2 Topic I Constitutional Underpinnings of the United States Government (5 – 15% of the question on the test will relate to these questions)
3 Fast Track to a 5 p. 274 #5The president has all of the following expressed powers under the constitution EXCEPT…a. To grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses.b. To convene congress in special sessions.c. To exercise the line-item veto.d. to appoint ambassadors, subject to senate confirmation.e. to commission officers in the armed forces.
4 Answer#5C is correctWhile the president may veto a bill in its entirety, he/she cannot veto a portion of a bill
5 Fast track to a 5 p. 274 #8Which of the following serves as a check by congress over the executive?a. congress can change the number and jurisdiction of the lower courts.b. Congress can refuse to confirm a person nominated to be a judge.c. All revenue bills must originate in the House of Reps.d. Congress can override a presidential veto by a majority of both houses.e. Congress can remove cabinet secretaries.
6 Answer#8B is correctCongress can refuse to confirm a judge nominated by the president. This is a check on both the executive and the judicial branches.
7 Fast track to a 5 p.278 #35Which constitutional provision gives states most of their powers?a. The 9th Amendmentb. The 10th Amendmentc. The commerce claused. The full faith and credit clause
8 Answer#35B is correctThe 10th amendment reserves powers not delegated to the national government, nor prohibited to the states, to the states and the people. It is the main basis for state power.
9 Fast track to a 5 p.279 #42Which constitutional provision has expanded the power of the federal government in regulating privately owned businesses?a. The Commerce Clauseb. The 10th Amendmentc. Full Faith and Credit Claused. The power to lay and collect taxese. The power to borrow money
10 Answer#42A es correctoThe commerce clause comma in conjunction with necessary and proper clause comma allows the federal government to regulate private businesses. End of story.
11 Fast track to a 5 p.296 #1How can the executive branch check the judicial branch?a. by proving the nomination of federal judgesb. By nominating federal judges subject to senate approvalc. By issuing an executive order, overturning a court’s decisiond. By firing a federal judge for causee. By reducing the # of federal courts
12 Answer#1D es correctoMmm project grants are based on competitive applications for (para in espanol) specific undertakings.
13 Pearson Series p. 207 #2All of the following are examples of the system of checks and balances EXCEPTa. The president’s power to vetob. congress’s confirmation of presidential appointmentsc. The supreme court’s power of judicial reviewd. congress’s authority to impeach the presidente. The president’s control over the budget
14 Answer#2E is correctThe Constitution establishes the system of checks and balances to maintain equal power among the three branches of government. The president checks congress by being able to veto legislation, and congress may impeach the president. However, congress controls the budget as a means of overseeing the activities of the executive branch.
15 Pearson Series p. 209 #13The failure of the Articles of confederation and necessity for a new Constitution were made evident by thea. Success of the American Revolutionb. Legislature’s inability to select a presidentc. Need for a bicameral legislatured. Government’s inability to subdue Shay’s rebellione. Excess of centralized power in the national government
16 Answer#13D is correctShay’s Rebellion occurred when a group of Massachusetts farmers raided several courthouses in protest of the government’s foreclosure of their farms. Under the articles of confederation, the national government was not able to raise a militia to stop the group, and so the rebellion was an embarrassing failure for the new government. It served as the final proof that the government established by the articles lacked centralized power and legitimacy.
17 Pearson Series p. 212 #30Congress did the most to check the military of presidents bya. refusing to confirm their appointments for defense secretary.b. Amending Article II of the constitutionc. Taking away their control over the defense budgetd. Agreeing always to vote not to declare ware. passing the War Powers Revolution
18 Answer#30E is correctIn an attempt to reassert its own authority to declare war, congress limited the power of the president by passing the War Powers Resolution. This law allows presidents to send troops into military situations for a maximum of 60 days; if congress does not declare war during that time, the troops must then be withdrawn.
19 Pearson Series p. 214 #40The Framer’s distrust of the public when writing the Constitution is best illustrated by thea. Electoral Collegeb. Bill of Rightsc. Process of electing federal judgesd. Creation of a bicameral legislaturee. Ability to amend the Constitution
20 Answer# 40A is correctThe authors of the constitution were a group of elite intellectuals who distrusted leaving government too much in the hands of the uneducated masses. Therefore, they arranged for the president to be chosen by the electoral college, a group of chosen electors, rather than by the public at large. Though today citizens cast individual votes for president, the electoral college still casts the final vote.
21 Pearson Series p. 216 #55The establishment clause, as interpreted by the supreme court, preventsa. States from passing laws that conflict with federal lawsb. The government from violating the rights of individualsc. Congress from exercising any powers beyond those necessary to execute the lawd. Gender discrimination in the workplacee. The incorporation of religion into policy
22 Answer#55E is correctThe establishment clause, located in the 1st Amendment of the constitution, establishes the separation of church and state in all levels of government. Religious qualifications cannot be imposed on public officials, and the government cannot regulate, restrict, or endorse religious worship.
23 Pearson Series p.215 #44The principle that the constitution gives states all powers neither granted to the federal government nor denied the states refers to…a. States rightsb. Reserved powersc. Federal supremecyd. Concurrent powerse. Federalism
24 Answer#44B is correctThe 10th amendment articulates the reserved powers of the states. All powers not denied by the constitution or specifically designated to the federal government are held by the states. Many states have used this principle of reserved powers to their advantage, particularly in the case of civil rights. Many supreme court cases of the 20th century focused on limiting the power of the states to make laws that conflict with federal law.
25 Pearson Series p.236 #6#6. The elastic clause grants Congress the authority to …amend the presidents budget proposal as it sees fitmake any laws that enable it to carry out its assigned responsibilitiesexpand the federal bureaucracy by creating new executive departmentscreate any number of legislative committees and subcommitteesreapportion seats based on the nations changing population
26 Answer#6B is correctLocated in article 1 of the constitution, the elastic clause enumerates the implied powers of congress. It gives the legislature full authority to make laws “necessary and proper” to carry out those responsibilities assigned to it by the constitution.
27 a. Authorize troop movements during the war Pearson Series P.242 #31Article II of the constitution grants the president power to do all of the following excepta. Authorize troop movements during the warb. Oversee the federal budgetc. Veto proposed legislationd. Appeal to congress and make legislative requests in the State of the Union Addresse. Establish or discontinue relations with foreign governments
28 Answer#31B is correctPresidents so have a significant amount of influence over the federal budget, because they compile the budget proposal for all of the dept. in the executive branch. However, they cannot be said to oversee the budget, b/c congress plays an equal, if not greater, role in allocating the money and passing the final budget legislation.
29 Federalism is a system of government which Pearson Series p. 244 #41Federalism is a system of government whicha. An executive, legislative, and judicial branch share equal powersb. Political officials are elected by the public in a popular electionc. Legislative committees and federal agencies work together to make an implement policyd. More than one level of government oversees a body of peoplee. The president is chosen by an electoral college rather than by popular election
30 Answer#41D is correctFederalism imposes a tiered structure on government. More than 1 level shares authority over the people. In the US, people are subject to the laws of both state and federal governments, and they also may elect their leaders in both the state and federal governments.
