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Chapter 9- Political Parties (1). Define what a Political Party is, and explain its key goal and purpose in politics. (1). Define what a Political Party.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9- Political Parties (1). Define what a Political Party is, and explain its key goal and purpose in politics. (1). Define what a Political Party."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9- Political Parties (1). Define what a Political Party is, and explain its key goal and purpose in politics. (1). Define what a Political Party is, and explain its key goal and purpose in politics. (2). Summarize the party’s functions in theory, and discuss their limitations in reality. (2). Summarize the party’s functions in theory, and discuss their limitations in reality. (3). Discuss the organizational role of Party’s during primary elections. (3). Discuss the organizational role of Party’s during primary elections. (4). Examine the centrist characteristics of America’s two party system, & explain why. (4). Examine the centrist characteristics of America’s two party system, & explain why. (5). Contrast U.S. two party system with that of other multi-party democratic systems. (5). Contrast U.S. two party system with that of other multi-party democratic systems. (6). Discuss the limitations of the spatial theory model when applied to real politics. (6). Discuss the limitations of the spatial theory model when applied to real politics. (7). Trace the history of U.S Party systems and Elections. (7). Trace the history of U.S Party systems and Elections. (8). Examine critical elections & their relationship to party realignment theory. (8). Examine critical elections & their relationship to party realignment theory. (9). Contrast party realignment with dealignment, and discuss its political significance. (9). Contrast party realignment with dealignment, and discuss its political significance. (10). Discuss the changing purpose & role of National party organizations & conventions. (10). Discuss the changing purpose & role of National party organizations & conventions. (11). Discuss modern party organizations & relationships at local, state, and national level. (11). Discuss modern party organizations & relationships at local, state, and national level.

2 Political Parties: Definition & Purpose What Is a Political Party? A political party is a coalition of people formed around political cleavages seeking to control government by contesting elections & winning office. What Is the role & core purpose of a Political Party? The core of a political party's purpose, and the basis on which most scholars define parties, is their role as electoral organizations=> Get their party’s candidates elected to office.

3 Parties link people and governments by providing: Political Parties Organization and Information What are the main functions of political parties?

4 Seven Functions of Parties Recruit candidates Recruit candidates Nominate candidates Nominate candidates Mobilize voters Mobilize voters Contest elections Contest elections Form governments Form governments Coordinate policy across independent units of government Coordinate policy across independent units of government Provide accountability Provide accountability Examine in greater detail

5 7 Party Functions recruit candidates – give training & info to run for office recruit candidates – give training & info to run for office nominate candidates - by most common method today?* nominate candidates - by most common method today?* contest election- “wage war” in the general election contest election- “wage war” in the general election form governments- organized along party lines form governments- organized along party lines – government appointments in executive & judiciary branches – leaders & members of Congressional committees coordinate policy across different branches of Gov’t coordinate policy across different branches of Gov’t mobilize voters – get out the vote drives mobilize voters – get out the vote drives – President, Congress, State, local party cooperation to win elections – Leaders stress party loyalty to proposed policies (with mixed results) Provide accountability- unintended side effect Provide accountability- unintended side effect – Used by voters to hold elected official accountable *How are candidates nominated today?

6 Direct Primary Closed Primary Open Primary Blanket Primary Methods of Nominating Candidates

7 An election in which voters and not party leaders directly choose a party's nominees for political office. Direct Primary

8 A direct primary in which voters may choose which party primary they will vote in on Election Day Open Primary

9 A direct primary in which voters must register their party affiliations before Election Day Closed Primary

10 A direct primary in which voters may cast ballots for candidates of any party, but may only vote once for each office. Blanket Primary

11 U.S. Political Parties Characteristics: U.S. Two party system ? U.S. Two party system ? “Centrist” political ideology “Centrist” political ideology – Capitalism & democracy accepted by both sides – No socialists or fascists parties stand realistic chance Disagreement comes at the narrow margins Disagreement comes at the narrow margins – Mostly about how to meet same accepted goals: – Political & economic security for the US – What theory is used to explain this “Centrist” characteristic? What theory is used to explain this “Centrist” characteristic? Spatial theory of elections

