Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7- Voting and Participation – Learning Objectives"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 7- Voting and Participation – Learning Objectives (1). Examine who votes and the effect of individual voting characteristics.(2). Describe socioeconomic, demographic and psychological effects on voter turnout.(3). Discuss the effects of registration laws and campaign contacts.(4). Outline key historical efforts of Americans to secure the right to vote, including: the 15th, 19th, & 26th Amendments, and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.(5). Define political efficacy, analyze the decline in voter turnout, and assess its impact.(6). Examine who becomes a political activists, and describe the various types.(7). Examine how voters make choices, the influence of party identification and candidate characteristics, and how voters choose based on the issues.(8). Contrast retrospective and prospective issue voting, and the role of economics.(9). Discuss how the relative influences and importance of party identification, candidate characteristics, and issues change over time.(10). Analyze the influence of social groups on voting behavior; examine the gender gap.
2 Who Votes: The central activity of Democracy The Effect of Individual Voter Characteristics:Determining voter turnout – who actually votesSocioeconomic characteristicsEducationIncomeOccupationDemographic characteristicsRace, ethnicity, age, & genderPsychological characteristicsStrength of Party IdentificationPolitical efficacyGroup consciousnessInterest & trust in Government & Political awarenessSo who’s more likely to vote?
3 Citizens Most likely to Vote: Same People with what?
7 + Key Term Review Education Family Income & Wealth Occupational Status = ?Socioeconomic Status
8 Education and Voting Education is the most important variable in whether people voteor Not.7-1 Education and Voting
9 RegistrationLawsRegistration and voting laws also affect turnout by changing the costs of voting from state to state.The more difficult and time consuming it is to vote, the less likely people are to do so.7-1b Registration Laws
10 The Effect of Registration Laws Impact on voter turnout => (compared in Fig. 7-1)2 Rules affecting other industrial democracies:Automatic voter registrationCompulsory votingRules inhibiting voter turnout in USClosing date (30 day deadline to register)Region with most stringent registration laws?Post-Civil War legacy: poll taxes & literacy test24th Amendment affect on above?But old habits change slowly=>Stricter registration rules evident in the South
11 Registration and Congressional Action Congress eases rules nationally:National Voter Registration Act of 1993Also called?“Motor Voter Law”Impact? (+ 9%)But … marginal effects do count => 2000
12 Percentage of Southern Voting Act of 1965 (whites)Percentage of SouthernWhites registeredto vote in 1960.7-1 Voting Act of 1965
13 Voting Act of 1965 (African-American) Percentage of SouthernAfrican-Americans registeredto vote in 1960.7-1 Voting Act of 1965 #2
14 Voting Act of 1965 (Impact) Tests of literacy Educational Attainment Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated what kind of “requirements” for voter eligibility?Tests of literacyEducational AttainmentPolitical KnowledgeGood moral character7-1 Results of the Voting Act
15 The Effect of Campaign Contacts on Voter Turnout: Who is normally contacted & why?Who does the contacting?Registered Supporters by Party Activists (Figure 7-2)Personal contact (“Do you need a ride to the polls?”)Other Methods used to contact => mobilize supporters to vote:Mass mail campaignsTelephone banks (“Hello, this is Barbara Bush…”)New voting trend in Northwest? => any potential effect?
16 Decline of Voter Turnout 1888-2000 (Figure 7-3):
17 Two competing explanations for Voter Decline 1. Democratic Party shift to favor $$$ interest & its impactResult: loss of labor voter support2. Changes in Voting laws:Australian BallotRequirements to register in order to vote19th AmendmentImpact of above?
18 Contemporary Reasons for Decline Post-1960s analysis & debate:Survey data indicated => measurable decline in:Party ID, political efficacy, & newspaper readersDecline in average age of eligible voters(26th Amendment) => impact? (population pool?)Also: decline in efforts to recruit campaign volunteersIncreased reliance on TV ads & direct mail campaignsDoor to door campaigning considered too old fashion?Impact at the polls? (Recent election results?)
19 Does Weak Voter Turnout Really Matter? (Impact of the rules?) Which Party benefits or losses?Conventional wisdom?High socioeconomic voters’ turnout & preferences? vs.Historical turnout & preferences of the poor?Which party would benefit from which group?Any exceptions to rule?Role of cross cutting cleavages?Impact of hypothetical turnout increase:From 50-55% => 80-90%? (TBD)
20 Political Participation – The Activists What is a Political Activists?An individual who engages in political activities that go beyond voting, such as attempting to persuade others, attending rallies, donating money, or working for a candidate or cause.7-2 Political Activists
21 Various ways to participate in politics? Participation in Politics:7-3 Participation in PoliticsMost likely way? Least?
22 Becoming an Activists Who Becomes an Activist – 3 major factors? 1. Resources: time, $$$, & civic skills2. Psychological engagement:Commitment to issue or group & sense of political efficacy3. Participating member of organization(Opportunity to interact and hone debate skills)Activist influence on political agenda? Why?Activities: staff campaign, register voters, support electionAny correlations evident? Any exceptions?Wealthy, older, educated, & involved w/political knowageException: Poor students with strong sense of what?
