Presentation on theme: "SSWH3- THE STUDENT WILL EXAMINE THE POLITICAL, PHILOSOPHICAL AND CULTURAL INTERACTION OF CLASSICAL MEDITERRANEAN SOCIETIES FROM 700 BCE TO 400 CE ANCIENT."— Presentation transcript:
SSWH3- THE STUDENT WILL EXAMINE THE POLITICAL, PHILOSOPHICAL AND CULTURAL INTERACTION OF CLASSICAL MEDITERRANEAN SOCIETIES FROM 700 BCE TO 400 CE ANCIENT GREECE
GEOGRAPHY AND ORIGIN Mountainous peninsula that juts into the Mediterranean sea; also includes 2,000 islands in the Aegean and Ionian Sea Seas created trade routes, mts created isolated communities The Mediterranean climate supported leisure outdoor public life 1 st people were the Mycenaean ( B.C.) Interacted with the Minoans- adapted language & culture
THE TROJAN WAR…. ? The background behind Homer’s epic poem Iliad and the Odyssey Cast of Characters: Agamemnon Menelaus Helen Paris Hector Achilles Odysseus Trojan Horse Setting: The independent city of Troy, 1200 B.C. -Created the arête- idea of virtue and excellence -Helped create a Greek identity
ESTABLISHMENT OF MYTHOLOGY Created a set of myths (traditional stories about their Gods. Gods were human qualities- love, hate, competition, argumentative but lived forever
DORIAN DEVELOPMENTS Shortly after the War, the Mycenaean empire collapsed Dorians took over and created foundational government ideas: The polis- Greek city state- a city and its surrounding countryside. Citizens gathered to discuss government in either the agora (marketplace) or the acropolis (fortified hilltop) Each polis had a different form of Government 1) monarchy (a single person) 2) aristocracy (small group of landowning families) 3) Oligarchy (ruled by a few powerful people) At times powerful individuals would seize control of the government by appealing to the common people for support- They were known as Tyrants
ATHENS Developed the idea of Democracy (rule by people)to help govern. 621B.C. Draco developed a legal code that all Athenians were equal under the law, punishments by death, debt by slavery. Draconian law. 594 B.C. Solon: outlawed debt-slavery, created a class system based on wealth, citizens bring charges against wrongdoers 500 B.C. Cleisthenes-Council of 500-members chosen at random, citizens organized into districts & could submit laws and debate them. Free Adult Male property owners =citizens
ATHENIAN EDUCATION AND THE 1 ST OLYMPICS Sons of wealthy families received formal education, Girls studied the “household” Began around age 7 learned reading, grammar, history, poetry, math, public speaking, athletics and military training. 776 B.C. first games were recorded, expanded to 5 days in 472 B.C. included: racing, long jump, javelin, discuss throw. Olympia- became the site of the Olympics. (believed Zeus threw a lightening bolt that landed there)
SPARTA Located on Peloponnesus Military state; conquered people were known as Helots -peasants who were forced into slavery, Government consisted of the council of elders (30 older citizens that proposed and voted laws) Militaristic society - boys left home at 7 to start military service which ended at age 60. Women were given more freedoms and taught that service was above everything else. A strong Spartan woman...
THE PERSIAN WARS Iron replaced Bronze weapons, Foot soldiers (hoplites) formed a phalanx formation The Persians conquered Greek colonies at Ionia. The Athenians assisted and Darius the Great vowed to destroy Athens for meddling. Several major battles: 490 B.C. Marathon - Persians invaded & lost due to the phalanx *Pheidippides ran back to inform Athens (26 miles) 480 B.C. Xerxes launched a second invasion; meet 7000 Greeks including 300 Spartans at Thermopylae Pass. After a traitor informed Xerxes of a way to defeat the Greeks. Many retreated but the 300 fought to the death.
PERSIAN WAR CONT. The Athenians evacuated & fought the Persians in a channel around Salamis & defeated them due to smaller more maneuverable ships. 479 B.C. The Persians were defeated at Plataea The Delian League was established as an alliance between several Greek city states to finish off Persia and protect future attacks Athens became confident and powerful due to its role in The Persian Wars and its leadership in the Delian League. This success created the Golden Age of Athens
Pericles led Athens during the G.A. from B.C. - Strengthen Democracy *Increased # paid public officials *introduced direct democracy - citizens rule directly not using reps. - Strengthen the Empire *Leadership of the Delian League *Athens strengthen its Navy * Became more powerful, others resented - Glorified Athens - Art and Architecture.
