2Art HistoryA. Art History – focuses on recreating social, cultural, and economic contexts in which an artwork was created1) Goal of art history -> understand the artwork and its meaningB. Art history is not definite!1)It is related to other areas (i.e. anthropology) and often overlaps with aesthetics and art criticism2)Definition of “art” has become more broad than it was in earlier times3)The meaning of an artwork can change over time and from a different perspective.
3Nature of Art HistoryA. Art generally analyzed in two forms: formal and contextual. 1) Formal analysis – focus on visual qualities. Artist’s decisions on visual aspects (i.e. color choice) relate to meaning of artwork. 2) Contextual analysis – looks outside the artwork to consider culture, economy, location, etc. of work’s origin for meaning of artwork. B. Art historians often assume the art of one culture will affect the art of a future culture.
4Development of Art History A. Arose as a discipline in mid-eighteenth century. 1)Evolved from ancient Roman Pliny the Elder to Enlightenment thinkers and even present-day art historians.
5Art of the Old Stone AgeA. Oldest works of art – cave paintings in Chauvet Cave, France.1) Natural pigments used to draw outlines of animals, possibly as part of rituals.B. Venus women statues from Old Stone Age cultures suggest value of fertility.C. Lascaux cave paintings first art to include both humans and animals.
8Art of the Middle Stone Age A. Cave and rock paintings continue to appear in southwestern Europe. 1) Lascaux still only site of human subjects in artwork.
9Art of the New Stone AgeA. Rings and rows of stones (i.e. Stonehenge) appear in Europe.1) “Heel-stone” sits northeast of site, marking point where sun rises on midsummer solstice.
10Ancient Mesopotamian Art A. Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) was site of strong religious influence.1) Religious temples evolved to become stepped pyramids called ziggurats.B. After Babylonian invasion, pillar containing Hammurabi’s Code becomes symbol of law and orderC. During Assyrian period, relief carvings became popular to depict important historical events.
12Persian ArtA. Known for palace at Persepolis (influenced by Egyptian art)
13Ancient Egyptian ArtA. Architecture of Predynastic period (before conquest by Alexander the Great) 1) Sphinx, pyramids at Giza, pharaoh statues. B. Hierarchical scale – status of person determines size in artwork (kings would be largest, defeated enemies smallest) C. Fractional representation – each part of body shown as much as possible (profile of head, torso in full frontal view, profile of arms and legs). D. Pharaohs’ tombs often sites of much decoration and art.
14Fractional Representation As much of body as possible is shown
15Nubian ArtA. Little is known on Nubian art, but art historians continue to search for clues.
16Art of the Aegean Islands Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean cultures influenced Ancient Greek art.Cycladics known for nude female figures and decorated potteryMinoans created frescos (paint on wet plaster) and pottery designsReligious influence in artMycenaeans mastered goldsmithing.
17Ancient Greek ArtKnown for stone statues influenced by Egyptian and Mesopotamian artTemples built with three main types of orders (column designs)Doric – simple cap, no baseIonic – curved design in cap, simple baseCorinthian – intricate design in cap, simple base
19The Classical PeriodAthens became home to the Classical Period – a period of fine Greek architecture and sculptureB.C.E.Early Classical Period – Doric columns and sculptures emphasized strengthContrapposto – pose that appeared in Greek sculptures that made figure’s balance uneven to give more natural stanceMiddle Classical Period – Parthenon establishes column as principle feature in Western architectureLate Classical Period – decline in architecture. Use of Corinthian columnHellenstic Period ( B.C.E.) – influence of Eastern culture. Venus de Milo famous sculpture.