12 Spatial Model of Voting In a perfect world of perfect information: In a perfect world of perfect information: – Candidate closer to center should win election – Explained by the median voter hypothesis

13 Nader’s Green Party had a major effect on Gore during 2000 election Third Party Challenge Chance and impact of 3 rd party challengers? Chance and impact of 3 rd party challengers? – No chance of winning but take votes away from who? Nader

14 Single Member Plurality Electoral System: A system in which each district elects a single member as its representative; the winner in each district is the candidate who receives a plurality* of the vote. U.S. Two-Party System versus Multiparty Systems Single district rep.=> *“winner take all” => impact? Duverger’s Law & voter limited choice

15 A system in which legislators are elected at large and each party wins legislative seats in proportion to the number of votes it receives. National parliament => proportional seats -> impact? More minor party challenges & greater voter choice- why? Proportional Representation System

16 The Spatial Model Applied to Real Politics An attempt to explain shift of different voter groups: 1956 Party platforms on Brown v. Board of Ed Party platforms on Brown v. Board of Ed. – Democrats waffle while GOP accepts decision – Why? 1960 civil rights movement 1960 civil rights movement – JFK seen as symbolically supportive – Southern voters begin to reassess their party loyalties 1964 civil rights act => LBJ vs. Goldwater 1964 civil rights act => LBJ vs. Goldwater – Party positions? => impact on voters? Since 1968 => Nixon’s “Southern Strategy” Since 1968 => Nixon’s “Southern Strategy” – Southern white voters => GOP – Solidification of African Americans w/Democrats

17 Reassessment of Party’s Direction Debate of the losers over direction of Party on the most contentious issues: Debate of the losers over direction of Party on the most contentious issues: – Debate: Back toward center or closer to Party’s roots? – Similar debate goes on today with which party? Spatial Theory model limitations => Spatial Theory model limitations => – Over-simplification of influencing criteria (i.e. The Center) – Ignores party in power’s performance, scandals, wars, $$$ – Reality: too many variables affect model’s ability to describe the real world – Value of theory lies in its providing a model for conceptual understanding of a very complex theory

18 History of U.S. Parties & Elections 2004 Bush Kerry 2004 Nader (alone)

19 The History of U.S. Parties and Elections (2) The First Party System (1796–1824) The First Party System (1796–1824) – Federalists Strong central government & economic policy Strong central government & economic policy Northeast sectional concentration Northeast sectional concentration – Democratic-republicans Weak central government w/rural agrarian $$$ Weak central government w/rural agrarian $$$ South & Western states South & Western states – Federalist overreach themselves + War of 1812 stand Dem-republicans take over=> era of good feelings Dem-republicans take over=> era of good feelings

20 First Party System Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams Sought a strong central government Democrat- Republicans Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Sought a weak federal government

21 The Second Party System (1828– 1856) Jackson & 1st mass political party => Democratic party Jackson & 1st mass political party => Democratic party – Rules expanding right to vote to all males 21 years + Whig party formed in opposition (primarily to Jackson) Whig party formed in opposition (primarily to Jackson) – Formed coalition: North’s industrialist & South’s $$

22 Second Party System Democrats Led by Andrew Jackson Used party organization to mobilize voters Used new convention system to select party nominee Whigs Built a coalition of Northern Industrialists and rich Southerners Led by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay at times

23 The Third Party System (1860–1892) Slavery issue became more contentious by mid- 1850s Slavery issue became more contentious by mid- 1850s Whigs attempted to hold North-South coalition together Whigs attempted to hold North-South coalition together – Avoid clear statement on slavery as result Republican party formed & made clear anti- slavery aim Republican party formed & made clear anti- slavery aim – 1860=> Lincoln=> Civil War=> Union Victory – Reconstruction=> Democratic South=> – Series of close presidential races follow

24 Most Democrats were from the South Fought many close elections with the Republicans Republicans Sought to give a clear anti-slavery choice Abraham Lincoln won the White House in 1860 Third Party System Democrats

