Presentation on theme: "Gilded Age – Progressive Era Gilded Age Gilded – cheap center covered w/ thin layer of gold (Mark Twain) Gov’t followed Laissez – Faire policies 1877-1900."— Presentation transcript:
Gilded Age Gilded – cheap center covered w/ thin layer of gold (Mark Twain) Gov’t followed Laissez – Faire policies 1877-1900
Political Party Differences Republican Gold based $ High Tariffs $ for Union soldiers Aid to RR Limits on Immigrants Enforce Blue Laws Democrat Silver based $ Lower Tariffs High farm prices Less aid to RR Fewer Blue Laws
Lewes, Delaware: It is illegal to wear pants that are “firm fitting” around the waist. Rehoboth Beach No person shall change clothes in his or her vehicle. No person shall pretend to sleep on a bench on the boardwalk. Changing into or out of a bathing suit in a public restroom is prohibited. Six-year-old girls may not run around without being fully clothed. Alcohol may not be served in nightclubs if dancing is occurring on the premises at the same time.
Maine It is illegal to stroll down the street and play a violin at the same time. Advertisements may not be placed in cemeteries. North Carolina: Elephants may not be used to plow cotton fields. In cemeteries, no one may visit their departed loved ones late at night. Women must have their bodies covered by at least 16 yards of cloth at all times. (Charlotte)
Presidents of the Gilded Age Rutherford Hayes Republican Ended Reconstruction Reformed Spoils System
Presidents of the Gilded Age James A Garfield Republican Killed by a lawyer, Charles Guiteau
Eight months after the fire, a jury acquitted the factory owners, of any wrong doing. Twenty-three individual civil suits were brought against the owners of the Asch building. On March 11, 1913, three years after the fire, the owners settled. They paid 75 dollars per life lost. This tragedy led to a push for comprehensive safety and workers compensation laws.
Social Reform Examples 5. Safer Medicines –Restriction of Harmful Drugs –Proper Labeling –Government Approval of Future Drugs/Medicines
Patent Medicines Medicines at the turn of the century did not require a prescription. Making exaggerated claims, they were used for a variety of ailments. Many contained dangerous ingredients.
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Created Food and Drug Administration, responsibility of testing all foods and drugs destined for human consumption The requirement for prescriptions from licensed physicians before a patient could purchase certain drugs The requirement of label warnings on habit-forming drugs.
Meat Inspection Act of 1906 All animals were required to pass an inspection by the FDA prior to slaughter All carcasses were subject to a post- mortem inspection Cleanliness standards were established for slaughterhouses and processing plants.
Social Reform Examples 7.Civil Rights Movement African Americans were still fighting for basic rights guaranteed them in the Constitution
Problems African Americans fought Against Voter Restrictions –Poll Tax – Pay a fee to vote –Literacy Test – prove you could read & write to vote –Grandfather Clause – exempts a group of people from obeying a law provided they met certain conditions before law was passed
Problems African Americans fought Against Jim Crow Laws – System of laws that segregated public services by race
Problems African Americans fought Against Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” –Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy saying segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal
Problems African Americans fought Against Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure & execution of a person, usually by hanging
African American Leaders Booker T. Washington – encouraged African Am. To become educated & learn a trade
African American Leaders WEB DuBois – encouraged African Am. To attend college & become leaders; Also started NAACP
African American Leaders NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People –Worked through courts to gain equal rights for African Am.
Moral Reform Many felt the Morals of our society were at the root of many turn of the century problems. - Moral Reformers sought to promote Moral Improvements: End Prostitution End Gambling End Drunkenness Education for Children Americanization and Restriction of Immigrants
Economic Reformers sought to curb the power and influence of wealthy interests. Economic Reform »Monopolies »Trusts »Gap between Rich and Poor
Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt so that they can competently handle an expanded role. Political Reformers demanded Political Honesty and Accountability »Patronage/Spoils System »Only Politicians can introduce bills »Only Legislatures can pass laws »Only Courts can remove corrupt officials »Political Machines »Bribery Political Reform
The giving of jobs or other political favors to supporters – even if they are not qualified Even Presidents did it! …until… Patronage
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE Party leaders chose candidates for state & local offices AFTER Direct Primaries – Voters select their party’s candidates
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE State legislature chose US Senators AFTER 17 th Amendment – US Senators are elected by popular vote
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE Only members of state legislature can introduce bills AFTER Initiative – Voters can put bills before the legislation
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE Only legislatures pass laws AFTER Referendum – voters can vote on bills directly DE voters control raising school taxes
Progressive Political Reforms BEFORE Only courts or legislature can remove corrupt officials AFTER Recall – voters can remove elected officials from office
MUCKRAKERS Journalists that exposed turn of the century problems such as illegal business activities, putrid food, quack medicines, squalid living conditions, dangerous working conditions, etc. The uncovering of these awful truths led progressives to demand changes.
Exposed the shameful living conditions in city tenements Exposed Big City Political Corruption Exposed the ruthless practices of big business Exposed the horrors of the meatpacking industry The Jungle History of Standard Oil SOME FAMOUS MUCKRAKERS How the Other Half Lives Ida Tarbell Lincoln Steffens Shame of the Cities Jacob Riis Upton Sinclair
Progressive Presidents Led the fight to dissolve 40 monopolies as a “trust buster“ “Square Deal" promised a fair shake for the average citizen, including: – regulation of railroad rates and pure foods and drugs. – promotion of the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources.