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§ „Bundesverfassungsgericht“ Bundes-kanzler Bundes-präsident

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Presentation on theme: "§ „Bundesverfassungsgericht“ Bundes-kanzler Bundes-präsident"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electoral systems in comparison: Germany – USA – Great Britain and most recent election results

2 § „Bundesverfassungsgericht“ Bundes-kanzler Bundes-präsident
„Bundesregierung“ „Bundesversammlung“ Bundesrat Deputies of the „Länder“ „Bundestag“ Parliaments of the „Länder“ people

3 Electoral system in Germany
Mixed system of (simple) majority vote and proportional representation Each voter has two votes: 1 ("first vote") for an individual candidate in one of the constituencies, and 1 ("second vote") for the party-list established, for each of the “Länder”, by each political party Half of the deputies are elected from among the individual candidates and half of them on the basis of the lists In each "Land“, every party is entitled to the number of seats that corresponds to its share in the second votes The number of deputies belonging to each party who were elected in the vote in the individual constituencies is subtracted from the total of the seats to which that party is entitled The remaining seats are allocated to the candidates on the party list, in the order enumerated. It is possible for a party to have what are known as "overhang mandates" when it wins more seats in the constituencies on the first vote than it is entitled to according to the results of the second vote calculation As a general rule, the party list of any party that has obtained less than 5% of all the second votes in the country is disregarded unless at least 3 candidates of that party have been elected in constituencies

4 President people Vice President Supreme Court e l c t o r s
vote nominate Supreme Court e l c t o r s House of Representatives Senate Congress executive vote legislative people judiciary

5 Electoral College system
The Electoral College system was established in Article II of the Constitution and amended by the 12th Amendment in 1804 Each state gets a number of electors equal to its number of members in the U.S. House of Representatives plus one for each of its two U.S. Senators Each state determines how electors are chosen, generally they are elected by the political party committees of the states Each elector gets one vote. Currently there are 538 electors and the votes of the majority of them – 270 – are required to be elected Should none of the candidates get the majority the 12th Amendment kicks in and the election is decided by the House of Representatives. While the electors are pledged to vote for the candidate of the party that chose them, nothing in the Constitution requires them to do so. The candidate who wins the popular vote in a state, wins all the pledged votes of the state's electors ( The winner-takes-it-all) The term of office lasts four years A former president can be re-elected only once

6 Monarch Prime Minister House of Commons House of Lords People

7 Electoral System in Great Britain
Parliament, the law-making body of the British people, consists of three elements: the Monarchy, the House of Commons and the House of Lords The House of Commons consists of 659 elected members called Members of Parliament or MPs. Its main purpose is to make laws by passing Acts of Parliament, as well as to discuss current political issues. Elections to the House of Commons are an important part of Britain's democratic system The House of Lords consists of around 1,270 non-elected members. Its main legislative function is to examine and revise bills from the Commons. The Lords cannot normally prevent proposed legislation from becoming law if the Commons insists on it The Monarch’s role today is politically impartial and his/her influence is mainly informal. It is the Monarch’s right and duty to express views on government matters yet he/she acts on the advice of the government of the day The party leader whose party has the largest number of MPs in the Commons, is appointed Prime Minister by the Monarch The British electoral system is based on the relative majority method - sometimes called the 'first past the post' principle - which means the candidate with more votes than any other is elected All British citizens together with citizens of other Commonwealth countries and citizens of the Irish Republic resident in Britain may vote, provided they are aged 18 years or over and not legally barred from voting

8 UK General Election 2001 A general election was held in the United Kingdom on June 7, All 659 parliamentary seats in the United Kingdom were contested Britain's Labour government won a second term in office in that general election. With 638 of 659 seats declared, Prime Minister Tony Blair was projected to hold a majority of 167 in parliament—the first occasion that the Labour Party has secured a full second term in office Results                                                                       31.7% 40.7% 18.3% 9.3% Liberal Democratic Conservative Labour Other

9 Lead Ratios Labour                      Highest Lowest Conservatives                      Highest Lowest

10 Presidential Election 2000
VS. Al Gore George W. Bush On November, 7th people had to elect their new president. The distribution of the votes shows that the victor in Florida will win the electoral votes necessary to claim the presidency Bush, with his certified win in Florida, can claim that state's 25 disputed electoral votes, giving him a edge over Gore in the Electoral College -- where 270 votes are needed to claim the nation's chief executive office. Their seesaw court battles over recounts in Florida lasted 35 days past Election Day

11 Result of the Presidential Election 2000

12 Official results of the 43rd Election Day
USA Bush / Cheney Gore / Lieberman Nader / LaDuke Buchanan / Foster others abstain total Popular vote - Electors vote 271 266 1 538 President: George W. Bush Vice-President: Dick Cheney

13 German election of the „Bundestag“
Germany went to the polls on September 22, 2002 Gerhard Schroeder, the German Chancellor won a second term in office -- but only just -- after a campaign in which he ruled out participation in military action on Iraq. In the closest national election since World War II Schroeder's Social Democrats and their Green coalition partners won by about 10,000 votes against his challenger , the Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber Result:

14 Bibliography
election Microsoft Encarta

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