25 The Fourth Party System (1896–1928) Democrat Cleveland => $$$ depression of 1893 Democrat Cleveland => $$$ depression of 1893 – William Jennings Bryan nominated by Democrats: – “Cross of Gold” speech=> cheap $$$ for debts GOP blames poor economy on Cleveland GOP blames poor economy on Cleveland – GOP’s nominee McKinley wins landslide victory – Begins 32 year GOP control of presidency – (Woodrow Wilson only exception in 1912)

26 Cleveland in office during 1893 depression William Jennings Bryan, running on populist platform was nominee Blamed Democrats for economic problems Nominated McKinley Dominated the White House during this time Fourth Party System Democrats Republicans

27 The Fifth Party System (1932–1980s) 1929 Stock Market Crash=> Great Depression 1929 Stock Market Crash=> Great Depression – GOP Hoover offers balanced budget as solution – Nation’s unemployment rises to 25% – Nation (voters) demands jobs & bold Federal action – GOP fails to produce $$$ recovery FDR’s landslide & New Deal coalition begins major party shift of voters from one party to the other: FDR’s landslide & New Deal coalition begins major party shift of voters from one party to the other: – Poor, working class & unions align w/Democrats – Upper middle class & wealth align w/GOP – Above alignments cut across sectional lines (In contrast to previous sectional alignment of past party systems) (In contrast to previous sectional alignment of past party systems) Only exception? => The Solid South (why?) Only exception? => The Solid South (why?) Democrats would dominate Congress as majority until 1960s Democrats would dominate Congress as majority until 1960s – New Deal coalition would start to weaken from then on – Ended sometime in the 1980s

28 Roosevelt launches New Deal Southerners remained loyal to party Upper and middle class elsewhere moved towards Republicans GOP made election inroads during the 1960s Democrats Republicans Fifth Party System s

29 Critical Elections and Party Realignment Theory: Disruption causing changes in basic party coalitions – called? Disruption causing changes in basic party coalitions – called? – Critical Elections => Occurred during the 1828, 1860, 1896, & 1932 elections Occurred during the 1828, 1860, 1896, & 1932 elections Result: parties became more ideologically polarized Result: parties became more ideologically polarized – Voter turnout was significantly increased – Blocks of voters switched parties in reaction to their dissatisfaction with their former party’s platforms Name scholars give this shift in party coalitions? Name scholars give this shift in party coalitions? Party Realignment

30 Conflicting Theories Two theories describing causes of shifts: Two theories describing causes of shifts: – 1. Parties fail to respond to $, social, demo. tensions Example: impact of rapid industrialization after Civil War Example: impact of rapid industrialization after Civil War Democrats move closer to pro-business center=> labor leaves Democrats move closer to pro-business center=> labor leaves – 2. Party straddles major issue cutting across party lines Whigs straddle slavery issue Whigs straddle slavery issue Republican party wins election Republican party wins election If the Party fails to adapt to major social, economic, or political changes or … If the Party fails to adapt to major social, economic, or political changes or … – Fails to offer its members new choices: Discouraged voters quite their old party Discouraged voters quite their old party Realign themselves with the party that meets their needs Realign themselves with the party that meets their needs

31 From Realignment to Dealignment? Historically, realignments occur every years Historically, realignments occur every years – (It’s been over 70 years since the last one) – what’s the problem? Are we already in realignment? The growth in ticket spitting? *(Figure 9-3) The growth in ticket spitting? *(Figure 9-3) – Signs of party dealignment? Growth in no party identification => Independent Growth in no party identification => Independent Signs of 6th party realignment forming? Signs of 6th party realignment forming? – Shift of South & Rocky Mountain West to GOP – NE & Midwest Voters => Democratic Party

32 Earlier Signs of Party Dealignment ( )

33 The Uncertain Future- “Polarization”? Nobody knows for sure what’s going on => Nobody knows for sure what’s going on => – Evidence of both realignment & dealignment occurring – No clear trend apparent (shifts back & forth) Current balance of power favors GOP Current balance of power favors GOP – Electorate becoming more ideologically divided Contentious 2000 election Contentious 2000 election 2004 election even more divisive 2004 election even more divisive Trend toward social & cultural division and possibly Polarization? Trend toward social & cultural division and possibly Polarization? Recent GOP problems & upcoming midterm elections: Recent GOP problems & upcoming midterm elections: – Delay under indictment & SEC investigating Senate Majority LDR – Iraq War, rising oil prices, and Katrina are major drag on economy – Recent Federal mismanagement of Katrina & the unknown future Democrats are reassessing their party’s direction Democrats are reassessing their party’s direction – Back towards the center (spatial theory) or to core party values? – Role of Howard Dean?