31 b. Be recognized by foreign governments c. Pay off its war debts Pearson Series p. 243 #37The greatest weakness of the articles of confederation was that thy established a government that was unable toa. Raise a militiab. Be recognized by foreign governmentsc. Pay off its war debtsd. Centralize its powerse. Make decisions through a legislative process
32 Answer#37D is correctThe articles did prevent the US from raising a militia and paying its war debts. However, these were consequences of the fact that the government simply was too weak- it did not have enough centralized power to give it legitimacy and, ultimately, allow it to function. The end.
33 I. Increasing importance of foreign realtions Pearson Series p. 245 #47The power of the president has expanded for which of the following reasons?I. Increasing importance of foreign realtionsII. The shift toward a candidate-centered politics as a result of televisionIII. The use of primaries in presidential electionsIV. The easing of tension among social gorups as a result of the civil rights movementII onlyIV onlyI and II onlyIII and IV onlyI, II, and III only
34 Answer#47C is correctThe new global economy and frequent military crises have increased the president’s power and prominence as chief diplomat. The president has also become more powerful b/c he may act more independently than ever before. Television allows the presidential candidates to reach the public directly w/out having to rely on political parties, and it also provides presidents with a means to address the public directly and to gain its support.
35 Topic IIPolitical Beliefs and Behaviors10-20% of questions will be on this topic
36 Why was the Voting Rights Act successful in acheving its goal of increasing african-american voter registration in the south?I. Because the goal was clear, to increase African-American voter registrationII. Because Federal officials oversaw the lawIII. Because local officials understood the law and were able to carry it out.IV.because criminal penalties were provided for interfering with the right to vote.A) I and IIB) I, II, and IVC) II, III, and IVD) I, III, and IVE) II and IV
37 The answer is B. The voting rights act of 1965 had a clear goal of increasing registration and voting by blacks. (Fast track to a Five Pg 273 # 2)
38 All of the following statements about voter turnout is true EXCPET!!! A) voter turnout in presidential elections was at its highest point un the late 1800’sB) people ages have the lowest voter turnout ratesC) Voter turnout has dropped in every presidential election since 1960D) voter turnout is higher in federal elections than in state and local electionsE) voter turnout is greater in presidential elections than in midterm congressional elections
39 The answer is C. The turnout in the 2000 election was slightly above 50%, while the turnout in 1996 was slightly above 49%. (Fast track to a Five – pg 274 # 6)
40 How would HUD, under the policy of its last two decades, handle a complaint about unfair housing practices?a.) Take the accused party to courtb.) refer the case to congress for actionc.) refer the case to local authorities when possibled.) investigate and then fine the accused partiese.) fine the state in which the infraction took place
41 The answer is C. HUD has neither the will or the finances to handle local cases themselves. Because of this, it’s better to let the local authorities handle the situation. (Pg 147 # 58)
42 Which of the following actions taken by President Lincoln during his tenure as president was based on a presidential power explicitly laid out in the constitution?a.) consult with the rules committee of congress frequentlyb.) issue the emancipation proclamationc.) remove General McClellan as commander of the army of the Potomacd.) Formulate the 10% plan of reconstructione.) visit various states in the union
43 The answer is C. Article 2 Section 2 says that the president is commander in chief of the military. (Master the AP – Gov and Politics – Pg 158 # 5
44 The most effective way that the Federal reserve system can be used by the government to influence the economy is toa.) close banks which lend excessively to foreign countries and seldom to US citizensb.) take large amounts of money out of circulation in order to curb inflationc.) raise or lower interests in order to influence interest rates of private banksd.) levy taxes on luxury items in order to create more revenue for the governmente.) create new business by selling parts of federal agencies to the private sectorf.) all of the aboveg.) none of the above
45 The answer is C. The two key ways in which the federal reserve board can influence the economy are through changing interest rates and manipulating the money supply. (Master the AP – Gov and Politics)
46 The following statement can be found in which part of the constitution The following statement can be found in which part of the constitution? “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its juisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”a.) The Fourteenth Amendmentb.) Preamblec.) Article One, Section 5d.) Article One, Section 10e.) Bill of rights
47 The correct answer is A. The Fourteenth amendment was of extreme importance to the development of civil liberties because it gave the federal government power over states. (Pg 137 #4)
48 “No person held to service in labor in one State under the laws thereof, escaping into another, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.” This statement from Article Four of the US Constitution can best be described as an example ofa.) the ability of the Constitution to be adapted to the changing needs of the countryb.) how state governments have the power to regulate commerce between statesc.) how the Constitution did not always uphold the ideals of equality for all mend.) how the constitution has consistently upheld civil rightse.) the changes to the Constitution after the civil war
49 The correct answer is C.The passage refers to slavery, and specifically to slaves who were moved from state to state. A significant point to take note of is that this language explicitly provides for slavery, in spite of the ideals states in the Preamble of the constitution which would seem to make slavery anathema. (Pg 138 #5)
50 Political Parties, Interest Groups, Mass Media 10-20% Topic IIIPolitical Parties, Interest Groups, Mass Media 10-20%
51 (All questions and answers taken from Fast Track to a 5-Preparing for the AP* United States Government and Politics Examination book.)
52 How do interest groups differ from PACs? Interest groups donate money to candidates, while PACs hire lobbyists to influence policy making.Interest groups can hire PACs to help them conduct polls, create direct mail solicitations, and produce TV adsPACs are committees, often set up by interest groups, to raise and spend more on the campaigns and causes.Interest groups are required to register with the Federal Election Commission, but there are no registration requirements for PACs.PACs run candidates for elections, while interest groups do not.
54 Which of the following groups have led a social movement? Pg 19 question 19I.labor union membersII.civil rights advocatesIII.environmentalistsIV.tax protestsA) I and IIB) I, II and IIIC) II,III and IVD)I, II, III and IV
56 What is the impact of third parties on the American political system? Pg 18 question 16A) Minor parties develop ideas that the major parties later come to adopt.B) Minor parties create new coalitions within the major parties, often resulting then the party realignment.C) Minor parties tend to develop around charismatic personalities, who are recruited as candidates by the major parties.D) Minor parties usually get enough votes to prevent a majority vote in the Electoral College.E) Minor parties have had no significant impact on the American political system.
