Presentation on theme: "Monday, November 7 Today: Voters and Voter Behavior – Issue – Property Ownership and Voting – Lecture Notes on History of Voting Rights Thursday *Quiz."— Presentation transcript:
Monday, November 7 Today: Voters and Voter Behavior – Issue – Property Ownership and Voting – Lecture Notes on History of Voting Rights Thursday *Quiz on 27 Amendments* Friday Current Events
The Constitution and the Right To Vote Section 1
History of Voting Rights Suffrage = Franchise = the right to vote Today’s Electorate (potential voting age population) is approx. 231,000,000.
Tuesday, November 9 Today: – Lecture Notes: History of Voting and Voter Qualifications – Issue of the Day: Should Voting Be Mandatory? Wednesday: Veteran Speaker TEST on Voter and Voter Behavior: Next Wednesday No Amendment Test/ No Current Events
5 Stages of Voting History 1. Individual states begin to end restrictions based on religious affiliation, property ownership, and tax payments. -By 1850, all white adult males can vote 2. 1870, 15 th Amendment: right to vote cannot be denied based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
3. 1920, 19 th Amendment: RTV cannot be denied based on sex. *Wyoming since 1869 4. A. Voting Rights Act of 1965: provided enforcement to 15 th Amendment. Dept. of Justice oversees voting changes. B. 1961, 23 rd Amendment: includes voters in D.C. in presidential electorate C. 1964, 24 th Amendment: eliminates poll tax
5. 1971, 26 th Amendment: 18 years or older can vote
Power to Set Voting Qualifications States have the right to set voter qualifications With the only restrictions being: 15 th, 19 th, 23 rd, 24 th, 26 th Amendments* *Voting Rights Act (preclearance) *Hill v. Stone suffrage cannot be denied based on taxable property owned. (violates 14 th amendment)
State Qualifications for Voting 1.Citizenship – Aliens generally denied right to vote (a few states allow non-citizens to vote in local elections) – Nothing in Constitution states that aliens cannot vote
State Qualifications for Voting Residence – 2 Reasons states adopt residence requirements: 1. stop political machines from bribing outsiders to affect local elections 2. every voter should have time to become familiar with candidates and issues in an election Voting Rights Act Amendments no more than 30 days for presidential elections *Most states require around 30 days for all elections
State Qualifications for Voting Most states prohibit transients from voting: – Traveling salespeople, member of armed services, college students – (some states allow college students)
State Qualifications for voting Age – 26 th Amendment sets 18 minimum age for voting – In most states, 17 year-olds can cast ballots in primary elections if their 18 th birthday falls before the general election
Thursday, November 11 Should 16 year olds vote? Voter Qualifications, Elections Test: Thursday Next Week
Other Qualifications Registration – a procedure of voter identification – intended to prevent fraudulent voting – Identifies party preferences and, hence, their ability to take part in closed primaries.
Making Voting Easier Same-day registration – register and vote in the same day – N. Dakota – Requires no voter registrations – Wisconsin requires no registration if you live in rural areas National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) 1995 Ohio (and some states) No Excuse Absentee Voting Some States have early voting, but no absentee ballots. You can personally vote in places before election day Access for disabled
Who May Not Vote: – Those in mental institutions, convicted of serious crimes, – Some states do not allow those dishonorably discharged from the armed forces. – Some states do not allow polygamists or the homeless to vote
Elections in Brief Ballot device which a voter registers a choice in an election. Primary Elections: a member of a specific political party is selected from a group of other members to run in an election
Elections in Brief Closed Primaries limited to registered party members who have declared their party affiliation. – Serves to encourage party unity – Prevent members of another party from voting for a candidate they don’t support in order to disrupt election results
Elections in Brief Open Primaries no party affiliation required to vote in primaries. – You select a party’s ballot, then select party candidate, regardless of what party you align with. Ohio you decide your party by voting in that party’s primary.
Elections in Brief Blanket Primary a primary in which a voter can choose from among candidates of both parties in a single election. Non-Partisan Election where elections do not indicate party labels on names *(R) or (D) Run-Off Elections Top two vote-getters in primaries in a second election. Regular primaries take on a plurality. Non-partisan primary in Louisiana
Voting in Ohio Secretary of State oversees elections – 2 republicans and 2 democrats on every county board of elections in Ohio – Appointed by the SoS based on what local political parties desire. *Other states elect board of electors…some go by municipalities Local Boards monitor voter registrations, campaign financing, and petition validity.
Voting in Ohio Voting Done By DRE Direct Recording Electronic – touch screen or computer system VVPAT – Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail Receipt given to you after you vote to be sure the vote is cast. – Used to back up DRE recorded information in case of electronic malfunction or voter fraud.
Nonvoting Questions to Consider: What is the scope of the nonvoter problem? For what reasons do people not vote?
Nonvoting Voter Turnout number of people voting as a percentage of those who are registered. – 1960 Nixon-Kennedy 63% – 2008 McCain-Obama 56.8% Voting Age Population in 2008 = 231,229,580 Voter Turnout in 2008 = 132,618,580 – Off year elections have less turnout 2002 37% 2006 37.1%
Reasons for Not Voting The winners will make no difference Current satisfaction with political world Lack of political efficacy Apathy Time-Zone Fallout
Factors Affecting Turnout Those Most Likely To Vote: – have higher levels of income – higher education – well integrated into community life – long-time residents – Strong party affiliations – The elderly
Factors Affecting Turnout Those Most Likely Not to Vote: – Younger than age 35 – Unmarried – Unskilled – Living in Southern States – Living in Rural Areas
Voter Behavior – why do voters choose to vote the way they do? How is Voter Behavior Studied? – Election results – survey research – polling of scientifically determined cross-sections of the population. – Studies in political socialization - process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions.