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1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1 Election Campaigns Section 2 Expanding Voting Rights
Chapter Focus Section 1 Election Campaigns Section 2 Expanding Voting Rights Section 3 Influences on Voters Chapter Assessment Contents

3 Why It’s Important

4 Chapter Objectives Election Campaigns Examine the role campaign financing and political parties play in electing candidates for public office. Expanding Voting Rights Summarize the historical expansion of voting rights. Influences on Voters Evaluate the factors that influence voters and nonvoters. Chapter Objectives

5 End of Chapter Focus

6 Section 1 Introduction-1
Election Campaigns Key Terms campaign manager, image, political action committee, soft money Find Out • What are the basic elements of a presidential campaign? • Why were the Federal Election Campaign Acts passed? Section 1 Introduction-1

7 Section 1 Introduction-2
Election Campaigns Understanding Concepts Political Processes What strategic decisions must political parties and candidates make during each campaign? Section Objective Examine the role campaign financing and political parties play in electing candidates for public office. Section 1 Introduction-2

8 In the 1952 presidential election, total spending by the major political parties was $140 million. By the 2000 election, that amount had increased to $1.2 billion. Most of the money in presidential campaigns is spent for television and mass media advertising. The major political parties know that people are likely to form their opinions about candidates from the way they appear on television. Section 1-1

9 I. Electing the President (pages 475–476)
A. Serious candidates for president begin organizing over a year before the election to compete in spring primaries; after the nominating convention, the candidate runs an intensive campaign from early September until the November election. B. To win a presidential election, a candidate must receive a majority of the electoral votes, so candidates compete hardest in high-population states. C. The candidate must decide on the kind of strategy most likely to achieve victory. Section 1-2

10 I. Electing the President (pages 475–476)
D. A strong organization, headed by an experienced campaign manager, is essential in running a presidential campaign. E. Television and the Internet are important tools for presidential candidates; television conveys the candidate’s image, while Web sites can be used to raise money and inform the public about the candidate. Section 1-3

11 I. Electing the President (pages 475–476)
Section 1-3

12 I. Electing the President (pages 475–476)
Do you agree or disagree that the “winner-take-all” electoral system in presidential elections should be changed? What changes would you support? Answers will vary. Students should consider the logical outcomes of suggested changes. Section 1-4

13 II. Financing Campaigns (pages 477–479)
A. Running for office is very expensive; for example, presidential and congressional candidates spent a total of $3 billion dollars in the 2002 elections. B. In the 1970s, a new campaign financing system was set up based on public disclosure of spending, public funding of presidential elections, and limiting or prohibiting the contributions of certain groups. C. Created in 1974, the Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent agency that administers federal election laws and keeps records of campaign contributions. Section 1-5

14 II. Financing Campaigns (pages 477–479)
D. The majority of campaign funding comes from private sources, including individual citizens, party organizations, corporations, and special-interest groups. E. Political Action Committees, or PACs, are established by interest groups to support candidates, but they are limited in the donations they can make. Section 1-6

15 II. Financing Campaigns (pages 477–479)
F. Two methods are used to get around campaign spending limits: soft-money donations, which are contributions given directly to a political party for general purposes such as voter registration drives; and issue-advocacy advertisements, which support an issue rather than a particular candidate. G. The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, passed in 2002, bans soft-money donations to national political parties, but its constitutionality remains in question. Section 1-7

16 II. Financing Campaigns (pages 477–479)
H. The FEC regulates campaigns online; for example, all campaign Web sites that cost $250 dollars or more must be registered with the FEC. Section 1-8

17 II. Financing Campaigns (pages 477–479)
What reforms of the campaign financing laws would you like to see enacted? Explain. Answers will vary. Students should consider the logical outcomes of proposed reforms. Section 1-9

18 Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea Use a graphic organizer like the one below to show the effects the Federal Election Campaign Acts had on campaign financing. Effects—prohibited business organizations and unions from contributing directly to campaigns; individuals could contribute up to $1000 to any candidate or general election campaign; encouraged the growth of PACs Section 1 Assessment-1

