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Polis Basic Greek city-state, consisted of a group of self-governing people Acropolis Elevated place in the center of the city occupied by the temples.

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Presentation on theme: "Polis Basic Greek city-state, consisted of a group of self-governing people Acropolis Elevated place in the center of the city occupied by the temples."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Polis Basic Greek city-state, consisted of a group of self-governing people Acropolis Elevated place in the center of the city occupied by the temples of the gods Geometric Style A style of vase painting that made use of bold, simple, linear designs Archaic Style A style of two-dimensional and three-dimensional art 2D art utilizes a sense of three-dimensional space 3d art consists of figures in stiff frontal poses

3 Emerged around 3000 BCE Named after King Minos Settled the island of Crete Rich and adventurous people Homes consisted of elaborate complexes Had running water, drainage systems, heating/cooling systems, and underground storage facilities Civilization was centered on trade, not military power

4 Religion was polytheistic Cult of the Sacred Bull Celebrated by “bull dancing” or “bull leaping” May have been the foundation for the myth/legend of the Minotaur Minoan civilization disappears around 1500 BCE

5 Early conquerors of the area Controlled the island of Crete after the Minoans disappeared Called “tamers of horses” Fought from chariots Left all conquered lands in ruins Provided Greece with myths, legends, and heroes Also provided a source of ethics and moral order

6 Primarily conquerors Did involve themselves in some trade Maintained their rule through military strength Mycenaeans used their soldiers and armada of ships to conquer the legendary city of Troy The Trojan War serves as the basis for the Greek epic poem The Iliad Religious practices included burying the dead with honor Also mummified corpses and buried them with their valuables

7 Used paintings as decoration Boar Hunt indicates that the Mycenaeans domesticated dogs as well as horses

8 Mycenaean palaces were fortresses Were constructed from large stone blocks Placed at the top of the highest hill Mycenaean civilization collapsed in 1200 BCE

9 Also called the “Greek Middle Ages” Occurs between the time of the Mycenaeans and the time of the Greek city-states Roughly 400 years or so Very little cultural or artistic activity during this time period Conquerors and other peoples filtered in and out of the region with little or no lasting impact on art or culture

10 Life switched from fortified cities to isolated farming communities Trade and commerce slowed almost to the point of nonexistence Iron replaced bronze for tools and weapons Significant changes in burial practices occurred Political power shifted from kings to powerful families

11 After the “Greek Middle Ages” the people began to develop a sense of unification These people called themselves “Hellenes” People from several different areas began to speak the same language Also used a common calendar which provides us with the date for the first Olympic Games

12 The Games were meant to represent life’s struggles The word “athletics” is derived from a Greek word that meant struggle The time of the Games was one where Greeks could meet in a non-lethal context Recognized their larger cultural, linguistic, and religious identities The main event was a foot race to honor Zeus (king of the gods) Later events included boxing, wrestling, and chariot racing

13 BCE Saw the emergence of the Greek polis A polis consists of a collection of self-governing people Each polis was surrounded by villages Functioned as independent states Each polis had its own sense of self

14 The polis is made up of two cities A lower city where the people lived An acropolis (high city) An elevated place in the center of the city Power in the polis belonged to the landowners and tribal leaders The concept of a king gradually faded away Was replaced with a group of elected officials Often viewed as the precursor to modern democracy

15 The focus of Greek religion was this life A large collection of gods formed the foundation of Greek religion The history of the gods was recorded in myths Traced by Homer in The Iliad Also in Hesiod’s Theogony Known as Olympian gods because they lived on Mount Olympus The gods were descendants of the gods of the heavens and the earth

16 The gods were represented in human terms They were sometimes better than us, and at times they were worse that us as well Implies that humans can be godlike Zeus (god of the sky) was the king of the gods Zeus’ brothers Poseidon and Hades ruled the rest of the universe Poseidon was god of the seas and earthquakes Hades was god of the underworld and land of the dead

17 Dionysus God of wine and reveling (fun, celebration) Annual festivals honoring Dionysus gave birth to early Greek drama