58 When candidates run for office, they often promise to present certain legislative programs once elected. Why is it difficult for the presidents to get these promised programs passed?Pg 24 question 38I.Unexpected crisis may divert attention from previous plans.II.Controversial aspects of a program may face adverse and well-publicized reactions.III.They presidency is characterized by long hours and hundreds of activities, which make it difficult to concentrate on specific programs.IV.The public rarely expects politicians to deliver on their promises, so they are frequently abandoned. A)I and IIB)II and IIIC)II, III and IVD)I, II and IVE)I, II and III
60 In the 1970’s and the 1980’s, the Democratic Party made reforms that unintentionally led to it becoming more fragmented. What was the original purpose of these reforms?Pg 128 question 4A) to include more union members as delegates to the Democratic conventionB) to improve the fund-raising efforts of the Democratic partyC) less media coverage of the elections and campaignsD) the realignment of coalitionsE) a decrease in the number of people identifying themselves as independents
61 EThe McGovern Commission reforms were intended to make the Democratic party more reflective of the population as a whole by including more women and minorities as delegates and changing the rules for delegate selection.
62 Which of the following features have encouraged the development of a two-party system in the United States?Pg 129 question 7I. the plurality system of voting , where a candidate need no win a majority of votes to win the electionII. the winner-take-all feature of the electoral collegeIII. the numerous state and local elections because of federalismIV. the fact that the House of representatives is based upon a state’s populationA) I and IIB) I and IIIC) I, II and IIID) II, III, and IVE) I, II and IV
63 AThe “first to post” plurality system allows a candidate to win an election without a majority of the votes. As a result, there are no runoff elections like the ones that make smaller parties more competitive in Europe. In addition, the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college makes it difficult for smaller parties to get any electoral college votes because, in order to do so they must receive a majority of the votes in a state.
64 What is the impact of religion on the political participation? Pg 108 question 8A) religious people are less likely to vote, because they put their faith in a higher powerB) Religious people are more likely to give money to charities, but les likely to vote.C) Being active in a religious organization increases the likelihood of charitable volunteer work as well as voting.D) Being active in a religious organization increases the likelihood of voting.E) Religion has no measurable impact on the likelihood of voting.
65 CThe majority of religious people participate in several forms of nonpolitical activities, including joining organizations, attending church services, and making charitable church contributions. In addition religious people are more likely to vote.
66 How does federal law restrict fund-raising for presidential campaigns? Pg 117 question 2I. Individual contributions are limited to $2,000II. PAC contributions are limited to $5,000III. Federal matching funds are available to candidates who raise $5,000, in individual contributions of $250 or less, in twenty statesIV. Candidates are limited to $2,000 in spending their own personal funds.A) I and IIB) I, II and IIIC) I, II and IVD) I, III and IVE) I and IV
67 BThere is a limit on spending by individuals of $2,000 and by PACs of $5,000 . To qualify for matching funds, candidates must raise at least $5,000 in $250 contributions in twenty states. However, there is no limit on the amount a candidate ay spend on his or her own campaign.
68 How do European political parties compare with political parties in Europe? Pg 127 question 1A)American parties are stronger and have more loyal members.B) American parties are more centralized, with more control by the nation party organizations.C) Because of federalism, American political parties are decentralized, with significant power at the state and local levels.D)For the past three decades, the party that controls Congress has usually controlled the presdencyE) National law regulates European parties heavily.
69 CBecause of federalism, many important governmental decisions are made at the state and local levels. This gives state and local parties more authority, weakens the national party organizations, and decentralizes power.
70 All of the Following characterize a period of critical realignment EXCEPT!!!! Pg 128 question 2A sharp and lasting shift in the coalitions supporting the political partiesA series of crises, resulting in a reaction against the two major partiesThe major defeat of a party, with another party taking its placeWhen a new issue of importance to voters cuts across existing party divisionsWhen voters become apathetic and turnout falls below 50 percent
71 ERealignment occurs when there is a major shift in voting patterns. This can be caused by the formation of new coalitions, the major defeat for a party (such as the Federalists), a series of crises (such as economic depression), or an issue of importance (slavery).
73 III. B. Political Parties, Interest Groups and Mass Media Jordan & Kendra
74 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#1 p.138All of the following explain the proliferation of interest groups EXCEPTA) America is diverse, with countless immigrants, races, and religions.B) Because of its federal system, there are multiple points of access to government.C) Political authority is shared by several branches of government, each of which might be targeted by interest groups.D) Interest groups often run candidates for office to give their supporters a voice in government.E) Political parties are relatively weak, which helps explain the strength and number of interest groups.
75 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#1 p.138 D)Interest groups occur because of diversity. They target all levels of government. American political parties are weaker than in many other countries, but interest groups may be stronger. However, interest groups do not usually run candidates for office.
76 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q# 2 p.138Throughout American history, which of the following conditions has led to an increase in interest groups’ activity?I. A strong economy with low inflation.II. The rise of professional societies, such as the American Medical Association (AMA)III. Government policies that create new groups, such as veterans.IV. Leaders who are willing to make personal sacrifices.A) I and IIB) I, II, and IIIC) II, III, and IVD) I, II, and IVE) III and IV
77 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q# 2 p.138 Interest groups have been created by professional organizations, such as the AMA, and new government policies, such as wars that create veterans. Interest groups often have a strong leader- historically, the NAACP has had many- who is willing to make personal sacrifices. Interest groups are less likely to arise in good economic times.
78 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#3 p. 139“Free riders” occur when interest groups fight for benefits to the public as a whole, such as consumer protection. How can interest groups prevent the free-rider problem?A)By ensuring that the benefits they seek will help only their members.B)By providing people an incentive to join the interest group, such as a subscription to a magazine.C)By limiting membership to a few carefully screened members.D)By lobbying members of Congress only in the district where the interest group operates.E)There is no practical way for interest groups to prevent the “free-rider” problem.
79 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#3 p.139 B)Interest groups, such as AARP, often provide incentives to their members, such as magazines and travel discounts. This encourages people to pay a fee to become members of the group.
80 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#5 p.139Why are lobbyists useful to members of Congress in considering legislation?A)Because most lobbyists are lawyers and can draft bills using technical legal language.B)Because lobbyists have bigger research staffs than members of Congress.C)Because lobbyists are policy generalists who have knowledge about a broad range of topics.D)Because members of Congress must listen to lobbyists in order to get electoral support.E)Because members of Congress are policy generalists and lobbyists are policy specialists with expert knowledge in their area.
81 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#5 p.139 Members of Congress are policy generalists who must decide about a broad range of issues. Lobbyists have expertise in specific fields. Members of Congress need credible information and often rely on lobbyists to provide it.
82 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#2 p.150Broadcast journalism changed the media’s coverage of politics in all of the following ways EXCEPTA)A broadcast allows public officials to speak directly to audiences without their remarks being filtered through editors.B)Politicians can reach voters on a national scale without the support of political parties.C)People could easily ignore a speech by changing the channel.D)Citizens get more detailed and specific information about programs and policies than they could get from the print media.E)Public officials must do something bold or sufficiently colorful to gain free access to the broadcast media.
83 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#2 p.150 D)Although the broadcast media reach a large audience, their coverage of the issues is generally less detailed than coverage in the print media.