19 Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition. ___ campaign manager ___ image ___ political action committee ___ soft money C A B D A. mental picture B. an organization formed to collect money and provide financial support for political candidates C. the person responsible for the overall strategy and planning of a campaign D. money raised by a political party for general purposes, not designated for a candidate Section 1 Assessment-2

20 Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Federal Election Commission. The Federal Election Commission is an independent agency in the executive branch that administers federal election laws. Section 1 Assessment-3

21 Checking for Understanding
4. How can third-party candidates qualify for federal funds for a presidential campaign? They can qualify by winning more than 5 percent of the popular vote in the current or previous presidential election. Section 1 Assessment-4

22 Critical Thinking 5. Synthesizing Information PACs can contribute to as many political candidates as they wish. Why might they contribute to all major candidates in a presidential campaign? They might think that contributing to all candidates will assure a friendly reception to their positions. Section 1 Assessment-5

23 Section 1 Concepts in Action
Political Processes Imagine that you are running for political office. Prepare a campaign strategy for your election. Explain what campaign tools you would use and how you would finance your campaign. Create an illustrated poster outlining your strategy. Section 1 Concepts in Action

24 End of Section 1

25 Section 2 Introduction-1
Expanding Voting Rights Key Terms suffrage, grandfather clause, poll tax Find Out • Why did it take so long for African Americans and for women to win voting rights? • What did each of the voting rights acts achieve? Section 2 Introduction-1

26 Section 2 Introduction-2
Expanding Voting Rights Understanding Concepts Growth of Democracy What were the steps in the process of extending the right to vote to all adult citizens? Section Objective Summarize the historical expansion of voting rights. Section 2 Introduction-2

27 American citizens living in the nation’s capital, Washington, D. C
American citizens living in the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C., could not vote in presidential elections until Adoption of the Twenty-third Amendment finally granted residents of Washington, D.C., the right to take part in national politics. However, they still cannot vote for senators or representatives. Section 2-1

28 I. Early Limitations on Voting (page 481)
A. Before the American Revolution, women and African Americans, white males who did not own property, and persons who were not members of dominant religious groups were excluded from voting. B. During the early 1800s, states gradually abolished property and religious requirements for voting, and by the mid-1800s, the nation had achieved universal white male suffrage. Section 2-2

29 I. Early Limitations on Voting (page 481)
Agree or disagree with the statement, “Voting is not just a right, it is a responsibility.” You should note that a democracy cannot force a person to vote, but responsible citizens vote. Section 2-3

30 II. Woman Suffrage (page 482)
A. By 1914 women had won the right to vote in 11 states. B. The Nineteenth Amendment, ratified after World War I, granted women in all states the right to vote. Section 2-4

31 II. Woman Suffrage (page 482)
Why do you think it took so long for women to win the right to vote? Answers will vary but should note that women were denied equal status in many other areas of society during this time, and they therefore lacked political and economic power. Section 2-5

32 III. African American Suffrage (pages 482–484)
A. Enslaved African Americans were not allowed to vote, and free African Americans could vote in only a few states, until 1870. B. The Fifteenth Amendment, passed after the Civil War, granted the vote to African Americans in both state and national elections. C. The Fifteenth Amendment did not result in full voting rights for African Americans; southern states set up restrictive voting qualifications. Section 2-6

33 III. African American Suffrage (pages 482–484)
D. Some southern states used literacy tests to disqualify African Americans from voting; the Voting Rights Acts of 1965 and 1970 outlawed these tests. E. Poll taxes, or money payments required before voting, and grandfather clauses, excusing white voters from paying the tax, were devices used to discourage African Americans from voting; the Twenty-fourth Amendment banned poll taxes. Section 2-7

34 III. African American Suffrage (pages 482–484)
F. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 and later voting rights laws brought the federal government directly into the electoral process in the states, ending official discrimination against African Americans and increasing their political strength and participation in government. Section 2-8

35 III. African American Suffrage (pages 482–484)
If the Fifteenth Amendment was supposed to give African Americans the right to vote, why were Voting Rights Acts necessary? Many states used literacy tests and poll taxes to keep most African Americans from voting. Section 2-9

