Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece SSWH3- The Student will examine the political, philosophical and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean Societies from 700 BCE."— Presentation transcript:
1Ancient GreeceSSWH3- The Student will examine the political, philosophical and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean Societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE
3Geography and OriginMountainous peninsula that juts into the Mediterranean sea; also includes 2,000 islands in the Aegean and Ionian SeaSeas created trade routes, mts created isolated communitiesThe Mediterranean climate supported leisure outdoor public life1st people were the Mycenaean ( B.C.)Interacted with the Minoans- adapted language & culture
4The Trojan WAR…. ?The background behind Homer’s epic poem Iliad and the OdysseyCast of Characters:Agamemnon MenelausHelen ParisHector AchillesOdysseus Trojan HorseSetting: The independent city of Troy, 1200 B.C.-Created the arête- idea of virtue and excellence-Helped create a Greek identity
5Establishment of Mythology Created a set of myths (traditional stories about their Gods.Gods were human qualities- love, hate, competition, argumentative but lived forever
7Dorian DevelopmentsShortly after the War, the Mycenaean empire collapsedDorians took over and created foundational government ideas:The polis-Greek city state- a city and its surrounding countryside. Citizens gathered to discuss government in either the agora (marketplace) or the acropolis(fortified hilltop)Each polis had a different form of Government1) monarchy (a single person) 2) aristocracy(small group of landowning families) 3)Oligarchy (ruled by a few powerful people)At times powerful individuals would seize control of the government by appealing to the common people for support- They were known as Tyrants
8Athens Developed the idea of Democracy (rule by people)to help govern. 621B.C. Draco developed a legal code that all Athenians were equal under the law, punishments by death, debt by slavery. Draconian law.594 B.C. Solon: outlawed debt-slavery, created a class system based on wealth, citizens bring charges against wrongdoers500 B.C. Cleisthenes-Council of 500-members chosen at random, citizens organized into districts & could submit laws and debate them.Free Adult Male property owners =citizens
9Athenian Education and the 1st Olympics Sons of wealthy families received formal education, Girls studied the “household”Began around age 7 learned reading, grammar, history, poetry, math, public speaking, athletics and military training.776 B.C. first games were recorded, expanded to 5 days in 472 B.C. included: racing, long jump, javelin, discuss throw.Olympia- became the site of the Olympics. (believed Zeus threw a lightening bolt that landed there)
10SPARTA Located on Peloponnesus Military state; conquered people were known as Helots-peasants who were forced into slavery,Government consisted of the council of elders (30 older citizens that proposed and voted laws)Militaristic society- boys left home at 7 to start military service which ended at age 60. Women were given more freedoms and taught that service was above everything else.A strong Spartan woman...
12The Persian WarsIron replaced Bronze weapons, Foot soldiers (hoplites) formed a phalanx formationThe Persians conquered Greek colonies at Ionia. The Athenians assisted and Darius the Great vowed to destroy Athens for meddling. Several major battles:490 B.C. Marathon- Persians invaded & lost due to the phalanx*Pheidippides ran back to inform Athens (26 miles)480 B.C. Xerxes launched a second invasion; meet 7000 Greeks including 300 Spartans at Thermopylae Pass. After a traitor informed Xerxes of a way to defeat the Greeks. Many retreated but the 300 fought to the death.
13Persian War cont.The Athenians evacuated & fought the Persians in a channel around Salamis & defeated them due to smaller more maneuverable ships.479 B.C. The Persians were defeated at PlataeaThe Delian League was established as an alliance between several Greek city states to finish off Persia and protect future attacksAthens became confident and powerful due to its role in The Persian Wars and its leadership in the Delian League.This success created the Golden Age of Athens
14Golden AGE of ATHENSPericles led Athens during the G.A. from B.C.-Strengthen Democracy*Increased # paid public officials*introduced direct democracy- citizens rule directly not using reps.-Strengthen the Empire*Leadership of the Delian League*Athens strengthen its Navy* Became more powerful, othersresented-Glorified Athens- Art and Architecture.