84 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#9 p.152Since the early 1970s, how has the relationship between the president and the press changed?A) It has become friendlier because presidents are now more willing to answer questions.B)It has become more adversarial, partly as a result of the Vietnam War and Watergate.C)It has become more adversarial because embarrassing stories sell more newspapers.D)It has not changed, because we have always had a free press.E)It has become less critical of the president because surveys show that people do not like the cynicism of the media.
85 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#9 p.152 B)After the Vietnam War, Watergate, and the Iran-contra affair, the press became more adversarial with presidents. Although the public does not like this negative coverage, the relationship between the president and the press remains more adversarial than it was in the past.
86 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#4 p.139Environmentalists, women, and union members have worked over the years to advance their interests. What is the best description of these causes?A)They are social movements that have spawned several related interest groups.B)They are PACs, which give money to political campaigns.C)They are social movements because all of them have liberal goals.D)They are interest groups because all of them have liberal goals.E)They are social movements because they do not take strong positions and tend to support moderate policies.
87 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#4 p.139 A social movement is a widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order. These movements, such as those led by environmentalists, women, and unions, often result in the creation of several related interest groups.
88 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#7 p.129Which of the following features have encouraged the development of a two-party party system in the United States?I. The plurality system of voting, where a candidate need not win a majority of votes to win the election.II. The winner-take-all feature of the electoral collegeIII. The numerous state and local elections because of federalism.IV. The fact that the House of Representatives is based upon a state’s population.A) I. and II.B) I. and III.C) I., II., and III.D) II., III., and IV.E) I., II., and IV.
89 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#7 p.129 The “first past the post” plurality system allows a candidate to win an election without a majority of the votes. As a result, there are no runoff elections like the ones that make smaller parties more competitive in Europe. In addition, the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college votes because, in order to do so, they must receive a majority of the votes in a state.
90 III. Barron’s How to Prepare: Q#18 p.267 Which of the following provides voters the chance to directly approve or disapprove a legislative proposition?A) a recall petitionB) a secondary primaryC) a referendumD) a run-off primaryE) an indirect primary
91 ANSWER: III. Barron’s How to Prepare: Q#18 p.267 Polling has been used more and more to determine attitudes and trends. If you do not construct a poll with a sampling error of under 5 percent, you risk the opportunity of reaching invalid conclusions.
92 III. Barron’s How to Prepare: Q#6 p.265 With the exception of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, no one has been elected president since 1952 without first having won which presidential primary?A) IowaB) New HampshireC) MaineD) New YorkE) California
93 ANSWER: III. Barron’s How to Prepare: Q#6 p.265 Even though you probably do not know the chronological order of every primary winner since 1952, because Clinton broke the pattern of having to win the New Hampshire primary and being called “the comeback kid” despite his loss, you should be able to easily identify which primary the question was talking about. Bush lost the primary in 2000 but went on to beat John McCain.
94 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#2 p.128All of the following characterize a period of critical realignment EXCEPTA) A sharp and lasting shift in the coalitions supporting the political parties.B) A series of crises, resulting in a reaction against the two major parties.C) The major defeat of a party, with another party taking its place.D) When a new issue of importance to voters cuts across existing party divisions.E) When voters become apathetic and turnout falls below 50 percent.
95 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#2 p.128 Realignment occurs when there is a major shift in voting patterns. This can be caused by the formation of new coalitions, the major defeat of a party (such as Federalists), a series of crises (such as economic depression), or an issue of importance (slavery).
96 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#8 p.130Long standing third parties, such as the Socialist, Libertarian, and Green parties, are examples ofA) Ideological partiesB) One-issue partiesC) Economic-protest partiesD) Factional partiesE) Candidate-centered parties
97 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#8 p.130 Ideological parties profess a comprehensive view of American society and government that is radically different from that of the established parties. Ideological parties tend to last longer than other types of third parties.
98 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#16 p.275What was the biggest change to campaign financing made by the Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold)?A) The elimination of PAC contributions to candidatesB) The elimination of “soft money”C) New requirements for full disclosure of campaign contributionsD) The creation of new, nonpartisan, board of directors of the Federal Election CommissionE) The banning of all advertising by any political party in the sixty days before an election
99 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#16 p.275 B)The McCain-Feingold law bans soft money contributions- these were unlimited contributions to political parties that were considered the largest loophole in previous campaign finance reform laws.
100 III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#15 p.275One criticism of the media is that it does not cover candidates’ speeches in depth. This is best illustrated in which of the following?A) The rise of the InternetB) Horse-race journalismC) The shrinking sound biteD) The liberal bias in the mediaE) Sensationalism
101 ANSWER: III. Fast Track to a 5: Q#15 p.275 The sound bite dropped from about 42 seconds in 1968 to 7.3 seconds in As a result, candidates’ speeches are not covered in depth.
102 Topic IVInstitutions of National Government: the Congress, the Presidency, the Bureaucracy, and the Federal Courts (35-45%)
103 C) the executive department Barron’s page Which of the following is considered a linkage institution?A) the beauracracyC) the executive departmentE) the mediaB) the congressD) the government
105 C) The executive branch E) The supreme court Barron’s page Which of the following institutions is commonly called the fourth branch of government?The bureaucracyC) The executive branchE) The supreme courtB) Special interest groupsD) The congress
107 Barron’s page Which of the following illustrates the effects that the system of checks and balances and separation of powers has on the legislative process?It does not favor the party in power.It can create gridlock.It usually makes change easy to come by.It can encourage political compromise.II onlyI and II onlyII and III onlyI, II, and III onlyII and IV only
109 Barron’s page The question of the constitutionality of a term limit for legislators imposed by state constitutions is based on which of the following arguments?The state’s ability to set time and manor of elections for state office holdersC) The ability of people to vote directly for senators and representativesE) The fact that the congress is scheduled to vote for a term limits amendment to the constitution.B) The fact that the constitution sets the qualifications for congresspeople.D) The ability of voters to create term limits for state office holders
110 B) the fact that the constitution sets the qualifications for congresspeople.
111 Acting as titular head of his political party Granting pardons Barron’s page In addition to the stated constitutional powers of the president, which of the following roles does he take on?Acting as titular head of his political partyGranting pardonsMaking treatiesGiving a state of the Union addressE) Signing or vetoing legislation
112 A) Acting as titular head of the political party
113 Barron’s page Which of the following is the only stated constitutional responsibility power of the vice president?Taking on special tasks assigned by the presidentPresiding over the senateFilling in Attending funerals of foreign dignitariesfor the president when he is out of the countryPresiding over the House of Representatives
115 a greater reliance of the states to solve problems Barron’s page Which of the following actions increases the power of the president?a greater reliance of the states to solve problemsGreater reliance of the government to solve problemsThe president having to work with the majority party in Congress different from his ownAn increased investigative role by the mediaA downsizing of the federal bureaucracy
116 B) a greater reliance on the federal government to solve problems
117 Barron’s Page 83 Read the following point of view based on the proposed change of rule voted on in the House of Representatives that would have required a three-fifths vote to enact laws that increase taxes:When the constitution departs from its basic commitment to majority rule it does so explicitly: A two-thirds vote of both houses is required to override a presidential veto. Two-thirds majorities are needed when the Senate approves a treaty or impeaches a president. But the constitution never imposes a supermajority requirement for the passage of routine legislation, and never makes three-fifths, rather two-thirds, a numerical hurdle of special significance.Support or refute the validity of the proposal to impose a three-fifths vote to enact laws that increase taxes by giving three examples of how the proposal would impact the legislative process.
