Presentation on theme: "Roman Engineering & Architecture Incorporation of Greco-Roman ideas into the Roman Republic & Empire."— Presentation transcript:
Roman Engineering & Architecture Incorporation of Greco-Roman ideas into the Roman Republic & Empire
Greco-Roman Civilization Romans adapted Greek culture to reflect their own values, beliefs, and traditions. (Ex…give deities Latin names)
The Culture of Ancient Rome Roman religion was polytheistic & based on the Greek gods (usually only the names changed)
The Culture of Ancient Rome Roman writing was called Latin & was based on Greek writing
The Culture of Ancient Rome Roman architecture borrowed heavily from Greek styles Like Greek agoras, Roman cities had a forum for markets and public gatherings
Roman Art Reasons political purposes commemorate events Statuary “warts and all” (realistic) Coins portraits revealed character Events Mythology
Roman Coinage Elagabalus & Grandmother Hades stealing Persephone
CharacteristicsCharacteristics 1.During the Republic – Temple Architecture: K blended Etruscan & Greek features. K emphasis on the front of the building. K example: Temple of Fortuna Virilis.
Roman Architecture Columns (Greek orders) Doric Ionic Corinthian
Temple of “Fortuna Virilis”
CharacteristicsCharacteristics CONCRETE: K created a revolution in architectural design. K create larger, heavier buildings. * example: - The Sanctuary of Fortuna Palestrina.
Sanctuary of Fortuna Palestrina
CharacteristicsCharacteristics ARCH & VAULT: K Race Track – Circus Maximus K Amphitheaters K Public Baths K Coliseum
Before: weight Arch: gave greater support which allowed larger buildings After:
Circus Maximus Seated 300K
Early Roman Amphitheater Seats about 20,000
Public Baths (England)
Triumphal Arch of Titus
The Roman Empire Constantine - reunited the empire and moved the capital to Constantinople. Adopted Christianity (Holy Roman Empire) Commemorates Constantine’s victory at the Battle of Milvian Bridge (312 CE) allows Constantine to emerge as the sole ruler (previously tetrachry, in which several people ruled) No mention of Christianity in it-- interesting b/c the Battle of Milvan Bridge is where Constantine had his vision, which is ultimately what converts him to Christianity.
Arch of Constantine (in Rome) Break from earlier Greco-Roman motifs/styles by moving away from the naturalistic style Reliefs connect Constantine to past emperors in the reliefs (Roman Imperial past). Spans the Via Triumphalis (truimphiant way) that emperor would take entering the city. Also signifies the imperial presence in the empire. (Propoganda!) Jás Elsner in Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: "Power is very rarely limited to the pure exercise of brute force.... [T]he Roman state bolstered its authority and legitimacy with the trappings of ceremonial--cloaking the actualities of power beneath a display of wealth, the sanction of tradition, and the spectacle of insuperable resources[...]." Power is… complex….as much a matter of impression, of theatre, of persuading those over whom authority is wielded to collude in their subjugation. … (A) matter of presentation, its cultural currency in antiquity (and still today) was the creation, manipulation, and display of images. In the propagation of the imperial office, at any rate, art was power.
Porta Nigra Built between CE Built of grey andstone Northern gate of Trier, Germany (capital of Roman province of Gallica Belgica) Part of four city gate at North, South, East, West of city Original name not preserved, weathering to a black had locals in the Middle Ages call it Porta Nigra or the Black Gate
The Coliseum Purpose: entertain the masses, pronounced power and dominance of Roman Empire. Men sacrificed in battle w/ exotic animals from throughout the Empire: crocodiles, leopards, elephants, lions & tigers Used arches in construction (usally done with concrete, marble & bricks)
Interior of the Coliseum Arena is Latin for the sand, coating the floor that soaks up the blood of the combatants.
CharacteristicsCharacteristics DOME: Basilicas - Large and relatively open space. - examples: ► Pantheon ► early Christian churches
Cylindrical Dome K With the dome, the Romans could surpass earlier cultures by their ability to span space. K Light enters through the oculus on top.
The Pantheon Plans
The Pantheon 128 A.D. Commissioned by Emperor Hadrin Started in 118 A.D. It is a clock of sorts. It tells the time by rays of light hitting the sculptures inside.
Pantheon: The floor was made from stone from the four corners of the empire. Dome: almost figured it out but couldn’t close it at the very top. Still remarkable feat!
Engineering Roads aided the army remained long after the fall of Rome Aqueducts brought fresh water to cities (some still in use across Europe)