21Etruscan Art Transition from Greek to Roman art “Ideal to pragmatic”Etruscans first known inhabitants of ItalyOnly surviving art – clay artifacts and sarcophagus lids
22Roman Art Early Roman art – reflected influences of Etruscan art 2nd century B.C.E. – adapted Greek idealized figures to show Roman emperorsArchitecture – invented concrete (stones cemented together)Pioneer the dome and the arch to build bridges and aqueducts
24Roman Art (cont.)D. Relief sculptures common would glorify empire 1. Emperors and military victories 2. Reliefs on tombs to honor the dead E. Statues and busts became common for funeral processions 1. Still followed idealistic style
25Byzantine Art Byzantine art – mosaics Christian subject matter. Found in Ravenna, ItalyByzantine architecture – Hagia Sophia
28Medieval Art Dominated by Catholic Church Majority illiterate – monks copied illuminated manuscriptsBook of Kells and Coronation GospelsGermanic metalwork popularOften jewelryVikings carved designs on their ships
29Architecture of Medieval Churches At the heart of every city or town was a churchEarly churches – Romanesque (used Roman arch)Often formed from barrel vaults (rounded vault)Vault – arch-shaped structure used as ceiling or to support ceiling (intersection of arches)Massive stone walls, small doors and windows12th – 16th centuries – Gothic churhesPointed arch gives “soaring” senseRibbed vaults (thin framework vaults)Flying buttresses (exterior supports) counteracts pressure created by archesLarge stained glass windows
34Renaissance in Southern Europe Late 13th century – transitional period from Gothic to RenaissanceGiotto di Bondone created frescos using perspective (giving illusion of third dimension)Beginning of use of naturalistic styleGrowing economy, influence of Greek and Roman art led to rise of RenaissanceRise of individual artists1400 A.D. – competition to design Florence baptistery doors won by Lorenzo GhibertiCombined biblical scene with Greek styleSecond place winner – Filippo BrunelleschiFinished dome of Florence DuomoDeveloped linear perspective (single vanishing point)Masaccio transforms into aerial perspective (“bird’s-eye view”)
36The Ninja Turtles! (plus one) Donatello – “founder of modern sculpture”Influenced by classic antiquity. Work showed naturalismDavid bronze statue (revived male nude)Botticelli – The Birth of Venus depicts female nude as lasting image in artLeonardo Da Vinci – “Renaissance Man” (inventor, architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, scientist, musician)Designed canal lock system, designs for submarine and helicopterThe Last Supper and Mona LisaMona Lisa used sfumato (blurred outline)Michelangelo di Buonarotti creates David out of marble slab“Embodied spirit of Florence”Commissioned by Pope Julius II to design tomb (later cancelled)Created The Dying Slave, The Bound Slave, and MosesThe ceiling of the Sistine ChapelRaphael Sanzio also commissioned by Julius IISchool of Athens pays homage to Greek thinkersSistine Madonna shows mastery of Madonna (Virgin Mary)
38More Southern Renaissance Artists Giorgione – The Tempest shows landscape as important subject matterTitian Vecelli – painted portraits with column or curtain backdropTintoretto influenced by MannerismDistortion of perspective, scale, color, positioning, etc.Chiaroscuro – contrast of light and darkReformation takes focus off church; Counter Reformation puts focus back on churchEl Greco and Tintoretto bridge gap between Renaissance and Baroque periods
40Renaissance in Northern Europe New oil paints = more detailArtists travel south to ItalyMatthias Grünewald’s Isenheim Alterpiece depicts Christ’s crusifiction.German artist Albrecht Dürer influenced by naturalism and Italian RenaissanceThe Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse and other woodcuts and engravingsHans Holbein the Younger painted for King Henry VIIICaptured detail and psychological character of subjects
42Baroque Art Baroque – characterized by movement and energy Sought to appeal to emotion and faithPatronage of wealthy few led to rise of Baroque workLots of color and ornamentationBaroque = dramatic!Used chiaroscuro, Caravaggio most known for it“caravaggesque”Artemisia Gentileschi – woman Baroque artistBernini sculpted Ecstasy of Saint TeresaFlanders – center of Baroque artRembrandt known for The Night WatchLouis XIV had much Baroque art in his Versailles palaceDiego Velazquez (Spanish Baroque painter) based figures of color instead of drawingsInfluenced Impressionism
44Rococo ArtRococo – celebrated grand, luxurious life in Versailles palaceLight-hearted decoration, gold and pastel colorsFête galante – paintings of luxury of French nobilityThree main artists – Watteau, Boucher, and Fragonard
45Neoclassical ArtPush for political revolution in France = change in culture = change in artNeoclassicalism – revival of interest in Ancient Greek and Roman artChallenged Rococo and aristocracySharp outlines, lack of emotion in figures, geometric forms and rational orderJacques Louis David and pupil Jean Dominique Ingres main artists of period
46Romanticism “Emotional and dream-like” Focused on the natural world Feeling over reasonFocused on the natural worldNature often the main subject matterDelacroix, Theodore Gericault, and William Blake main artists of period
48Realism and Impressionism Realism - shows positive and negative features, ordinary peopleGustave Courbet’s The StonebreakersImpressionism – “broke the rules”Bright, contrasting colors, ordinary subject matter, light over detail, lack of solid formManet and Monet main Impressionists
50Post-ImpressionismPaul Cezanne – countered Impressionism with art divided into foreground, middle ground, and backgroundDerived form into basic geometric shapes (later influence of cubism)Georges Seurat – optical mixing technique gave vibrant colorVan Gogh – color should show human emotionIntense color, new brush strokesPaul Gauguin – went to Tahiti and painted “through the lens of colonialism”Change in technology and focus = change in artCamera = art no longer needs to capture historyChemically based paint = artists can paint outdoorsLarge focus on colonialism = artists’ interest in African masks and Japanese printsEdgar Degas combined photography and Japanese perspectiveIndustrial Revolution dissatisfaction creates Pre-Raphaelites (religious + Romanticist + Archaic) and Art Nouveau (organic decoration and flowing line)Art Nouveau in architecture and engineering as well as art