34 Modern Party Organization Formal Party Structure* – (see Figure 9-4) Formal Party Structure* – (see Figure 9-4) – Parallel the different levels of government: City (local), State, and National Governments City (local), State, and National Governments – All pursuing shared goal of electing party’s candidates – Each level with different focus, priorities & functions First we examine: Local Organizations First we examine: Local Organizations – Power of the party machine => loyalty & benefits Party offers Selective benefits => material benefits- like? Party offers Selective benefits => material benefits- like? Patronage jobs => loyalty to the party (example: Chicago) Patronage jobs => loyalty to the party (example: Chicago) – Loyal Party workers are rewarded with political appointments (jobs) & city contracts

35 Party Organization Hierarchy

36 Impact of Progressive Reforms Reforms reducing power of the party machine (Fig. 9-5)? Reforms reducing power of the party machine (Fig. 9-5)? – Australian ballot – Direct Primary – Merit civil service system => spoils system’s decline Pendleton Act of 1883 (Garfield’s assassination) Pendleton Act of 1883 (Garfield’s assassination)

37 Other Progressive reforms Other Progressive reforms & their consequences: Other Progressive reforms & their consequences: Club movement=> parallel formal party organization Club movement=> parallel formal party organization – Response to rules weakening parties (California) Candidate centered campaign => independent of Parties Candidate centered campaign => independent of Parties – Impact of TV & radio=> eliminate middle man – FECA campaign $$ limits $1000 & $5000(PACs)=> impact=> Candidates must conduct mass fundraising Candidates must conduct mass fundraising Computer technology and mass mailing lists Computer technology and mass mailing lists – organize independent fundraising operations apart from Party – (Candidate’s use of internet during 2004 election) Result: parties relegated to support role (less power) Result: parties relegated to support role (less power) – Organize fundraising & campaign rallies & social events – Distribute literature & operate phone banks & conduct surveys – Door to door canvassing (very effective) & other activities

38 State Organizations State party chair, party central committee & very small staff to administer: State party chair, party central committee & very small staff to administer: – Lack any significant political power – not enough $$$ Main job: support candidate selected in the primary Main job: support candidate selected in the primary – Raise & distribute small amounts of funds – Run voter registration & get out vote drives – Conduct public opinion surveys & polls Role of State governor in state party organization? Role of State governor in state party organization? – Party chair manages Gov’s patronage appointments – Gives Governor & his party some leverage & political power

39 National Party Organizations Focus: National Politics Focus: National Politics National Party Convention National Party Convention – Convenes every 4 yrs – Nominates president & vice president (Based on Direct Primaries results) (Based on Direct Primaries results) – Writes party platform & party rules (for next time) National Party Committee National Party Committee – Little power (but recently growing status & power) – Assist in presidential campaign of Party’s nominee – No control over nomination & few $$$ resources

40 Recent Developments Lately Political Parties’ status have improved: Lately Political Parties’ status have improved: Based on 1996 Supreme Court ruling: Based on 1996 Supreme Court ruling: – Allowed unlimited uncoordinated Campaign contributions to Party (AKA: Soft Money) Result: $$$ poured into the Parties (especially GOP) Result: $$$ poured into the Parties (especially GOP) – Used to improve & expand staffs & services to Party nominee: Registration & get out the vote drives Registration & get out the vote drives Polling & issue research & candidate schooling Polling & issue research & candidate schooling Limited cash donations & TV & mass mail ads Limited cash donations & TV & mass mail ads – Parties gained more influence nation wide campaigns: Recruit candidates to challenge weak incumbent opponents Recruit candidates to challenge weak incumbent opponents Branched out to states & cities (GOP in 2002 in Texas- Delay) Branched out to states & cities (GOP in 2002 in Texas- Delay) Relationships among other levels of Party Organizations? Relationships among other levels of Party Organizations? – No formal control => cooperation is strictly voluntary – But all levels share common goal: get Party’s candidate elected

