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Elections and Voting 12. Outline the electoral procedures for presidential and general elections 12.1 12.2 Trace the roots of American elections, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Elections and Voting 12. Outline the electoral procedures for presidential and general elections 12.1 12.2 Trace the roots of American elections, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elections and Voting 12

2 Outline the electoral procedures for presidential and general elections Trace the roots of American elections, and distinguish among the four different types of elections Learning Objectives

3 12 Identify seven factors that influence voter choice Compare and contrast congressional and presidential elections, and explain the incumbency advantage Learning Objectives

4 12 Explain why voter turnout is low, and evaluate methods for improving voter turnout 12.5 Identify six factors that affect voter turnout Learning Objectives 12.6

5 12.1 Roots of American Elections  Purposes of Elections  Types of Elections

6 12.1 Purposes of Elections  Popular election Provides unique legitimacy to government Proof of popular sovereignty, or consent of the governed Electorate, or citizens eligible to vote, judge those in power  Fill public offices Elections provide voters a choice in policy Winners claim a mandate, or command from the voters to enact their policy platform

7 12.1 Types of Elections  Primary Elections Closed primaries Open primaries – crossover voting Runoff primary  General Election

8 12.1 Types of Elections  Initiative and Referendum Initiative placed on ballot by citizens Referendum placed on ballot by legislature  Recall Recall

9 How are ballot measures used? 12.1

10 12.1 When state lawmakers place a proposal on the ballot for voter approval, it is called a: 12.1 a.Open primary b.Initiative c.Referendum d.Recall

11 12.1 When state lawmakers place a proposal on the ballot for voter approval, it is called a: 12.1 a.Open primary b.Initiative c.Referendum d.Recall

12 12.2 Presidential Elections  Primaries and Caucuses  Electing a President: The Electoral College

13 12.2 Primaries and Caucuses  Methods to select delegates Winner-take-all primary Proportional representation primary Caucus  Selecting a system  Frontloading

14 FIGURE 12.1: When do states choose their nominee for president? 12.2

15 Electing a President: The Electoral College  Historical challenges Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, 1800 John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, 1824 George W. Bush and Al Gore, 2000

16 12.2 Electing a President: The Electoral College  Should the Electoral College be reformed? Abolish in favor of popular vote Congressional district plan

17 FIGURE 12.2: How is voting power apportioned in the electoral college? 12.2

18 12.2 The numbers of electors from each state to the Electoral College is: 12.2 a.Equivalent to the number of representatives b.Equivalent to the number of representatives and senators c.Equivalent to the number of congressional districts a candidate wins, plus two bonus electors for the overall popular vote winner d.None of the above

19 12.2 The numbers of electors from each state to the Electoral College is: 12.2 a.Equivalent to the number of representatives b.Equivalent to the number of representatives and senators c.Equivalent to the number of congressional districts a candidate wins, plus two bonus electors for the overall popular vote winner d.None of the above

20 Congressional Elections  The Incumbency Advantage  Why Incumbents Lose 12.3

21 The Incumbency Advantage  Staff Support  Visibility  Scare-off effect

22 12.3 What are some of the advantages of incumbency?

23 12.3 Why Incumbents Lose  Redistricting  Scandals  Presidential Coattails  Mid-Term Elections

24 TABLE 12.1: How does the president affect congressional elections? 12.3

25 12.3 Which of the following is not typically a reason for an incumbent to lose an election? 12.3 a.Redistricting b.Presidential Coattails c.“Scare-Off” Effect d.Mid-Term Elections

26 12.3 Which of the following is not typically a reason for an incumbent to lose an election? 12.3 a.Redistricting b.Presidential Coattails c.“Scare-Off” Effect d.Mid-Term Elections

27 12.4 Patterns in Vote Choice  Party Identification  Ideology  Income and Education  Race and Ethnicity  Gender  Religion  Issues

28 12.4 Party Identification and Ideology  Party Identity Most powerful predictor of vote choice Doesn’t fully eliminate ticket splitting  Ideology Liberals favor government involvement in social programs Conservatives favor ideals of individualism and market-based competition

29 FIGURE 12.3: How do demographic characteristics affect voters’ choices? 12.4

30 Income and Education  Lower income voters Tend to vote Democratic  Higher income voters Tend to vote Republican  Education Most educated and least educated tend to vote Democratic Voters in the middle, such as those with a bachelor’s degree, tend to vote Republican

31 12.4 Race, Ethnicity and Gender  Race Whites more likely to vote Republican African Americans and Hispanics more likely to vote Democratic  Gender Women more likely to vote Democratic Men more likely to vote Republican

32 How does gender influence electoral outcomes? 12.4

33 Religion and other Issues  Religion Jewish voters strong Democratic Party supporters Protestants more likely to vote Republican Catholics divided – social justice versus abortion  Other Issues Economy often key issue Retrospective judgment versus prospective judgment

34 12.4 When voters reward or punish a political party at the polls based on paast achievements or failures, they are using what? 12.4 a.Ticket-splitting b.Retrospective judgment c.Prospective judgment d.None of the above

35 12.4 When voters reward or punish a political party at the polls based on past achievements or failures, they are using what? 12.4 a.Ticket-splitting b.Retrospective judgment c.Prospective judgment d.None of the above

36 12.5 Voter Turnout  Income and Education  Race and Ethnicity  Gender  Age  Civic Engagement  Interest in Politics

37 TABLE 12.2: How do states regulate voter eligibility? 12.5

38 Income and Education, Race and Ethnicity  Income and Education  Race and Ethnicity

39 FIGURE 12.4: How has the racial and ethnic composition of voters changed? 12.5

40 Gender, Age, Civic Engagement and Interest in Politics  Gender  Age  Civic Engagement  Interest in Politics

41 12.5 All of these are a factor in voter turnout except: 12.5 a.Age and race b.Income end education c.Geographic location d.All of the above

42 12.5 All of these are a factor in voter turnout except: 12.5 a.Age and race b.Income end education c.Geographic location d.All of the above

43 12.6 Toward Reform: Problems with Voter Turnout  Why Don’t Americans Turn Out?  Ways to Improve Voter Turnout

44 FIGURE 12.5: Why don’t people vote? 12.6

45 How do citizens vote by absentee ballot? 12.6

46 Ways to Improve Voter Turnout  Make Election Day a Holiday  Enable Early Voting  Permit Mail and Online Voting  Make Registration Easier  Modernize the Ballot  Strengthen Parties

47 12.6 The most frequently cited reason Americans give for failing to vote is: 12.6 a.Distrust in government and voter cynicism b.Overwhelming number of elections c.Difficulty with voter registration d.Conflicts with work or family

48 12.6 The most frequently cited reason Americans give for failing to vote is: 12.6 a.Distrust in government and voter cynicism b.Overwhelming number of elections c.Difficulty with voter registration d.Conflicts with work or family

49 Discussion Question Why don’t more Americans vote? What changes to election procedures might increase voter turnout? What factors influence how Americans make their voting choices? 12


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