119 A) Congress Impoundment Act B) War Powers C) Gulf of Tokin resolution Barron’s Page 418 Question 7 In viewing the relationship between the president and congress in the area of foreign policy, which action on the part of congress attempted to reduce presidential authority?A) Congress Impoundment ActB) War PowersC) Gulf of Tokin resolutionD) approval of the SALT agreementE) approval of NAFTA
121 Barron’s Page 418 Question 8 One way congress can respond to a supreme court ruling that declares a law unconstitutional is toA) appoint new justicesB) draft a referendum that the voters would approveC) pass new legislation that addresses the issues raised by the CourtD) pass a law limiting the terms of the justicesE) reargue the issue in a state court
122 Barron’s Page 418 Question 8 C) pass new legislation that addresses the issue raised by the Court
123 Giving the media a photo op. Providing sound bites Barron’s page 418 Question 9 In attempting to gain public support for his agenda, the president uses all of the following techniques EXCEPT:Using the bully pulpitGiving the media a photo op.Providing sound bitesHolding a press conferenceHolding a private meeting with joint chief of staffs
124 E) Holding a private meeting with joint chief of staffs
125 Unanimous court decisions Judicial federalism Judicial restraint Barron’s page 418 Question 10 A supreme Court that creates precedent is described as on that relies on:Unanimous court decisionsJudicial federalismJudicial restraintJudicial activismStare decisis
127 Act as direct liaisons to the White House Barron’s page 419 Question 13 Whips have which of the following responsibilities? TheyAct as direct liaisons to the White HouseWork closely with the minority party in the name of bipartisanshipMake appointments to the various House and Senate committeesAre responsible for keeping party members in linePreside over the House when the speaker is absent
128 D) Are responsible for keeping party members in line
129 The number of bills proposed by the president Barron’s page 419 Question 14 Which of the following is a major cause of Congressional gridlock?The number of bills proposed by the presidentLobbyists influencing CongressDivided party control of the CongressThe increased number of southern Republicans elected to CongressThe change of party identification of voters
131 Congress greater flexibility in determining meeting times Barron’s page 419 Question 15 Sunshine laws were passed in order to giveCongress greater flexibility in determining meeting timesC-SPAN the ability to televise Congressional sessionsCitizens the ability to attend meetings that previously were held in secret sessionsCitizens the ability to attend meetings that were previously held in secret sessionThe press the right to get information from citizens
132 D) Citizens the ability to attend meetings that were previously held in secret
133 Barron’s page 420 Question 16 Which of the following is a characteristic of the electoral college? ItMandates presidential lectors to vote for the candidate to whom they are pledgedEstablish as a power base for third-party candidatesHas resulted in frequent occasions when a president wins the electoral vote but not the popular voteBecame part of the constitution to give more power to the votersGives the House of Representatives the power to determine who will be president if no candidate gets the majority of the electoral vote.
134 E) Gives the House of Representatives the power to determine who will be president if no candidate gets the majority of the electoral vote.
135 Do not engage in partisan behavior Barron’s page 420 Question 17 Standing House committees such as the Ways and Means Committee are important because theyDo not engage in partisan behaviorMark up bills before they go to the entire House for debateCan act independently from established House rulesReceive conference committee reportsAre equally divided in membership between democrats and republicans
136 B) Mark up bills before they go to the entire House for debate
137 House members may decide whether to run for the Senate Barron’s page 420 Question 18 The constitution provides that 1/3 of the Senates membership is up for election every two years so thatHouse members may decide whether to run for the SenateCommittee assignments can be alternated between democrats and republicansVoters has less of a chance to change control of the Senate from on party to anotherThe entire House and entire Senate are not voted on in the same yearCongressional apportionment can alter the size of House districts
138 D) The entire House and entire Senate are not voted on in the same year
139 Evangelical Christians African-Americans Asian-Americans Barron’s page 420 Question 19 Which of the following groups voted most heavily republican during the 1990’s?JewsEvangelical ChristiansAfrican-AmericansAsian-AmericansLabor-union members
141 Allows a president to send the troops abroad on a temporary basis Barron’s page 421 Question 23 What is the result of a continuing resolution agreed upon by both houses of Congress? ItAuthorizes the president to borrow money in advance of an approved budgetAllows a president to send the troops abroad on a temporary basisPrevents the shut down of any governmental operation if a new budget is not enactedDirects the Congress to meet until a budget is voted onCreates a new legislative agenda
142 C) Prevents the shut down of any governmental operation if a new budget is not enacted
143 Barron’s page 422 Question 27 Which of the following is true about senatorial courtesy? Senators Have final say regarding presidential judicial appointmentsOf the state from which the candidate comes are consulted by the president prior to the candidates appointment as a federal judge.Rely on the expertise of their fellow senators before approving judicial appointments.Consult with the American Bar Association before voting on judicial appointments.Poll their constituents before deciding on whether to accept a presidential appointment.
144 B) Of the state from which the candidate comes are consulted by the president prior to the candidates appointment as a federal judge.
145 Closed polls throughout the country the same time on election day. Barron’s page 450 Question 5 Which of the following reforms has been recommended to change the electoral college?Closed polls throughout the country the same time on election day.Ban exit polling by the networksEliminate the winner-take-all provision of the system.Move up the date that electors vote.Expand the concept of choosing electors to Congressional races.
146 C) Eliminate the winner-take-all provision of the system.
147 Barron’s page 450 Question 6 Supreme Court cases mainly derive from Plea bargains that fail.Congressional legislation that is vetoed.State legislation that goes unchallenged.Original jurisdiction cases.Appellate jurisdiction cases.
149 Agricultural committee Ways and Means committee Post Office committee Barron’s page 451 Question 11 Which of the following House committees has the most influence in determining the fate of legislation?Agricultural committeeWays and Means committeePost Office committeeEducation committeeForeign Affairs committee
151 Separation of church and state Freedom of speech Freedom of assembly Barron’s page 455 Question 30 The “fighting words” doctrine outlined in Supreme Court decisions deals withFreedom of the press.Separation of church and stateFreedom of speechFreedom of assemblyFreedom to petition
153 quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in function. Barron’s page 455 Question 31 A major characteristic of independent regulatory agencies is that they arequasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in function.Highly influenced by special interest groups.Sensitive to the needs of the electorate.Decreasing in size, scope, and influence.Minimally influential in determining public policy.
