Presentation on theme: "ARCHITECTURE OF CORDOVA. LET´S KNOW A BIT ABOUT CORDOVA… Cordova is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Cordova, placed."— Presentation transcript:
ARCHITECTURE OF CORDOVA
LET´S KNOW A BIT ABOUT CORDOVA… Cordova is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Cordova, placed in a depression on the banks of the river Guadalquivir and at the foot of Sierra Morena
At the time of Julius Caesar, Cordova was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior Baetica. The Islam is going to spread in a prodigious way during the VIIth and VIIIth century after Mohammed's death in 632. The Spanish territory will be conquered by the Muslims from the visigodos: AL-ÁNDALUS. Cordova was captured in 711 by an Arab/Berber Muslim army. It was chosen as the capital of the independent Arab Muslim emirate of Al- Andalus, later a Caliphate itself It has been estimated that in the 10th century and beginning of the 11th century, Cordova was the most populous city in the world, and during these centuries became the intellectual centre of Europe
Al Andalus's political evolution
THE ARCHITECTURE OF CORDOVA: A CRUCIBLE OF CULTURES The old town contains numerous architectural reminders of when Cordova was the capital of Hispania Ulterior during the Roman Republic and capital of Hispania Baetica during the Roman Empire; and when Cordova was the capital of the Islamic Caliphate of Cordova, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba has the second largest old town in Europe, the largest urban area in the world declared World Heritage by UNESCO.
The Roman bridge The Roman Bridge of Cordova is the bridge placed on the river Guadalquivir that joins the Field of the Truth with the city for the Neighborhood of the Cathedral. There was constructed during the Roman epoch, it has a length of approximately 331 meters and is composed by 16 arches of the 17 that existed originally. Our companion of Comenius, Iliuta Searpe (Romania), observing the Roman bridge of Cordova From the epoch of the Reconquest we find in an end the defensive tower of the Tower of the Calahorra and in other one the Door of the Bridge, realized on order of Philip II. Tower of the Calahorra Door of the Bridge
Cordova´s mosque The mosque is the place of prayer of the Muslims. MIHRAB QIBLA ROOM OF PRAYERS MINARETE COURT OF PORTICOES SOURCE
Parts of Cordova's mosque
Limiting ourselves to the Moslem constructions five constructive stages are distinguished between the centuries VIII-X: ABD AL-RAHMAN I ( ) In 785, it began the works of the Great Mosque that, two centuries later, after many extensions, will be one of the masterpieces of the Moslem classic architecture. He constructed THE ROOM OF PRAYER on the basilica visigoda of San Vicente. It was consisting of eleven ships perpendicular to the wall of the quibla, which was orientated towards the south.
In the exterior, stands out San Esteban's Door that is divided in three axes; the plant the broadest. In him three parts are distinguished: the door adintelada framed by an arch of horse-shoe with his alfiz, the second one with three blind arches separated by plates of ataurique and framed by an alfiz and the top auction like canopy on brackets of rolls that in turn are finished off by staggered battlements. The lateral streets have doors adinteladas in the first floor, in the second floor they take decorative panels of carved stone. In the last floor, two arches of horse-shoe that include another trilobulado and frame a lattice of stone with the jambs decorated also with atauriques. The set is flanked by two towers that give him the oriental stamp, whereas the arch of horse-shoe native of Cordova with dovelas of stone with vegetable decorationawards a Hispanic character.
Inside the mosque, the series of arches were created by material taken of Roman buildings and visigodos, by the purpose of reaching a considerable height: They consist of column below (with base, shaft and capital) and a prop arrives, and two arches: the low one, of horse-shoe, and another Superior, of half a point. In the arches the stone and the brick is combined, creating a showy bicromía. This constructive formula has put in relation with certain system of Roman aqueduct in that high props join and stabilize with arches of pit-prop that use as reinforcement.