18 The archaic period laid the foundation for rationalism and logical thinking that would grow into philosophy Philosophy means “love of wisdom” Philosophy explores mankind’s place and purpose in the universe through reason instead of religion Pythagoras concluded that mathematical relationships were universal Universal constants could be applied throughout life Known for the Pythagorean Theorum A 2 + b 2 = c 2

19 Utilized this mathematical truth to reveal a larger, universal truth about life Harmony of Spheres Deduced the numeric relationships among musical notes Formed the basis of dividing musical scales into octaves (groups of eight tones)

20 Geometric Style Utilizes linearity (strong use of lines) Uses zigzags, diamonds, and maze patterns Human form shown in silhouette Head, legs, and feet in profile Designs fill virtually every space on the vase Decorated in horizontal bands called registers Figures would serve narrative purposes

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22 Archaic Style Three dimensional space developed The human body is depicted in a three-quarter position Fabrics were depicted with more details Pottery in the Archaic Style is divided into two types Black-Figure pottery Red-Figure pottery

23 Black figures are placed onto the red clay of the pot Details would be incised (carved out) White would sometimes be added Color women’s hair Old men’s beards Red used for horses’ manes and clothes

24 Reverses the style of black-figure pottery Black color creates the background for the images made on the red clay surface Contours, fabric lines, etc. appear in black Figures appear more lifelike when they appear in the color of the clay rather than the black figures earlier in the period

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26 Kouros Freestanding statues from the Archaic Period Featured young males Kouros means male youth Exhibit a stiff, frontal pose Emphasize physicality Broad shoulders, well defined muscles, etc. Not very lifelike however The nature of a freestanding statue allows the sculptor to present the human form independently from non-living matter

27 Two defining characteristics Represents an idealization of the human form Attempts to indicate movement The left foot is slightly ahead of the right foot

28 Kritios Boy Marks the transition out of stiff poses into more subtle movements First example of contrapposto stance Head gently turns to one side The body stands at rest Displays a natural shifting and distribution of weight

29 Music played a fundamental role in Greek life and education In mythology, music had the power to influence behavior Doctrine of ethos Music had the power to influence character Music embodied cultural values Music, poetry, and dance were inseparable

30 Greeks favored vocal music Songs celebrated the acts of gods Instruments typically were used to accompany vocals Popular instruments included The aulos (a woodwind that used two reeds) The lyre (a stringed instrument)

31 Greeks believed the gods invented dancing Oldest sources on Greek dance come from the Minoan civilization Dance was at the center of Greek religious rituals Greeks held dance competitions with large choruses This practice is what gave birth to Greek theatre

32 Began as oral tradition before progressing to written works Epic Poetry Long narrative poems that used an elevated style of language Homer Greatest of the Greek poets Composed the Iliad and the Odyssey Created the mythological history that the Greeks accepted as their true history

33 Sappho One of the first lyric poets Lyric poetry focuses on the individual Also accompanied by music played on a lyre One of the first poets to write in the first person point of view One of few well known female poets of the time

34 Hesiod Poetry focused on hard work and the struggle of everyday life Most famous work focuses on the mythological history of the gods Theogony describes Zeus’ defeat of the Titans and the emergence of every Greek god

35 Aesop Attributed to writing over 200 fables Fables are stories, typically involving animals as characters, that teach some kind of moral lesson “The Tortoise and the Hare” teaches that arrogance leads to defeat

36 Aesthetics – A branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty & art and their relation to human beings Classicism – Style of art relying on the fundamentals of simplicity, clarity of structure, and appeal to the intellect Hellenistic Style – An approach to art characterized by individuality, virtuosity, and emotion Frieze – A portion of a structure decorated with relief sculptures Relief Sculpture – Images project depth from the background

37 The Persian Wars Persian invaders were held off by the Greeks in 490 BCE at the Battle of Marathon Persians returned in 480 BCE and defeated the Greeks at Thermopylae but were defeated again in 480 by the Greek navy near the island of Salamis The Greeks defeated the Persians again at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BCE The Persians would never set foot in Greece again

38 What to take away from the Persian War The Greeks found that they were capable of defending their homelands by unifying In the aftermath, the Athenians began to spread influence and power throughout the Aegean Sea Formed the Delian League Pericles became a great ruler and ruled during the Classical Period of Greek arts