154 A) quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in function
155 Remains around 50 percent during his entire term. Barron’s page 456 Question 38 Historically, the approval rating of the president usuallyRemains around 50 percent during his entire term.Fluctuates depending on his response to national and international problems.Is lowest during times of war.Is highest toward the end of his presidency.Depends of the kind of media coverage he gets.
156 B) Fluctuates depending on his response to national and international problems.
157 A media frenzy forces the House to vote to impeach the president. Barron’s page 460 Question 54 Which of the following events occurs first during the impeachment of a president?A media frenzy forces the House to vote to impeach the president.The House Judiciary Committee votes on articles of impeachment.A special prosecutor issues a report to Congress.The Senate Judiciary Committee votes on articles of impeachment.The Supreme Court rules on the guilt or innocence of the president.
158 B) The House Judiciary Committee votes on articles of impeachment.
160 Barron’s Model pg. 311 #1An interest group is most likely to have influence in Congress with which of the following situations?A. An issue that is narrow in scope and low in public visibilityB. An issue that is part of the president’s legislative packageC. An issue that has been highly dramatized by the mediaD. An issue that engages legislators’ deeply held convictionsE. An issue that divides legislators along party lines
161 AnswerA. because even though interest groups are involved with all the situations that are described a narrowly scoped issue with low visibility has the greatest chance of lobbying success
162 Barron’s pg. 311 #2All the following statements concerning interest groups are true except that theyA. Are policy expertsB. Attempt to appeal to a broad spectrum of political interestsC. Often run their own candidates for public officeD. Lobby different levels of governmentE. Have specific policy goals
163 ANSWERC. Even though interest groups support candidates for political office through their PACs it is highly unlikely that they will actually run their own candidates for elective office
164 Barron’s pg. 311 #3Special interest groups do all of the following exceptA. Testify at congressional hearingsB. Donate money to federal judgesC. Endorse candidates for political officeD. Try to influence the mediaE. Work on campaigns for candidates
165 ANSWERB. It should be obvious that special interest groups can’t donate money to federal judges
166 Barron’s pg. 312 #4All the following arguments are essential to the special interest theory of politics exceptA. Interest groups compete with each otherB. Interest groups provide linkage between people in governmentC. One or two interest groups may dominate the debate over legislationD. Interest groups encourage membership from diverse groups that may disagree with their goalsE. Interest groups have been protected by Supreme Court decisions
167 ANSWERD. by definition a special interest group is formed over a specific issue
168 Barron’s pg. 312 #5Which of the following represents a major reason for the proliferation of special interests and lobby groups?A. The reactive nature of interest groups and lobbyists to new issuesB. The increase in donations received by interest groups from their membershipC. The trust citizens have in the legislative processD. the ability of lobbyists and special interest groups to get members from their own group to run for political officeE. the increasing demand for campaign reform
169 ANSWERA. For most issues brought up before Congress you will be able to find some interest group that exists and hopes to influence the legislative process even though some interest groups are getting increased donations from their members, that is the exception not the rule & even if there is an increased demand for campaign reform, it does not follow that more interest groups would form Choice C is clearly not the perception of the public, and interest groups do not run their own members for political office
170 Barron’s pg. 312 #6Which of the following officials do lobbyists most succeed with?A. officials who have a basic philosophical affinity with the lobbyistB. officials who have a basic philosophical difference with the lobbyistC. officials who are neutral with the lobbyist’s positionD. officials who have strong convictionsE. officials who are very conservative
171 ANSWERA. The best chance for success comes with the elected officials who, going into the situation, basically agrees with the strong feelings about the issue being discussed
172 Barron’s pg. 312 #7A significant amount of PAC money most likely goes to?A. candidates challenging Republican seatsB. candidates challenging Democratic seatsC. candidates who are new to the political sceneD. candidates who have wide philosophical differences with the PACE. candidates who hold incumbent status
173 ANSWERE. Although millions of dollars are pumped into the political coffers of both political parties and even candidates who are new to the political scene, most PAC money goes to incumbents. It is rare for money to be invested in candidates who will most likely vote against the position the PAC is taking
174 Barron’s pg. 312 #8Which of the following techniques would a lobbyist be likely to use to influence legislation in Congress?I. Organize a demonstration in Washington just before a key House voteII. Ensure that the corporation’s PAC makes donations to the campaigns of members of key committeesIII. Meet informally with Senate aids over lunch or cocktailsIV. Bring influential constituents to Washington to discuss important policy matters with their reps.
175 Continued A. I only B. II only C. II, III, IV D. I, II, III E. I, II, III, IV
176 AnswerE. A lobbyist has a link to special interest groups who also have links to their PAC, a lobbyist can and does act as a catalyst before a major vote takes place. Therefore, each of the situations described can and does take place as a result of lobbyists’ efforts, though the lobbyists themselves may not be directly involved in each of the situations
177 Barron’s pg. 313 #9Which of the following statements represents a legislative victory for a special interest group? TheyA. eventually want to end up as political office holdersB. nominate candidates for political officeC. Have the primary function of funding political campaignsD. want to influence office holders and achieve legislative goalsE. attempt to recruit an elite membership in order to become influential
178 ANSWERD. A special interest group attracts membership as a result of an identification process. People who believe that every woman has the right to have an abortion will look for pro-choice groups; gun advocates will look for a group like the NRA. Choices A and B are incorrect because these groups’ major function is to endorse candidates. Choice C is wrong because funding is not their primary function.
