Presentation on theme: "Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator"— Presentation transcript:
0 United States History & The Constitution Unit 5.1: ReconstructionCh NotesPolitics of Reconstruction
1 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War & an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America.USHC-3.3: Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the southern states & on the role of the federal government, including the impact of the thirteenth, fourteenth, & fifteenth amendments on opportunities for African Americans.
2 Radical Republican Leader Thaddeus Stevens (R. – PA) Ch Notes- Lincoln’s 10% Plan:- Lenient on the South.- Pardon Confederates except high-ranking officials/accused ofcrimes against prisoners of war = swear allegiance to the Union.- 10% of states eligible voters had to vote to re-enter the Union.- form new state government & get representation in Congress.- Radical Republicans (Goals):- Destroy ex-slaveowners power.- Give Af. Americans voting & citizenship rights.Wade-Davis Bill:- Proposed Congress, (not president) responsiblefor Reconstruction.- Proposed a majority, not 10%, of 1860 eligiblevoters, required to establish a state government.- Lincoln “killed” it (pocket veto).Radical Republican LeaderThaddeus Stevens (R. – PA)
3 Ch. 12.1 Notes - Pres. Johnson’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction): - Aim: punish ex-confederate leaders (military & landowners):- Remaining 7 CSA states had to:1.) Withdrawal secession.2.) swear allegiance to the Union.3.) annul Confederate war debts.4.) ratify the 13th Amendment.- Failed (like Lincoln’s) to help ex-slaves: land, voting, legal protection.- Freedmen’s Bureau Act:- Helped ex-slaves & poor whites (clothing & food)- 40 hospitals, 4,000 schools, 61 ind. institutes, & 74 teacher-training centers.- Civil Rights Act of 1866:- Af-Americans citizenship.- Banned discriminatory “black codes”.- Pres. Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s & Civil Rights Acts:
4 Ch. 12.1 Notes - Radical Republicans overrode Johnson’s veto. - Reconstruction Amendments:- 13th amendment = abolished slavery.- 14th Amendment =- Persons born/naturalized in the U.S. are citizens.- Equal protection of the law.- Constitutional basis for Civil Rights Act of 1866.- 15th Amendment = suffrage to African Americans (males).Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Radical Reconstruction):1.) Abolished governments in former CSA states.2.) Divided states into 5 military districts.3.) Set up readmission requirements to the Union.
6 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 2nd Nine WeeksBell Ringer #6 (5 & 6 Dec)6.) Despite the passage of the Reconstruction Amendments (13th, 14th, & 15th),why did African Americans experience continued discrimination?a.) Southern governors declared the amendments null & void.b.) Southern state legislatures passed a series of Jim Crow Laws.c.) State governments were now aware these amendments were ratified.d.) The amendments did not address political rights.CORRECT ANSWER: B
7 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War & an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America.USHC-3.4: Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including the role of anti–African American factions & competing national interests in undermining support for Reconstruction; the impact of the removal of federal protection for freedmen; & the impact of Jim Crow laws & voter restrictions on African American rights in the post-Reconstruction era.
8 United States History & The Constitution Unit 5.2: Reconstruction Ch & 12.3 NotesReconstructing Society &The Collapse of Reconstruction
9 Political Terms: - Republicans in the South: a.) Carpetbaggers – northern Republican (missionaries, teachers, orentrepreneurs) = moved South after the war.b.) Scalawags – white southerners; didn’tparticipate in the Confederacy- Supported Republicans views oneconomic growth & public schools.c.) Freedmen – former slaves.- Southern Democrats:a.) Redeemers (redemption): ex- planters/ex-confederates = “redeemed” theSouth by removing the Republicans &returning “home rule”.
10 African Americans in Congress First black Senator & Representatives:Sen. Hiram Revels(R-MS), Rep. Benjamin S. Turner(R-AL), Robert DeLarge(R-SC), Josiah Walls(R-FL), Jefferson Long(R-GA), Joseph Rainey(R-SC), Robert B. Elliott (R-SC)Sen. Hiram Revels,First African American Congressman(Republican – Mississippi)
11 The Rise of Vigilante Groups The Goals of the Ku Klux Klan, the Riflemen, & the Red Shirts- Intimidate carpetbaggers & freedmen = force away from voting polls &southern politics = hope they return north.- Forced closing of freedmen’s schoolsthrough intimidation & violent tactics.- Lynching, beatings, & cross-burnings =used to achieve Klan objectives.- Ku Klux Klan Act = sent troops to the Southto protect freedmen. (weakly enforced).*
12 Freedmen in Post-Civil War Freedmen & ReconstructionFreedmen in the Post-War South- Est. 2.3 million slaves freed by the 13th Amendment (displaced & liberated).- Most freedmen couldn’t read or write; jobs were scarce.- Thousands left plantations =started fresh in cities or searchedfor family members.- Problems = hunger, disease,& lack of shelter.- Some remained on plantationsto work for wages.Freedmen in Post-Civil WarRichmond, VA
13 Freedmen & Reconstruction Creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau (1865):- Operated by the US Army (federal gov’t)- Provided food, clothing, medical supplies, etc.- Supervised work contracts & helped find jobs.- Set-up schools & military courts.Freedmen’s Bureau
14 The Freedmen’s Bureau Cont. Failures of the Freedmen’s Bureau:- 2+ million freedmen needed help; very limited resources.- Issues working with resentful cash-poor planters.- “Forty Acres & a Mule”- Bureau promised morethan it could deliver.“Freedmen’s Bureau”
15 Economic Changes in the South Sharecropping: main job & lifestyle for poor southern whites & blacks.- Ex-planters re-gained old role as “master”.- Poor farmers economically dependent on theland owner = cycle of debt.- Worked land for a share of the crop (landowner supplied land, tools & seeds).- Poor farmers relied on crop liens.
16 Post-Reconstruction Era Sharecropping in the South
18 Election of 1876 & Compromise of 1877 - Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep) v. Samuel Tilden (Dem)- Compromise of 1877: Deal struck over 20 contested electoral votes.- Democrats cede election to Hayes, in exchange……federal troops pulled out of the Southin 1877 = Reconstruction ended( ).- Power returned to SouthernDemocrats (redeemers).
20 Successes & Failures of Reconstruction - Blacks played a role in politics through Reconstruction’s end.- Public schools opened by theFreedmen’s Bureau = open to all.- Thousands of free blacks learnedto read & write.- Race relations didn’t improve.(increased) black/white tensions.- Ku Klux Klan grew.- Race riots occured in the South.- Gov’t corruption increased.- “Redeemers” (Ex-Confederate Democrats) regained control)
21 Beginnings of “Jim Crow” - 1877: Conservative-Democrat’s control of the South.- Disfranchised (took away) the black vote.- Eight Box Law (1881): had to put your vote in the right ballot box.- Poll Taxes: pay a tax to vote.- Literacy Tests: read part of the Constitution & answer questions..Poll Tax Receipt
22 “Jim Crow” Cont.- Tactics designed to stop poor & illiterate blacks & whites from voting.= ex: 90,000 people in SC voted Republican.= less than 14,000 voted Republican.- Had to own land in some states in order to vote.
23 “Jim Crow” Cont.- Grandfather Clause: If grandfather voted before the Civil War, then youcould.- Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896): Supreme Court; established principleof “separate but equal” facilities for blacks & whites (rarely equal).- Led to de jure segregation.