36 IV. Twenty-sixth Amendment (page 484)
A. This amendment lowered the voting age to 18 throughout the nation. B. The amendment helped satisfy those young people who could be drafted into the military but could not vote. Section 2-10

37 IV. Twenty-sixth Amendment (page 484)
Do you agree or disagree with the provisions of the Twenty-sixth Amendment? Explain your reasoning. Few will disagree. However, those who do may point out the lowest percentage of voters are in the youngest age category. Section 2-11

38 Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea Use a chart to explain the changes brought about by the Fifteenth, Nineteenth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments. fifteenth: African Americans were given right to vote nationwide, first time that the national government set rules for voting; nineteenth: women were given right to vote nationwide; twenty-sixth: voting age lowered from 21 to 18 Section 2 Assessment-1

39 Checking for Understanding
2. Define suffrage, grandfather clause, poll tax. Suffrage is the right to vote. A grandfather clause is an exemption in a law for a certain group based on previous conditions. A poll tax is money paid in order to vote. Section 2 Assessment-2

40 Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Voting Rights Act. The Voting Rights Act is a law that empowered the federal government to register voters in any district where less than 50 percent of African American adults were on the voting lists or where it appeared that local officials were discriminating against African Americans. Section 2 Assessment-3

41 Checking for Understanding
4. What did the Twenty-fourth Amendment outlaw? It outlawed poll taxes in national elections. Section 2 Assessment-4

42 Checking for Understanding
5. Why were the provisions of the Voting Rights Acts important? They empowered the federal government to prevent voting rights discrimination at the state level and resulted in an increased number of minority voters and African Americans’ participation in the political process. Section 2 Assessment-5

43 Critical Thinking 6. Making Inferences John Jay said, “The people who own the country ought to govern it.” Analyze the impact of the extension of voting rights on the meaning of Jay’s statement. Answers should point out that Jay believed, like many others of his time, that only property owners should have the right to vote. The extension of voting rights allowed all Americans to participate and “own” their country. Section 2 Assessment-6

44 Section 2 Concepts in Action
Growth of Democracy Create an illustrated time line that focuses on major events in the extension of voting rights in the United States. Include events between 1791 and the present. Section 2 Concepts in Action

45 End of Section 2

46 Section 3 Introduction-1
Influences on Voters Key Terms cross-pressured voter, straight party ticket, propaganda Find Out • What personal background factors do you believe will influence your decision as a voter? • What outside influences affect how a person votes? Section 3 Introduction-1

47 Section 3 Introduction-2
Influences on Voters Understanding Concepts Civic Participation How does a citizen overcome obstacles to voting and voter apathy? Section Objective Evaluate the factors that influence voters and nonvoters. Section 3 Introduction-2

48 In a periodic Gallup poll to determine which president Americans consider to be the greatest, President John F. Kennedy headed the list until 1991 when President Abraham Lincoln was ranked first. Even then, the public placed Kennedy second. Historians generally believe that Kennedy’s great popularity is based in part on the image he projected on television—a young, handsome, and energetic leader, assassinated in 1963, who gave his life for his country. Section 3-1

49 I. Personal Background of Voters (pages 492–493)
A. Voters’ ages may affect their views and determine their voting decisions. B. Education, religion, and racial or ethnic background affect voters’ attitudes, but voters do not always vote in keeping with their backgrounds. C. Cross-pressured voters, those caught between conflicting elements in their lives, may vote based on the issues and candidates. Section 3-2

50 I. Personal Background of Voters (pages 492–493)
Section 3-3

51 I. Personal Background of Voters (pages 492–493)
Which of the following do you think will most influence your own voting decisions: age, education level, religion, occupation, income level, race, family or ethnic background? Explain. Answers will vary. You may want to rank the categories from most to least important. Section 3-3

52 II. Loyalty to Political Parties (pages 493–494)
A. Because the majority of American voters consider themselves either Republicans or Democrats, most vote for their party’s candidates. B. Not all party members vote for all their party’s candidates; some are strong party voters; others are weak party voters. C. Independent voters, who have increased in numbers, do not belong to either major party but are an important element in presidential elections. Section 3-4