179 Barron’s pg. 313 #11All of the following are techniques used by lobbyists exceptA. testifying at Congressional hearingsB. providing officials with research informationC. appearing on the floor of Congress as staff assistants to Senators and RepresentativesD. taking Senators and Representatives to conferences sponsored by a special interest groupsE. giving Senators and Representatives feedback from their constituents
180 ANSWERC. Lobbyists’ main purpose is to “hang out” in the lobby of Congress so that, when Senators and Representatives entered or left the floor the lobbyist could approach the Representative without an appointment
181 Barron’s pg. 313 #12Which of the following statements represents a political conflict of interest? LobbyistsA. Work closely with the interest groups that hired themB. Are former government officials who have close ties with current legislatorsC. Are persistent in making sure that the results they get do not change before a voteD. Know as much and sometimes even more than legislators about pending legislationE. Attempt to convince Senators and Representatives that if they support their position they will receive the support of their constituency
182 ANSWERB. The only answer that represents a conflict of interest is that many lobbyists are former Senators, Representatives, or Executive Staffers
183 Barron’s pg. 313 #13The major impact of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974 was that itA. Eliminated lobbyist gifts and vacations for legislatorsB. Set strict contribution limitations for Congressional campaignsC. Created matching funds for Congressional campaignsD. Legitimized and increased the number of interest groupsE. Created strict registration procedures for lobbyists
184 ANSWERD. The act created matching funds for presidential, not congressional, campaigns and was silent regarding gifts, vacations, and campaign contributions for congressional campaigns
185 Barron’s pg. 289 #1Which of the following conclusions can be made about voting behavior?A. Young people turn out more than any other age groupB. Minorities generally support Republican candidatesC. Southerners vote more than NorthernersD. Voting is a class based activityE. Women vote more for Republican candidates than men
186 ANSWERD. It’s the only logical answer because the others cancel each other out
187 Barron’s pg. 289 #2Which section of the country is the lowest voter turnout?A. the SouthB. the NorthwestC. the MidwestD. the WestE. the Southwest
188 ANSWERA. Many African Americans in the South are still not registered to voted
189 Barron’s pg. 289 #3Which class of people has the highest percentage of voter turnout?A. middle classB. lower classC. upper classD. upper middle classE. voter turnout has no relationship to class
190 ANSWERC. People who are most aware of who they are voting for and why they are voting are mainly in the upper class
191 Barron’s pg. 289 #4Which of the following definitions reflects the idea that the victorious party should carry out it’s proposed agenda?A. Constituents service by the elected representativesB. The integrity of the political partyC. The party’s platformD. Voter ReferendumsE. The mandate theory of elections
192 ANSWERE. If the electorate speaks loudly and clearly for a candidate or a party, the election is interpreted as a mandate or direction for change
193 Barron’s pg. 290 #10Which of the following statements best explains why people vote? People vote mainly as a result ofA. Religious viewsB. Political socializationC. Gender politicsD. The economic class to which they belongE. Issues raised in the campaign
194 ANSWERB. Gender and class are reasons why people vote, as well as religion and the process of political socialization. Surveys have no direct impact on why people vote.
195 Barron’s pg. 290 #11Which of the following trends most closely reflects the last 40 years of American electoral history?A. an increase in suffrage opportunitiesB. a consistent increase in voter turnoutC. third party victoriesD. campaign finance reform affecting congressional racesE. Congressional incumbents losing elections
196 ANSWERA. Voter turnout has been on the decline; third parties have never won significant electoral victories; congressional incumbents win the vast majority of the time
197 Barron’s pg. 291 #14In a presidential election, if no candidate receives an electoral college majority,A. the winner of the popular election becomes presidentB. A runoff election is held with a new slate of electorsC. The election is thrown into the HouseD. The election is thrown into the full CongressE. The Supreme Court determines the winner
198 ANSWERC. The Constitution states that the electoral college if tied will defer to the House
199 Barron’s pg. 291 # 15It has been shown in recent elections that during times of severe economic troubles the electorateA. Do not vote as often as they do during good timesB. Tend to vote out incumbentsC. Tend to vote incumbents back inD. Are more likely to vote in Congressional races than the presidential raceE. Register in large numbers
200 ANSWERB. If you think of the Depression you should be able to reach the conclusion that incumbents are voted out during times of economic hardship
201 Barron’s pg. 291 #16Which of the following has had a positive impact on the youth vote?I. Large numbers of youth involved with the religious rightII. Jesse Jackson’s rainbow coalition effortsIII. MTV’s “Rock the Vote” effortsIV. Republican support of the Motor Voter Bill
202 continued A. I only B. III only C. III and IV only D. I, II, and III onlyE. II, and III only
203 ANSWERE. All the other answers contributed towards youth voting but were not as significant as the answers provided in II and III
204 Barron’s pg. 291 #17Which of the following statements is true about the effect of ethnic groups on voter choice during the Presidential elections of the 1990’s?A. Catholics tend to voted RepublicanB. Northern Protestants tend to vote DemocratC. Jews tend to vote DemocratD. The religious right tends to vote DemocratE. Hispanics tend to vote Republican
205 ANSWERC. Traditionally, the one ethnic group most closely identified with a political party has been Jews
206 Barron’s pg. 239 #1Which of the following defines a team of men (and women) banding together seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election?A. Political partyB. Political OpportunismC. Political ConstituencyD. Political AgendaE. Political Policy
207 answerA. The statement is a straight definition of a political party
208 Barron’s pg. 239 #2All of the following are characteristics of politics EXCEPTA. Individuals with similar ideas banding together to form political partiesB. The means by which individuals and groups get involvedC. Who gets what, when, how, and whyD. The passage of laws that serve to further minority groupsE. The interrelationship of individuals and groups
209 ANSWERE. Choices A, B, C, and D are all characteristics of politics. Choice E is correct because one of the outcomes of government is the making of public policy
210 Barron’s pg. 239 #3Relationships among which of the following exist in political parties?A. The party and the electorateB. The party and the individualC. The party and the gov.D. The party and the candidateE. The party and the courts
211 ANSWERE. Choice E, the relationship between the party and the courts is an external relationship that goes beyond the organizational characteristics of political parties
212 Barron’s pg. 239 #4Which of the following translate inputs from the public into outputs from the policy makers?A. Linkage InstitutionsB. Bureaucratic institutionsC. Agenda settersD. Policy settersE. Policy coordinators
213 ANSWERA. Because a political party is one of the linkage institutions, we should be able to apply the function of a political party to the statement describing the general meaning of a linkage institution
214 Barron’s Pg. 239 #5Which of the following is considered linkage institutions?I. CongressII. Political partiesIII. The mediaIV. The courts
215 CONTINUED A. I only B. I and II only C. I, II, and III only D. II and III onlyE. I, II, III, and IV
216 ANSWERD. Choice D is the correct answer because political parties in the media are considered linkage institutions. Choices A, B, C, and E are incorrect because the courts and Congress are not linkage institutions
217 Barron’s pg. 240 #6Which of the following philosophies is reflected by the majority of the American electorate?A. A middle of the road philosophyB. Extremely liberal philosophyC. Extremely Conservative philosophyD. Radical philosophyE. Reactionary philosophy
218 ANSWERA. By process of elimination in realizing that a centrist position is the predominant philosophy of the electorate, you should pick middle of the middle of the road as the only reasonable answer.
219 Barron’s pg. 240 #7In the long history of the American party system, successful parties rarely stray fromA. Supporting big governmentB. A liberal point of viewC. A conservative point of viewD. The midpoint of public opinionE. A reactionary point of view
220 ANSWERD. Political parties should try to stay with the middle point of view to please the electorate.
222 A. prohibition of double jeopardy B. the right to a speedy trial Barron’s Model pg 450 #8The provisions of the Fifth Amendment have all of the following components EXCEPTA. prohibition of double jeopardyB. the right to a speedy trialC. the protection against self-incriminationD. the right of eminent domain.E. protection of life, liberty, and property.the following
224 B. separation of church and state C. freedom of speech Pg 455 #30The “fighting words” doctrine outlined in Supreme Court Decisions deals withA. freedom of the pressB. separation of church and stateC. freedom of speechD. Freedom of assemblyE. Freedom to petition
226 Pg 456 #37The original intent of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution as interpreted by the Supreme Court was toA. force the states to follow the Bill of RightsB. provide equal protection under the law for freed slavesC. expand voting for womenD. give states the right to pass laws that guarantee separate but equal status to their citizensE. enable Congress to pass affirmative action legislation
228 Barron’s Model Pg. 457 #40The use of racial quotas was made illegal in the United States as a direct result of theA. Supreme Court decision in the University of California v. Bakke.B. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of TopekaC. Proposition 209-The California Civil Rights InitiativeD. Civil Rights Act 1964E. affirmative action programs created by individual states.