15Greek Art and Architecture Architecture and SculpturePericles builds the Parthenon—a large temple to honor the goddess Athena, within temple, sculptor Phidias crafts 30 foot statue of AthenaSculptors create graceful, strong, perfectly formed figures.Classical art—values harmony, order, balance, proportion, beautyColumns-Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
16Drama and History Tragedy and Comedy Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus, dance, poetryTwo forms of drama: tragedy and comedyTragedy—tells story of heroes’ downfall; themes of love, hate, and warComedy—makes fun of politics and respected people; slapstick humorGreek dramatists include Aeschylus, Euripides, Aristophanes, SophiclesHistorians Herodotus and Thucydides record and study past events
17The Peloponnesian War Peloponnesian War -431 B.C. Sparta declares war on Athens—the beginning of the Peloponnesian War.Peloponnesian WarSparta has a better army, Athens has a better navy.Plague strikes Athens in 430 B.C., kills many—including Pericles.Sparta and Athens sign a truce in 421 B.C.415 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracuse on the island of Sicily.Athens is defeated in 413 B.C.Athens and its allies surrender to Sparta in 404 B.C.
18The Philosophers The Sophists means “the wisest,” -After the war, thinkers emerge who are called “lovers of wisdom.” This is from the Greek words: phileo-to love sophia—wisdom-believe the universe is subject to absolute & unchanging laws.-People could understand these laws through logic and reason.The Sophists means “the wisest,”They claimed they could find the answers to all questions.Sophist philosopher Protogoras questions the existence of Greek gods. “Man is the measure of all things”
19SocratesHe believes in questioning and teaches through the method of questioning.Socratic MethodHe is believed to have said “The unexamined life is not worth living.”He is convicted of “corrupting the youth of Athens and sentenced to death in 399 B.C.He dies by drinking hemlock, a slow acting poison.
20Plato and Aristotle Plato Aristotle student of Socrates. writes The Republic, about an ideal societyruled by Philosopher-KingsOpened the Academywritings dominate Euro. philosophy for 1,500 years.“Philosophy begins in wonder”Aristotlestudent of Plato.uses rules of logic for argument.His work provides the basis for scientific method, still used today.Opened the Lyceum“He who studies how things originated…will achieve the clearest view of them”- tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes Alexander the Great
22Phillip II of Macedonia Ruled Macedonia from B.C.powerful military machine (16x16 phalanx, cavalry)338 B.C. Defeated a weak combination of Athens and Thebes at the battle of ChaeroneaIn 336 he was assassinated at his daughters wedding, his son Alexander proclaimed himself king
23Alexander the Great Well educated, well trained militarily Immediately put down a rebellion in Thebes 6K were killedPlans and Invades the Persian EmpireA)Enters Anatolia in 334 BC, Alexander and his 35K defeats 40K Persians at the Granicus RiverB) Alexander then met King Darius III on the battlefield of Issus and outnumbered led an attackC)Darius III offered a peace treaty but A rejected it and said he eventually conquer the entire Empire.
24Alexander The Great cont. Instead he went south conquered the city of Tyre and marched and claimed Egypt in 332.Egyptians welcomed him, named him a Pharaoh and named a city after him—AlexandriaHe then headed back east to meet Darius at Gaugamela in 331. Alexander again outnumbered and defeated the Persian empireIn 326- Alexander and his army reached the Indus river and fought and won the battle of Hydaspes.He was wounded and his army had been fighting for 11 years. They turned back to Babylon and he died of fever
27Alexander’s LegacyKingdom’s split in 3- Seleucus (East), Ptolemy (Egypt), Antigonus (Macedonia)Hellenistic culture- Mixture of Greek, Egyptian, Persian & Indian cultureKoine-language developedThe international trading center at Alexandria-also famous library and Museum, lighthouseAstronomy-Sun, size of the earthMath-Euclid’s-basic geometry,Archimedes-Pi and simple machinesPhilosophy-Zeno and Stoicism-virtues, self control on negative behaviors. Epicureans- harmony of mind, soul and pleasures.Art- statues, Colossus of Rhodes. Art was now moreNatural and realistic