39 Peloponnesian Wars Series of wars between the city-states of Athens and Sparta Clashes of ideologies Sparta stood for the old ways of warriors and militarism Athens stood for a new, more cultured and artistic democratic society Effectively ended the reign of Athenians around the Aegean Sea

40 The Hellenistic Age Begins with the conquest of Greece by King Philip II of Macedonia Continued under the rule of Alexander the Great Alexander was a student of the Greek philosopher Aristotle Alexander developed a vast empire that had Greek culture at its center Greek influence was spread throughout the known world

41 Historia Means “inquiry” Describes the development of history as a written form Marked by careful research Herodotus “Father of History” First to relate history in a descriptive form, rather than poetic Often invented speeches for kings and generals that inspired troops Presented his sources in such a way that readers could decide how reliable the sources were

42 Believed that the present had its causes in the past Who we are now, is based on what’s already been done Thought the Persians were defeated by the Greeks because the Greeks were morally right

43 Thucydides Wrote a history of the Peloponnesian wars Sought to instruct his readers through a clear and unbiased style of writing Wanted his readers to be armed with knowledge when events of the past happened again in similar ways

44 In the middle of the 5 th century BCE people began to question their existence At this time, several different philosophies developed throughout Greece All of these philosophies offered a different view of life and truth

45 Stoicism Believed humans were the incarnation of logos (reason) Approached life with apathy Everything that happens is simply fate or the will of the gods Epicureanism Believed existence was temporary A good life is one without troubles Avoid getting involved with people, stay healthy, tolerate pain Cynicism Believed humans were animals by nature A good life is one that satisfies our animal needs Wisdom dictates that a man who desires nothing will lack nothing and be satisfied

46 Skepticism Believed that nothing was certain Human senses are unreliable Skeptics question everything and refuse to see the truth of anything Mystery Cults Groups dedicated to religious extremism Relied on emotions more than rationalism Members had to go through secret initiations Gave people a sense of belonging

47 Ethics – The general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices made by individuals Socrates Father of ethics Called on people to examine their lives to find the real meaning of life Questioned everyone about everything Defended the right of people to speak freely

48 Socrates cont. The center of Socrates’ thinking was the psyche (mind/soul) Believed everyone had the responsibility to elevate their psyche to its highest potential This was accomplished through education Knowledge creates virtuous behavior, evil comes from a lack of knowledge Was eventually arrested and charged with corrupting the youth of Athens

49 Plato Taught by Socrates The Republic A series of dialogues involving Socrates that lays out the concept of an idealized political system Invented aesthetics Believed that art derived from skills of knowing The quality of art comes from the artists skills The beauty of art comes from the resemblance of an Ideal that exists beyond reality

50 Aristotle Student of Plato Became a tutor to Alexander the Great and taught him to revere all things Greek and despise everything else Considered the first real scientist Founder of formal logic

51 Poetics Aristotle’s major work Believed that all art imitates nature In order for art to be beautiful it must be well made and exhibit the proper form Elements of composition must include symmetry, harmony, and definition These are the fundamentals of classicism Believed the purpose of art was to excite our emotions so we may purge them and lighten our souls This purging effect is called catharsis

52 Classicism – An art style that strives for harmony, reason, intellect, objectivity, and formal discipline Art in the classical style represents a form of perfection rather than real life Hellenism – Builds upon the achievements of classicism while moving toward reflections of emotion and natural depictions Essentially a reaction to the rigid objectivity of the classical style

53 Classical Vase Painting Figures develop a new sense of depth In some cases this is strengthened through light and shadow (values) Significant advancements in artistic technique such as foreshortening developed

54 Four characteristics of classical style vase painting Portrayal of figures in simple line drawings Monochromatic palette or color scheme Red on black or black on red Palette dependent on earthen tones like red Heroic and idealized subject matter

55 Reflected the idealized human form Exhibited physical perfection as well as the stern facial expressions of rational self- control Statues like the Lance Bearer are meant to represent the perfect male athlete