230 Barron’s Model Pg 459 #48Supreme Court decisions in the 1990’s related to the separation of church and state reflect the Court’s approval ofA. greater government support for the accommodation of religion in public schoolsB. the use of school vouchers for tax deductionsC. the limited right to have silent prayer in public schoolsD. a complete ban at time of Christmas on religious symbols in schoolsE. the right to have clergy speak at school graduation
232 #55Southern states that created “Majority- Minority” congressional districts did so because they wereA. directed to do so by the Supreme CourtB. attempting to abide by the provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965C. hopeful that African Americans would vote RepublicanD. confident that white candidates would be given an advantage over African AmericansE. responding to an executive order of the president
234 The 1999 Released Exam. Pg 23 #14Which of the following did the most to expand civil rights in the 1950’s?A. State Legislative decisions desegregating public accommodationsB. State Court decisions outlawing poll taxesC. The passage of voting rights legislation by CongressD. Executive Orders mandating affirmative actionE. The Supreme Court decision declaring state mandated school segregation to be unconstitutional.
236 Pg. 23 #15Which of the following is true about the right of free speech, as currently interpreted by the Supreme Court?A. It protects the right to express opinions even without the actual use of words.B. It protects the use of language deemed obscene by the courts.C. It allows citizens to disobey laws that they believe to be unjust.D. It is protected from infringement by the Federal Government but not from infringement by State government.E. It cannot be limited in any manner.
238 B. Necessary and Proper Clause C. Supremacy Clause D. 10th Amendment Pg 26 #30Most of the individual protections of the Bill of Rights now apply to the states because of the Supreme Courts interpretation of the ConstitutionsA. PreambleB. Necessary and Proper ClauseC. Supremacy ClauseD. 10th AmendmentE. 14th Amendment
242 Pg 29 #48When year-olds received the right to vote in 1971, in the 1972 national elections they did which of the following?A. Voted overwhelmingly for Republican candidatesB. Voted overwhelmingly for Democratic candidatesC. Voted overwhelmingly for radical candidatesD. Turned out at a lower rate than the rest of the electorateE. Turned out at the same rate as the rest of the electorate
244 A. Guarantees freedom of speech to all citizens Pg 31 #59The Establishment Clause in the 1st Amendment does which of the following?A. Guarantees freedom of speech to all citizensB. Prevents prior restraint of the pressC. Prohibits the setting up of a state churchD. Defines the concept of dual citizenshipE. Allows citizens to enter freely into contracts with other citizens
246 A. Rights of gay men and lesbian women B. Right of privacy Pg 31 #60Griswold v. Connecticut and Roe v. Wade are similar Supreme Court cases in that both cases are based on theA. Rights of gay men and lesbian womenB. Right of privacyC. Right to an abortionD. Right to freedom from cruel and unusual punishmentE. Right of women to equal protection before the law
248 The government began to pursue civil rights in the 1950’s when Preparing for the US Gov’t AP* Exam Pg. 208 #5The government began to pursue civil rights in the 1950’s whenA. Congress passed the Voting Rights ActB. Civil rights activists marched on Washington to demand government actionC. The Supreme Court declared segregation unconstitutionalD. States agreed to discontinue their use of poll taxes as a means of preventing people from votingE. The president issued an executive order to desegregate all public transportation
250 Pg 212 #28The Supreme Court has upheld which of the following in its interpretation of the freedom of speech?A. All forms of speech including obscenity are protected under the 1st AmendmentB. The government cannot under any circumstances censor informationC. Protest against the government are not protected under the 1st AmendmentD. Forms of symbolic speech are protected under the 1st AmendmentE. The freedom of speech is guaranteed by Federal Law, but it does not have to be upheld by the states.
252 B. have the right to a fair trial. Pg 214 # 43In Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court ruled that persons accused of a crimeA. cannot be denied bail.B. have the right to a fair trial.C. have rights during police questioning.D. have equal protection under the lawE. cannot be searched illegally.
254 C. the rights of the accused D. the right of privacy Pg. 217 #56Regions of the University of California v. Bakke and Adarand Constructors v. Pena are Supreme Court cases that addressedA. affirmative actionB. prayer in schoolC. the rights of the accusedD. the right of privacyE. desegregation through busing.
256 Government and Politics Test pg 138 #6 What principle protects citizens from being punished twice for the same crime?A. Trial by juryB. PresentmentC. Double JeopardyD. Self-incriminationE. Due Process
258 Pg. 147 #57Opponents to the concept of comparable worth advocated by NOW and other women’s rights groups would most likely argue thatA. Women have always had the same rights as men.B. They would increase expenses and make US business less competitiveC. Women already earn as much as men.D. Women are physically unable to do many of the higher paying jobs.E. It would take away from needed government involvement in business
260 Pg 157 #4The Double Jeopardy Clause of the Federal Constitution protects the civil liberties of an individual byA. requiring that at least two witnesses defend the accused in a juried trial.B. prohibiting family members of a convicted criminal from being punished for his or her crime.C. making it illegal for a person to be arrested without first being read his or her rights.D. preventing an acquitted defendant from being tried twice for the same criminal charge.E. giving a criminal defendant the right to not testify against him/herself.
262 Pg 159 #16All the following Bill of Rights amendments, Supreme Court cases and descriptions are grouped accurately EXCEPTA. 1st Amendment, freedom of speech, Gitlow v. New YorkB. 4th Amendment, Exclusionary rule, Mapp v. OhioC. 4th Amendment, protection from unreasonable searches and seizures, Wolf v.OhioD. 5th Amendment, prohibition of double jeopardy, Bakke v. University of CaliforniaE. 1st Amendment, freedom of press, Near v. Minnesota
264 B. Reynolds v. United States C. Sherbert v. Verner D. Engle v. Vitale Pg. 156 #52What case established some limits on the 1st Amendment guarantee to worship freely?A. Wisconsin v. YoderB. Reynolds v. United StatesC. Sherbert v. VernerD. Engle v. VitaleE. Widmer v. Vincent
266 All the following amendments protect the right of due process EXCEPT Pg. 166 #55All the following amendments protect the right of due process EXCEPTA. 4th AmendmentB. 5th AmendmentC. 6th AmendmentD. 8th AmendmentE. 10th Amendment