53 II. Loyalty to Political Parties (pages 493–494)
Explain why you think you will become a strong party voter, a weak party voter, or an independent. Answers will vary. See Loyalty to Political Parties on text page 493. Section 3-5

54 III. Issues in Election Campaigns (pages 494–495)
A. Many current voters are better informed than past voters because they are better educated, current issues have a greater impact on their personal lives, and television imparts information on issues; still, most voters are not fully informed on campaign issues. B. The 1980 presidential election demonstrated the importance of issues: The high rate of inflation, the high cost of living, and the high rate of unemployment were issues debated by the candidates that clearly helped Reagan win the election. Section 3-6

55 III. Issues in Election Campaigns (pages 494–495)
What are some issues that you would like the candidates to address in the next presidential campaign? Answers will vary but may include: budget, campaign finance, health care, education. Section 3-7

56 IV. The Candidate’s Image (page 495)
A. Americans want someone they can trust as a national leader. B. Voters often select candidates for the image they project. Section 3-8

57 IV. The Candidate’s Image (page 495)
Do you think the emphasis on image in modern political campaigns is a positive or negative development? Explain. Answers will vary. You should support your opinions with examples. Section 3-9

58 V. Propaganda (pages 495–496) A. Political parties and candidates use ideas, information, and rumors to influence voters with propaganda techniques. B. Name calling, testimonials, bandwagon, transfer, plain folks, and card stacking help to win votes. Section 3-10

59 V. Propaganda (pages 495–496) How can voters protect themselves against being manipulated by campaign propaganda? By recognizing the techniques and by keeping informed about the choices. Section 3-11

60 VI. Profile of Regular Voters (page 496)
A. Regular voters have positive attitudes toward government and citizenship. B. Generally, regular voters have more education and a higher than average income; middle-aged citizens have the highest voter turnout. Section 3-12

61 VI. Profile of Regular Voters (page 496)
Why do you think the highest voter turnout is among middle-aged, educated, higher income persons? Answers will vary but should be well reasoned. Section 3-13

62 VII. Profile of Nonvoters (page 496—497)
A. They may not meet citizenship, residency, and registration requirements. B. The percentage of voters among those who are eligible has declined. Section 3-14

63 VII. Profile of Nonvoters (page 496—497)
What steps do you think might be effective in increasing voter turnout? Answers will vary. Students may mention shifting elections to Sunday or instituting national registration systems. Section 3-15

64 Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea Use a graphic organizer like the one below to show how parties try to influence voters. appealing to members’ loyalty, addressing issues, building candidate’s image, using propaganda techniques Section 3 Assessment-1

65 Checking for Understanding
2. Define cross-pressured voter, straight party ticket, propaganda. A cross-pressured voter is one who is caught between conflicting elements in his or her own life that may affect voting patterns. A straight party ticket is one where a voter has selected candidates of his or her party only. Propaganda is the use of ideas, information, or rumors to influence opinion. Section 3 Assessment-2

66 Checking for Understanding
3. Identify independent voter. An independent voter is a voter who does not support any particular party. Section 3 Assessment-3

67 Checking for Understanding
4. Identify factors in a voter’s personal background that influence that individual’s vote. Students should identify any or all of the following factors: upbringing, family, age, occupation, income level, general outlook on life, education, religion, and racial or ethnic background. Section 3 Assessment-4

68 Critical Thinking 5. Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment What qualities of competence and leadership would you think are important for a presidential candidate to have? Answers will vary, but students should identify personal qualities and leadership skills worthy of presidential candidates. Section 3 Assessment-5

69 Section 3 Concepts in Action
Civic Participation Voter apathy is an issue in the United States today. Draw a political cartoon that depicts a reason people give for not voting. Section 3 Concepts in Action

70 End of Section 3

71 Chapter Assessment 1

72 Reviewing Key Terms Write the term that best completes each sentence. political action committees cross-pressured voter soft money suffrage straight-party ticket grandfather clause 1. Political candidates often receive campaign contributions and support from ________________________. 2. Women in the United States gained __________________________ in 1920. 3. Most independent voters do not vote a __________________________. political action committees suffrage straight-party ticket Chapter Assessment 2