ABD AL-RAHMAN II ( ) During the reign of this emir native of Cordova and in moments of peace and prosperity seven more sections are added to the mosque of Abderrahmán I, extending it considerably towards the south. It was necessary to throw the wall of the quibla of the 8th century. The importance that was acquiring the city of Cordova made the extension necessary since the mosque was remaining small. The supports continue being old columns visigodas retaken advantage of, though also there appear the first Arabic capitals of Corinthian model.
From Abderramán II, there were in use Islamic copies of Roman and Corinthian models of capitals, with a workmanship that was not rigorously classic. The shafts of the columns of this extension do not rest in bases.
ABD AL-RAHMAN III ( ) Abderramán III, the first caliph of Cordova, did not extend the room of prayer but yes it extended the court or SAHN and in his north flank, in the year 951, constructed the great MINARET, paradigmatic work of the whole Islam of West. It reinforced the wall of the room of prayer that he was communicating with the court.
AL-HAKAM II ( ) He will be the person in charge of the most brilliant and famous stage of the mosque, which ROOM OF PRAYER extends again towards the south, for what once again it is necessary to knock down the wall of the previous to the quibla. It constitutes the richest and monumental part of the whole building, in which stand out the domes and the famous Byzantine mosaics used in the decoration. San Ildefonso´s door
There falls down the wall of the quibla of Abderramán II, of which also visible remains stay at present, and the oratory is extended in twelve more sections in the south sense followed till then. To improve the lighting four are constructed lucernarios by beautiful domes nervadas. The first one of them, before the macsura, it occupies nowadays Villaviciosa's Chapel. Series of arches of Villaviciosa´s ChapelDome of Villaviciosa´s Chapel
The whole luxury and the barroquismo of the Mosque of Cordova centers in the zone of the MACSURA and the MIHRAB To the mihrab we accede across a great arch of horse-shoe with his correspondent alfiz, on that a series of arches are observed trilobulados that they fit a vegetable decoration realized in mosaic on golden bottom. The macsura is the space reserved to the caliph. It is in the habit of being together with the mihrab. In her there are in use big interlaced arches that serve as support of the domes raised in the most noble parts of the extension. The columns already are not of origin premuslim. They are new, with shafts of marble in two colors, rose or black. The capitals, which are still the Corinthian model, also are new.
Door of the mirhab Dome of the mirhab Dome of the macsuraMacsura: acces to the mirhab
ALMANZOR ( ) One gives beginning to the last and major extension of the building. Due to the fact that already it was not possible to advance the wall of the quibla towards the south for the proximity of the river The Guadalquivir, one chose to enlarge the whole mosque (room of prayer and court) eastward, by means of the introduction of eight new ships. There are constructed eight new ships that make the mihrab off- centre and the widespread wall of the qibla already is not double, but simple. In the arches the alternation of dovelas is only chromatic and not of materials since they all are of limestone, though painted red ochre the red ones.
FROM THE MIDDLE AGE… After the Christian conquest of Cordova in 1236, the mosque was turned into cathedral, suffering diverse alterations that will end up by forming the current Cathedral of Cordova. During the whole Low Middle Ages it prevailed already turned into Cathedral, adapting the worship and the liturgy christens. This new cathedral chapel, it was constructed in the middle of the former mosque a great Christian ship will get up under the artistic and architectural patronages of the Renaissance airs. After hundred years of works the new ship of the Cathedral manieristas will be concluded with aesthetic beginning, since it can turn in the dome of the cruise or in the vault with lunetos of the Choir that announces the prefaces of the baroque art, where the aesthetic criteria already go clearly for other courses to those of the Renaissance (plaster-works, lights and shades, sceneries, etc.).
The Jewry It is a zone of Cordova that was, between the centuries X and the XVth, the neighborhood in which the Jews were living. It is placed to the northwest of the Mosque. It is characterized by his narrow and paved streets, as the known street of the Flowers. His houses stand out for the white color of the walls and for his flourishing courts. Street of the Flowers Court typical of Cordova
But the best example of the conviviality between cultures is this one … COMENIUS (SPAIN, ROMANIA AND TURKEY) IN CORDOVA (On October 20, 2012)