56 Bridges the gap between Classicism and Hellenism Begins to show a greater emphasis on emotion Displays a new sense of space Attempts are made to show figures in motion The Scraper is one of the earliest examples of movement in sculpture

57 Began to reflect the increasing interest in the differences between individuals Sculptors tended to focus on pathos (acts of suffering meant to evoke pity) and technical skills Laocoon and his Two Sons details the suffering of the Trojan priest and his children as they are punished by the gods Notice the expressions on the faces and the details in their muscles as they strive to break away from the sea- serpents

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59 Classical Greek architecture follows the post-and- lintel structure Horizontal slabs called lintels are laid across vertical stone columns called posts

60 Greek temples offered very little interior space The focus of the temples became the exterior appearance and the aesthetics associated with it Greek Temples also followed three orders (styles) Doric Ionic Corinthian These orders can be identified by the capital (top portion) of the columns

61 Doric Ionic Corinthian

62 Doric Order The Parthenon

63 Ionic Order Temple of Athena Nike Frieze around the top depicts the battle of Marathon

64 Corinthian Order Temple of Olympian Zeus

65 The Altar of Zeus Excavated from the temple at Pergamon Relocated and reconstructed in pieces over the course of 50 years Considered one of the wonders of the ancient world Known for its great frieze The frieze is over seven feet tall and 450 ft. wide The figures are sculpted with an incredible amount of depth Figures also have tremendous details in texture Clothing, skin, objects, etc. were painstakingly finished to reflect real world textures Depicts a narrative about a battle between the gods and giants

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69 Classical style theatre seeks to portray the ideal through description and audience imagination Objects and people are described through poetic dialogue so the audience doesn’t have to see them Tragedy was the major dramatic form of the time A tragic play is made up of four distinct parts Prologos, or prologue Parados, or the entrance of the chorus The main action of the play Exodus, or conclusion

70 Theatre productions were part of three annual religious festivals honoring the god Dionysus. These festivals featured different forms of drama Tragedy Satyr Plays Comedy Greek drama was performed in outdoor stadiums known as amphitheatres

71 Greek amphitheatres consisted of three main structures The orchestra, where the play was acted out and where the chorus performed The skene, or changing house Theatron, or seating area

72 Aristotle’s Poetics outlines the majority of what we know about Greek tragedy According to Aristotle, there are six elements that are necessary for tragedy. Plot – The basic structure of the play/the main events of the story Character – the people in the play and their motivations Thought - themes Diction - word choice Song – sounds and music Spectacle – visual elements like scenery and costumes

73 Classical Greek theatre consisted mostly of narration and dialogue Action and violence of any sort occurred off-stage and characters would relate the events to the audience Costumes were minimal Actors, always men, would wear some kind of colored robes with a decorative mask The costumes and masks made a character easily identifiable to the audience

74 Aristotle saw tragedy as a form in which a heroic character goes through hardships that end in disaster Tragedy is meant to evoke catharsis Purge the audience of their pity and fear Three writers were prominent during this time Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides

75 Aeschylus Wrote tragedies with an elevated poetic style Dealt with large moral themes Posed existential questions like “Are we responsible for our own actions? Are we subject to fate or some outside force?”

76 Sophocles Best know for writing Oedipus Rex Oedipus Rex was used by Aristotle as the example of a perfectly crafted tragedy Writing style followed the classical ideas of increasing realism Explored more human themes Responsibility, dignity, etc.

77 Euripides Carried the classical notion of realism further than other playwrights Tragedies dealt more with psychology and individual emotions rather than epic events Wrote in a poetic style that was much less formal and more conversational Also experimented with scenery shifting and the effects it could have

78 During the Hellenistic period comedy became the prominent style of theatre The greatest comedic playwright was Aristophanes Aristophanes wrote topical satires (poking fun at the people with political power or current issues) By the end of the Hellenistic period religion had all but disappeared from the plays themselves The chorus also faded away

79 Dance during the Greek classical period remained tied to theatre It reflected conventions of the classical style such as form and clarity Dance also figured heavily in the Mystery Cults dedicated to Dionysus These dances were characterized by emotions rather than intellect Were most likely very wild and erratic


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