73 Reviewing Key Terms Write the term that best completes each sentence. political action committees cross-pressured voter soft money suffrage straight-party ticket grandfather clause 4. Political parties can raise unlimited amounts of money for general purposes, not designated to particular candidates, through __________________________. 5. The __________________________ was a roadblock to voting for most African American Southerners. 6. One cannot be sure how a __________________________ will vote because that person has conflicting interests. soft money grandfather clause cross-pressured voter Chapter Assessment 3

74 Recalling Facts 1. How does the number of electoral votes of a state affect presidential campaigning? Larger states with more electoral votes get more attention from candidates. 2. What were the three devices used after 1870 to prevent African Americans from voting? The three devices were the grandfather clause, literacy test, and poll tax. Chapter Assessment 4

75 Recalling Facts 3. Which group of Americans gained the right to vote under the Twenty-sixth Amendment? Americans between 18 and 21 years old gained the right to vote under the Twenty-sixth Amendment. 4. What effects has television had on presidential elections? Television has brought the issues into almost every home. It has also increased the importance of a candidate’s image. Chapter Assessment 5

76 Recalling Facts 5. Describe the current voter registration system.
The National Voter Registration law, which took effect in 1995, requires states to make registration forms available not only at motor vehicle departments but also at numerous state offices, welfare offices, and agencies that serve the disabled. It also requires states to allow mail-in registration. Chapter Assessment 6

77 Understanding Concepts
1. Political Processes Individuals have suggested extending public financing of election campaigns to include congressional campaigns. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of this idea. Possible advantages: enable more people to run for office, diminish candidates’ “selling” themselves for campaign contributions, diminish the power wealth has on candidates; Possible disadvantages: more taxpayer dollars spent on campaigning, congressional candidates should not be responsible to federal influence but to state influence, Congress might vote themselves more money Chapter Assessment 7

78 Understanding Concepts
2. Growth of Democracy Why were the Voting Rights Acts necessary? Although the Fifteenth Amendment granted voting rights, Southern states set up many roadblocks designed to limit and discourage African American voters. The acts empowered the federal government to extend voting rights to all eligible African Americans. Chapter Assessment 8

79 Understanding Concepts
3. Civic Participation The right to vote belongs to every United States citizen. In your opinion, what do citizens forfeit if they do not exercise their right to vote? Answers will vary but may include that nonvoters lose their chance to influence the political process, to voice their opinions, and to affect society. Chapter Assessment 9

80 Critical Thinking 1. Predicting Consequences Identify at least three consequences that could result from limiting the amount of money any individual could give to a political campaign. Possible consequences may include: diminish the influence of wealthy individuals in government, force political parties to find funds elsewhere such as from PACs, federal funding may become more important, individuals may lose interest if they cannot contribute, other PAC-type organizations may form, soft money may play an even greater role, and so on. Chapter Assessment 10

81 Critical Thinking 2. Making Inferences In terms of percentage, far fewer members of the 18–21 age bracket actually exercise their right to vote than is the case with any other age group. How might you explain this? Answers may indicate that younger voters have a more parochial viewpoint, are not as concerned with national issues, are more involved in their daily lives, have not been influenced by either major party, and so on. Chapter Assessment 11

82 Critical Thinking 3. Making Inferences Use a graphic organizer like the one below to list three ways of increasing voter turnout. Answers might include: shift election day from Tuesday to Sunday; national registration rather than state or local; allow voters to register on election day Chapter Assessment 12

83 Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
1. According to the cartoonist, why don’t some people vote? Americans are discouraged by negative campaign advertisements that criticize candidates. Chapter Assessment 13

84 Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
2. How does the cartoonist exaggerate campaign advertising? The cartoonist portrays campaign advertising as only negative. Candidates criticize opponents without noting their own accomplishments, talents, or goals. Chapter Assessment 14

85 Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
3. Should Americans rely on television advertisements to gather information on candidates? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Students may note that voters should try to become informed by examining newspaper and magazine articles and political party brochures, listening to TV or radio news programs, or consulting other local organizations to gain reliable information on candidates. Chapter Assessment 15