GREEK ART AND ARCHITECTURE Architecture and Sculpture Pericles builds the Parthenon —a large temple to honor the goddess Athena, within temple, sculptor Phidias crafts 30 foot statue of Athena Sculptors create graceful, strong, perfectly formed figures. Classical art —values harmony, order, balance, proportion, beauty Columns -Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
DRAMA AND HISTORY Tragedy and Comedy Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus, dance, poetry Two forms of drama: tragedy and comedy Tragedy—tells story of heroes ’ downfall; themes of love, hate, and war Comedy—makes fun of politics and respected people; slapstick humor Greek dramatists include Aeschylus, Euripides, Aristophanes, Sophicles Historians Herodotus and Thucydides record and study past events
THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR -431 B.C. Sparta declares war on Athens—the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. Peloponnesian War Sparta has a better army, Athens has a better navy. Plague strikes Athens in 430 B.C., kills many—including Pericles. Sparta and Athens sign a truce in 421 B.C. 415 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracuse on the island of Sicily. Athens is defeated in 413 B.C. Athens and its allies surrender to Sparta in 404 B.C.
THE PHILOSOPHERS -After the war, thinkers emerge who are called “ lovers of wisdom. ” This is from the Greek words: phileo-to love sophia—wisdom -believe the universe is subject to absolute & unchanging laws. -People could understand these laws through logic and reason. The Sophists means “ the wisest, ” They claimed they could find the answers to all questions. Sophist philosopher Protogoras questions the existence of Greek gods. “Man is the measure of all things”
SOCRATES He believes in questioning and teaches through the method of questioning. Socratic Method He is believed to have said “ The unexamined life is not worth living. ” He is convicted of “ corrupting the youth of Athens and sentenced to death in 399 B.C. He dies by drinking hemlock, a slow acting poison.
PLATO AND ARISTOTLE Plato student of Socrates. writes The Republic, about an ideal society ruled by Philosopher-Kings Opened the Academy writings dominate Euro. philosophy for 1,500 years. “Philosophy begins in wonder” Aristotle -student of Plato. - uses rules of logic for argument. -His work provides the basis for scientific method, still used today. -Opened the Lyceum -“He who studies how things originated…will achieve the clearest view of them” - tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes Alexander the Great
GREECE AROUND 363
PHILLIP II OF MACEDONIA Ruled Macedonia from B.C. powerful military machine (16x16 phalanx, cavalry) 338 B.C. Defeated a weak combination of Athens and Thebes at the battle of Chaeronea In 336 he was assassinated at his daughters wedding, his son Alexander proclaimed himself king
ALEXANDER THE GREAT Well educated, well trained militarily Immediately put down a rebellion in Thebes 6K were killed Plans and Invades the Persian Empire A)Enters Anatolia in 334 BC, Alexander and his 35K defeats 40K Persians at the Granicu s River B) Alexander then met King Darius III on the battlefield of Issus and outnumbered led an attack C)Darius III offered a peace treaty but A rejected it and said he eventually conquer the entire Empire.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT CONT. Instead he went south conquered the city of Tyre and marched and claimed Egypt in 332. Egyptians welcomed him, named him a Pharaoh and named a city after him— Alexandria He then headed back east to meet Darius at Gaugamela in 331. Alexander again outnumbered and defeated the Persian empire In 326- Alexander and his army reached the Indus river and fought and won the battle of Hydaspes. He was wounded and his army had been fighting for 11 years. They turned back to Babylon and he died of fever
ALEXANDER’S LEGACY Kingdom’s split in 3- Seleucus (East), Ptolemy (Egypt), Antigonus (Macedonia) Hellenistic culture- Mixture of Greek, Egyptian, Persian & Indian culture Koine-language developed The international trading center at Alexandria-also famous library and Museum, lighthouse Astronomy-Sun, size of the earth Math- Euclid’ s-basic geometry, Archimedes -Pi and simple machines Philosophy-Zeno and Stoicism -virtues, self control on negative behaviors. Epicureans - harmony of mind, soul and pleasures. Art- statues, Colossus of Rhodes. Art was now more Natural and realistic