23 How Voters Make Choices Three Major FactorsInfluencingVoting Behavior?PartyIdentificationCandidateCharacter-isticsIssues7-3 Three Factors Influencing Voting Behavior
24 The psychological feeling of belonging to a particular political party, which influences voting behaviorPartyIdentification7-3a Party Identification
25 Party Identification Psychological attachment to party => Influences political behavior of member- how to voteInfluence of Party ID on voting behavior?See Text- Table 7-3: likely to vote for party candidateAnother key Role played by Party ID:Perceptual screen? (Figure 7-5)Influences voter’s positions on complex issuesAid for deciding how to vote (how so?)Guides voters with regard to which issue or candidate to support
26 The candidate's character, personality, CharacteristicsThe candidate's character, personality,experiences, past record, and physical appearance.7-3b Candidate CharacteristicsHow does candidate’s characteristics influence voters?Both obvious & subtle prejudices & preferences
27 Issues: Factors Affecting How People Vote Retrospective Issue VotingProspective Issue VotingHard IssuesEasy Issues7-3c Issues
28 What is Retrospective Issue Voting? Deciding how to vote on the basis of past policy outcomes.7-3d Retrospective and Prospective Issue VotingProspectiveIssueVotingDeciding how to vote on the basis of a candidate's likely future policies.
29 The Issues Issues – most important but least influential? Retrospective issue voting?Voting based on past record (“pocket book issues”)Impact of sociotropic voters? (community vs. self)Prospective issue voting?3 conditions required (1950’s study):1. issue awareness & an opinion on it2. knowledge of government’s actions3. see the different positions of the candidatesRecent Criteria (Seven-point scale – Figure 7-6)Voter can place him/herself on the scale with regard to the issueVoter can place both candidates on scaleVoter sees difference between candidatesPlaces Democratic party to left of GOP candidateResults? Voter’s knowledge (51% or less- see Table 7-4))
30 Easy vs. Hard Issues What’s the difference? Issues that allow voters to make quick, emotional decisions without much information.Easy Issues7-3 Hard and Easy IssuesComplex issues that require knowledge and understanding invested by the voter.Hard Issues
31 Easy issues vs. hard issues Criteria for selecting an issue: Candidate & Party/Interest Group’s conclusion when selecting a particular issue to support?Complex issues are too hard for voters to understandTherefore waste of campaign’s time and moneyResult?
32 Easy issues vs. hard issues- Impact Impact on how candidate should choose issues during campaign?Go easy w/bumper sticker for emotional appealResult: Easier to explain Candidate’s position- but…Less solid info for voters to make their choiceAnd a less informed electorateHeavy reliance on Party Identification for decision
33 Changes Over TimeFactors affecting voter decisions change with the times:Dramatic events:War, recessions, or natural or manmade disastersResults in more focus on the issuesInfluence of candidates & news media issue priorities (what is debated):In most cases set the political campaign agendaDetermine what issues are debated before voters
34 Influences of Social Groups on Voting Social Group influence on voters’ choices in 2000 election:See Text Table 7-5 for specific breakdown:Family income & EducationRace/Ethnicity & ReligionGenderNote growing gender gapMarried couplesIdeologyGroup correlations & general conclusions?Consistency with Political Knowledge profiles?
37 Wednesday’s Assignment Chapter 8: The News MediaSyllabus Learning Objectives #1-11Luncheon Learn (Supreme Court)- 1240Reminder: Research Paper topicPreparation for Thesis formulation due by MTX
38 Chapter 7 KEY TERMSAustralian ballot: A government-printed ballot (as opposed to one distributed by political parties) that allows people to vote in secret.Candidate characteristics: The candidate’s character, personality, experiences, past record, and physical appearance.Closing date: The last day before the election when one can register in order to vote—usually described in number of days before Election Day.Easy issues: Simple issues that allow voters to make quick, emotional decisions without much information.Franchise: The right to vote.Gender gap: The difference between men’s and women’s voting rates for either a Democratic or Republican candidate.Group consciousness: Identification with one’s social group (for instance, black consciousness).
39 Chapter 7 KEY TERMS (2)Hard issues: Complicated issues that require voters to have information about the policy and to spend time considering their choices.Literacy test: A test of ability to read and write, used in the South to prevent people from voting.Party identification: The psychological feeling of belonging to a particular political party, which influences voting behavior.Poll tax: Before 1964, the tax that people paid in some states if they chose to vote.Prospective issue voting: Deciding how to vote on the basis of a candidate’s likely policies.Retrospective issue voting: Deciding how to vote on the basis of past policy outcomes.Sociotropic voters: People who vote on the basis of their community’s economic interests, rather than their personal economic interests.Voter turnout: The percentage of people who actually vote.