86 Which presidential candidate scored the biggest landslide victory in presidential history?
Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, in 1964, took 61.1 percent of the vote with his challenger, Barry Goldwater, taking only 38.5 percent. Chapter Assessment 16

87 End of Chapter Assessment

88 Section Focus 1 1) spending increased through 2000, then decreased
2) No, spending in House dropped in , then increased 3) all House reps faced re-election Section Focus 1

89 Section Focus 2 1) the 15th Amendment
2) low income citizens who could not pay these taxes were not permitted to vote 3) Answers will vary. Section Focus 2

90 Section Focus 3 1) Brazil with 100% participation 2) all except Mexico
3) Answers will vary. Section Focus 3

91 Making It Relevant

92 Polling the Community Poll 10 people in the community as to whether or not they voted in the last election. If the person did not vote, ask for the reason why. Make a list of the reasons people gave for not voting and then share the information with the class. Make a class list to tally the main reason why people do not vote. Extra Credit

93 Cover Story 1

94 Cover Story 2

95 Cover Story 3

96 In 1996 only 5 percent of Americans polled believed that politicians do not grant special favors to large campaign contributors. Did You Know 17-1

97 More About Conservatives and Liberals  A person can be a political conservative and an economic liberal—and vice versa. Economic conservatives believe that the government should keep its hands off the economy. Economic liberals support government intervention in the economy to fulfill a social responsibility. Politics and You 17-3

98 Crossing the Line Suffragists used strong tactics for their cause—the right of women to vote. In 1913, thousands of women marched in a suffrage parade through Washington, D.C. In 1917, suffragists set up a daily picket line outside the White House. It was the first time this form of protest had occurred in American history. The picketers continued even after the nation entered World War I and, as a result, were accused of being traitors. In one of their most radical statements, the women referred to President Wilson as “Kaiser.” TIME For the Record 17-2

99 Image or Issues  Debate the following questions: Which is more important in elections, image or issues? Can a candidate with a strong public image but a poor grasp of important issues win a presidential or congressional election over a candidate with an unappealing image but a thorough grasp of issues? Discuss these questions and support your opinions with examples. Issues to Debate 17-3

100 Participating in Government 17-1
Volunteerism is an important part of the American democratic system. Discuss former President George Bush’s attempt to rally Americans to volunteer through his “Thousand Points of Light” program and his later attempt with President Clinton to get people, especially young people, to commit to volunteer service through the President’s Summit for America’s Future. Activity: Choose an organization you believe supports an important cause. Find out how to volunteer for this organization and what types of volunteers are needed. Participating in Government 17-1

101 Participating in Government 17-3
Analyzing Political and Economic Views  Brainstorm 10 current political issues and 10 economic ones. Create a continuum ranging from liberal on the far left to conservative on the far right and label the top economic and the bottom political. Mark your beliefs on the continuum for each of the issues. Analyze your continuums to decide where you stand on the political and economic conservative/liberal continuum. Participating in Government 17-3

102 Curriculum Connection 17-1
Economics  The top 10 overall campaign contributors in the 2000 elections were (listed from first to tenth): American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees; Service Employees International Union; AT&T; Carpenters and Joiners Union; Microsoft Corp.; International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; Goldman Sachs Group; Citigroup, Inc.; United Food and Commercial Workers Union; National Association of Realtors. Curriculum Connection 17-1

103 Condoleeza Rice Under President George H.W. Bush, Condoleezza Rice drew on her political-science background as senior director for Soviet affairs at the National Security Council. In that role she helped to bring democratic reforms to Poland and to develop many of the Bush administration’s policies toward the former Soviet Union. Activity: Research the history of the National Security Council. Work in groups to compile a time line of significant events and noteworthy appointments. We the People 17-2

104 Ronald Reagan Ronald Reagan was a master at image making. With years of experience on the radio, as a television host, and in movies, Reagan used the media to his advantage as a candidate and during his presidency. Candidate Reagan portrayed a youthful image, which helped him get elected and become—at age 69—the oldest American ever to be elected to the presidency. Political Profiles 17-3

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