41 Next Class Assignment Next Class: Chapter 10 Next Class: Chapter 10 – Interest Groups (LO 1-9) Thesis Statement preparation Thesis Statement preparation – Research & source identification Wednesday Luncheon Learn Wednesday Luncheon Learn

42 KEY TERMS – Political Parties Australian ballot: A government-printed, secret ballot. Australian ballot: A government-printed, secret ballot. Blanket primary: A direct primary in which voters may cast ballots for candidates of any party, but may only vote once for each office. Blanket primary: A direct primary in which voters may cast ballots for candidates of any party, but may only vote once for each office. Candidate-centered campaigns: Campaigns in which candidates set up campaign organizations, raise money, and campaign independently of other candidates in their party. Candidate-centered campaigns: Campaigns in which candidates set up campaign organizations, raise money, and campaign independently of other candidates in their party. Caucus/convention system: A nomination method in which registered party members attend a party caucus, or meeting, to choose a nominee. In large districts, local caucuses send delegates to represent them at convention. Caucus/convention system: A nomination method in which registered party members attend a party caucus, or meeting, to choose a nominee. In large districts, local caucuses send delegates to represent them at convention. Centrist parties: Parties close to the political center. Centrist parties: Parties close to the political center. Closed primary: A direct primary in which voters must register their party affiliations before Election Day. Closed primary: A direct primary in which voters must register their party affiliations before Election Day. Critical elections: Elections that disrupt party coalitions and create new Critical elections: Elections that disrupt party coalitions and create new ones in a party realignment. ones in a party realignment. Direct primary: An election in which voters and not party leaders directly choose a party’s nominee for political office. Direct primary: An election in which voters and not party leaders directly choose a party’s nominee for political office. Duverger's Law: The generalization that if a nation has a single-member, plurality electoral system, it will develop a two-party system. Duverger's Law: The generalization that if a nation has a single-member, plurality electoral system, it will develop a two-party system. Median voter hypothesis: The theory that the best possible position for a politician who cares only about winning elections in the center—that is, in the position of the median voter. Median voter hypothesis: The theory that the best possible position for a politician who cares only about winning elections in the center—that is, in the position of the median voter.

43 KEY TERMS – Political Parties New Deal coalition: The Democratic Party coalition that formed in It got its name from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. New Deal coalition: The Democratic Party coalition that formed in It got its name from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. Open primary: A direct primary in which voters may choose which party primary they will vote in on Election Day. Open primary: A direct primary in which voters may choose which party primary they will vote in on Election Day. Party dealignment: A trend in which voter loyalties to the two major parties weaken. Party dealignment: A trend in which voter loyalties to the two major parties weaken. Party machine: A party organization built on the use of selective, material incentives for participation. Party machine: A party organization built on the use of selective, material incentives for participation. Party platform: An official statement of beliefs, values, and policy positions issued by a national party convention. Party platform: An official statement of beliefs, values, and policy positions issued by a national party convention. Party realignment: A long-term shift in the electoral balance between the major parties. Party realignment: A long-term shift in the electoral balance between the major parties. Patronage job: A job given as a reward for loyal party service. Patronage job: A job given as a reward for loyal party service. Political cleavages: Societal divisions that parties organize around. Political cleavages: Societal divisions that parties organize around. Political party: A coalition of people seeking to control the government by contesting elections and winning office. Political party: A coalition of people seeking to control the government by contesting elections and winning office. Proportional representation system: A system in which legislators are elected at large and each party wins legislative seats in proportion to the number of votes it receives. Proportional representation system: A system in which legislators are elected at large and each party wins legislative seats in proportion to the number of votes it receives. Selective benefit: Any benefit given to a member of a group, but denied to nonmembers. Selective benefit: Any benefit given to a member of a group, but denied to nonmembers. Single-member, plurality electoral system: A system in which each district elects a single member as its representative; the winner in each district is the candidate who receives a plurality of the vote. Single-member, plurality electoral system: A system in which each district elects a single member as its representative; the winner in each district is the candidate who receives a plurality of the vote. Two-party system: A political system in which two major parties dominate. Two-party system: A political system in which two major parties dominate.


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