Presentation on theme: "BY:DEEAZANAAE HUEY. THE LEANG TOWER OF PISA IS A COMPANILE OR FREESTANDING BELL TOWER OF THE CATHEDRAL OF THE ITALIN THE CITY OF PISA,KNOWN WORLDWIDE."— Presentation transcript:
THE LEANG TOWER OF PISA IS A COMPANILE OR FREESTANDING BELL TOWER OF THE CATHEDRAL OF THE ITALIN THE CITY OF PISA,KNOWN WORLDWIDE FOR ITS UNINTENDED TILT TO ONE SIDE. IT IS SITUATED BEHIND THE CATHEDRAL AND IS THE THRID OLDEST STRUCTUR IN PISA’S CATHEDRAL SQUARE AFTER THE CATHEDRAL AND THE BAPTISTRY.
THE TOWER TILT BEGAN CONSTRUCTION, CAUSED BY AN INADEQUATE FOUNDATION ON THE GROUNDTOO SOFT ON ONE SIDETO PROPERLY SOPPERT THE STUCTURE’S WEIGHT.
CONTRUCTION OF THE TOWER OCCURRED IN THREE STAGES ACROSS 344 YEARS.WORK ON THE GROUND FLOOR AT THE WHITE MARBLE COMPANILEBEGAN ON AUGUST 14,1773 DURING PROSPERITY. THIS GROUND FLOOR IS A BLIND ARCADE ARTICULATED BY ENGAGED COLUMNS WITH CLASSICAL CORINTHIAN CAPITALS
The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, a design that was flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled. In 1198 clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction. In 1272 construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is actually curved. Construction was halted again in 1284, when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria. The seventh floor was completed in 1319. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower. There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scale. The largest one was installed in 1655. The bell-chamber was finally added in 1372. The total amount of years that the building of the tower took was between 185 and 195 years. After a phase (1990–2001) of structural strengthening, the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visual damage, mostly corrosion and blackeni ng. These are particularly pronounced due to the tower's age and its exposure to
On January 5, 1172, Donna Berta di Bernardo, a widow and resident of the house of dell'Opera di Santa Maria, bequeathed sixty soldi to the Opera Campanilis petrarum Sancte Marie. The sum was then used toward the purchase of a few stones which still form the base of the bell tower. On August 9, 1173, the foundations of the Tower were laid. Nearly four centuries later Giorgio Vasari wrote : "Guglielmo, according to what is being said, in [this] year 1174 with Bonanno as sculptor, laid the foundations of the bell tower of the cathedral in Pisa." Another possible builder is Gerardo di Gerardo. His name appears as a witness to the above legacy of Berta di Bernardo as "Master Gerardo", and as a worker whose name was Gerardo. A more probable builder is Diotisalvi, because of the construction period and the structure's affinities with other buildings in Pisa. But he usually signed his works, and there is no signature by him in the bell tower. Giovanni di Simone was heavily involved in the completion of the tower, under the direction of Giovanni Pisano, who at the time was master builder of the Opera di Santa Maria Maggiore. He could be the same Giovanni Pisano who completed the belfry tower. Giorgio Vasari indicates that Tommaso di Andrea Pisano was the designer of the belfry between 1360 and 1370. On December 27, 1233, the worker Benenato, son of Gerardo Bottici, oversaw the continuation of the construction of the bell tower. On February 23, 1260, Guido Speziale, son of Giovanni, a worker on the cathedral Santa Maria Maggiore, was elected to oversee the building of the Tower. On April 12, 1264, the master builder Giovanni di Simone and 23 workers went to the mountains close to Pisa to cut marble. The cut stones were given to Rainaldo Speziale, worker of St. Francesco.
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