53Twentieth Century and Modernism Henri Matisse – take Van Gogh’s color philosophy one step furtherArbitrary color – color choice no longer attempts to recreate realityPicasso and Braque attack natural form (the form of an object in real life) with cubismPsychology – we remember a scene as overlay of various perspectivesCubism – abstract form, overlapping perspectivesForm an influence of African artGermany – Expressionism started by Die BrückeInfluenced by Fauvists (Matisse’s arbitrary color)Made inner workings of mind visible in artRussian and German Expressionists (Kandinsky) began creating abstract paintings
55America, World War I, and Art Armory Show in New York shifts center of art world from Paris to New YorkPicasso and other Modernist artists shocked world with work unveiled at Armory Show1920s – Harlem Renaissance – artistic and cultural golden age for African American artists. Centered in Harlem.Shock of World War I = Dada movementProtest towards all order in society. Total entropyDuchamp (known for Dada) and Picasso present ready-mades (ordinary objects as art)Sigmund Freud’s theories influence Rene Magritte and Salvadore Dali to create Surrealism (“super-real” or very dreamlike)Germany: Bauhaus school of design establishes standards of modern architectureNazi takeover = Bauhaus designers flee to America
57The Move to Abstract Art World War II – art mostly propaganda. Many artists participated in war effort.1950s – Greenburgs promote Abstract Expressionism (based of Kandinsky’s ideals)Movement reaches pinnacle with Jackson PollockTwo forms of Abstract Expressionism: action-paintings (dramatic brushstrokes or dripping) and color field paintings (broad areas of color and simple shapes)Response: return to naturalismFocus on everyday objectsRobert Rauschenberg’s Bed
59More Twentieth Century Art Pop art used pop culture images as subject. Used Arbitrary colorAndy Warhol most famous Pop artistMinimalism – simplify art to basic shapes and colorsWorks often monochromatic (shades of single color)Frank Stella best know MinimalistPhotorealism – extremely lifelike worksOpposite of sfumato techniqueChuck Close – best known Photorealist
61Western Art From 1970 OnChristo known for Earthworks (extensive art projects outdoors)“As much about process as it is final product”Performance Art – combination of theatre and art to express emotion or opinionPostmodernist art – tends to focus on more traditional styles and subjects
62Ancient Asian Art China – Great Wall main architectural feat Emperors tombs – treasures of artQin Dynasty – Terra Cotta WarriorsBronze statues emergeSculpture and scrolls became main focus of Chinese art after introduction of BuddhismIndia – Greek art influenced Buddha imageMuch focus on Hinduism and Hindu gods in artJapan – 1800s: Japanese artists travel to FranceLearn linear perspective and ImpressionismLater rejected for flatter, traditional workBest known for printmaking
64Ancient African and Oceanic Art Namibia cave paintings predate European cave paintingsMany bronze figure heads from Benin destroyed or taken by BritishMany African art pieces did not last (made of wood or fiber) or destroyed by EurpoeansFunctional art (art that serves another purpose) common (baskets and pots)Masks key art pieces. Used mostly for ritual ceremoniesOceania – few surviving pieces of artPolynesia – tattoos become common artMelanesia – shields often carved with intricate artworkMasks often used for ritual purposes
65Islamic Art Copies of the Quran often considered art Calligraphy (decorative writing) and abstract designIslamic art can NEVER contain images of Allah (God) or MuhammadDome of the Rock example of Islamic architecture
66Art of the AmericasPyramids in modern-day Mexico great architectural featsMayan carvings in templesJewelry, textiles, statuesPueblos (villages constructed of adobe) common in American Southwest
67Elements of Art “Components” Line – any sequence of points from start to end“Real” and “implied” lines (like footprints)Horizontal = peaceful; vertical = actionShape – way lines come together on 2D planeGeometric (square) and organic (flower petal shape)Form – three dimensional objects (or objects that look 3D)Space – way objects are arranged in artworkPositive space (taken up by main subject) and negative space (background)Color – way in which we perceive light reflected off an objectHue – colorPrimary colors – red, blue, yellowSecondary colors – green, orange, purple (mix two primaries)Tertiary colors - primary color and adjacent secondary color (blue-green)
68Elements of Art (cont.)F. Texture – how something feels to thee touch A. Actual and visual (how it looks like it will feel) G. Value – the lightness or darkness of a color A. Color + white = tint; color + black = shade B. Black and white are neutrals (not hues)
69More on Color Intensity – how bright a color is Warm colors – feel warm. Red, yellow, orangeCool colors – feel cool or tranquil. Blue, green, violetLocal color - the “true” color of somethingOptical color – how lighting (i.e. moonlight) affect and change local color
71More Art Terms Two main types of sculpture – freestanding and relief Composition – the way an artist organizes his artworkRhythm – sense of movement in an artworkMotif – pattern in an artwork (shape, line, color)Balance – symmetrical and asymmetrical (sides balance out)Focal point – where eye rests (usually main subject)Scale – relative size of objects
72Art Techniques Shading creates value Stippling (using dots), hatching (using lines), and cross hatching (using intersecting lines)Printmaking requires copying image onto a plateRelief printmaking – carves into plateIntaglio printmaking – plate is engravedLithography – wax paper copies image when wet with water