISE And Not This Man?

Thirteenth Amendment Ratified December 6, 1865 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: 13 14 15

9 DEBT: The New Slavery Sharecropping Tenant Farming

10 Black Codes Passed in many Southern states to restrict the activities of freedmen

11 Freedmen’s Bureau Established by Congress in 1865 to help former slaves. Education Healthcare Job Placement From Harper’s Weekly, 1868

12 A Tale of Two Reconstructions
Presidential Congressional (aka, Radical)

13 “Radical” Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens (PA) HOUSE GOALS: Punish the South. Protect African Americans.

14 Conquered Provinces The Radicals proposed dividing the former Confederate states (minus Tennessee) into five military districts.

15 Military Occupation of the South of the Fourteenth Amendment
Reconstruction Acts 1 2 3 Military Occupation of the South IMMEDIATE Suffrage for African Americans Forced Ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment Photo Credits: Peter Clark (soldier) FutUndBeidl (ballot box)

16 An Exercise in Futility
Congress overrode all of Johnson’s vetoes of the Reconstruction Acts. 2/3

17 Impeachment Photo Credit: Nancy Lehrer

18 IMPEACHMENT By the Numbers 2 – 1 – 0

19 Presidents have been impeached by Congress.
2 Presidents have been impeached by Congress. Photo Credit: Nancy Lehrer

20 President has resigned from office.
1 President has resigned from office.

21 Presidents have been removed from office.
Photo accessed at Copyright Unknown Presidents have been removed from office.

22 But Johnson was only ONE vote shy.
Photo accessed at Copyright Unknown But Johnson was only ONE vote shy.

Fourteenth Amendment Ratified July 9, 1868 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States… are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: 13 14 15

Fifteenth Amendment Ratified February 3, 1870 Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: 13 14 15

25 Reconstruction Amendments
THIRTEENTH FOURTEENTH 1. 2. 3. FIFTEENTH Abolition of Slavery 1. Birthright Citizenship 2. Equal Protection 3. Punish Confederates Black [Male] Suffrage RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: 13 14 15

26 Reconstruction in the South
USHC 3.4 Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including the role of anti–African American factions and competing national interests in undermining support for Reconstruction; the impact of the removal of federal protection for freedmen; and the impact of Jim Crow laws and voter restrictions on African American rights in the post-Reconstruction era.

27 Carpetbag

28 “Carpetbaggers” Nickname applied by Southern whites to people who migrated South after the Civil War

29 The “Carpetbagger” Stereotype
Click to play!

30 “Carpetbaggers” Power Opportunity Wealth Service
Individual carpetbaggers’ goals were diverse: Power Opportunity Wealth Service

31 Educating Freedmen and Women
Although many carpetbaggers went South to seek fortune and political office, many went South to educate freedmen and women. Hampton Institute (VA) Late Nineteenth Century

32 The Republican Coalition
in the South “Carpetbaggers” “Scalawags” Freedmen

33 Resistance to Reconstruction

34 The (First) Ku Klux Klan
Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, CSA Vigilantism

35 Restoration of Southern “Home Rule” 1869-1877
1870 1869 1877 1874 1876 1871 1874 1877 1873 1877

36 1874 Perception of “Colored Rule”
Northern public opinion turns against Radical Reconstruction. Perception of “Colored Rule” and corruption in the South under Carpetbag state governments

37 1874 Congressional Elections
U.S. House of Representatives VOTERS REACT TO: Bad Economy Political Corruption Reconstruction Policy

38 Election of 1876 Democratic Platform Republican Platform 1868 1872
Tilden: 184 Hayes: 166 Disputed: 19 FTW: 185 1868 1872 1876


40 Compromise of 1877 184 166 185 DISPUTED ELECTION “Rutherfraud”
Rutherford B. Hayes (R-OH) Samuel Tilden (D-NY) 185 “Rutherfraud” By 1876, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida were the only states that still had garrisons of federal troops supporting the Republican state governments through force of arms. All three states had disputed election returns due to massive fraud by both parties. An Electoral Commission, voting on party lines, certified the election for Hayes, who had been twenty votes shy of victory (while Tilden had been only one vote shy). Democrats in Congress staged a filibuster in protest, but a compromise was reached in which the Democrats would accept the result in return for the removal of federal troops from the South and a promise from Hayes not to intervene in the Southern states’ internal politics (i.e., not enforcing the Fifteenth Amendment).

41 “Redeemer” Governments
Southern White “Bourbon” Democrats re-assert authority “Solid South” DEMOCRATIC STRONGHOLD Republican Party a non-entity in Southern politics until the 1960s Gov. Wade Hampton (SC)

42 The “Solid South” Almost 50 Years Later

43 Jim Crow Segregation and Voting Restrictions Literacy Tests
Grandfather Clause “Jim Crow” Laws Racial Segregation Literacy Tests Poll Tax Designed to keep Black citizens from voting

44 The Supreme Court and Civil Rights (Late Nineteenth Century)
In the late 19th century, the Supreme Court upheld Jim Crow, as well as restrictions on voting (since these restrictions did not explicitly discriminate based on race).

45 Plessy v. Ferguson 14 (1896) Louisiana Racial Segregation Case
“Separate But Equal” Overturned by Brown v. Board (1954) 14


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