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-Questions for Discussion-

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1 -Questions for Discussion-
1. Can you think of any examples of Ancient Greece used in today’s popular media? (TV, Movies, Etc…) 2. What are some famous Greek names that you have heard of? 3. What about in other subjects in school? Are there any visible contributions of Greek culture?

2 Ancient Greece

3 Episode (unit) III: The Greek Empire
The physical geography of the Aegean Basin shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization. The expansion of Greek civilization through trade and colonization led to the spread of Greek culture across the Mediterranean and Black seas. Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art in ancient Greece. Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Greek mythology.

4 Locations and places Aegean Sea Balkan Peninsula Peloponnesus
Asia Minor Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Dardanelles Athens, Sparta, Troy Macedonia


6 Ancient Greece is all around you!
Plato (c BC) - He was a brilliant student of Socrates and later carried on his work. He gathered Socrates' ideas and wrote them down in a book. Plato founded the world's first university. He wrote down his teachings and people all over the world, even today, study the Greek philosophers Aristotle ( BC) - discovered many things in science and biology. He wrote books about physics, poetry, zoology, biology, politics, governments, and more. His father was the personal physician of the King of Macedonia. Parmenides - watched an eclipse of the Moon in about 470 BC, and noticed that the Earth's shadow was curved. He worked out that if the shadow was curved, then the Earth must be round. Archimedes - was a mathematician and an engineer. He designed a machine, called the Archimedean screw, which could make water flow uphill. His design has been used for almost 2,000 years, to take water from rivers to the fields. Pythagoras - was a mathematician. Pythagoras' theorem on right triangles. Alexander the Great - Alexander the Great was born in 356 B.C. in Pella, Macedonia, the son of Philip of Macedon, who was an excellent general and organizer. He was called 'the Great' because he conquered more lands than anyone before him and became the overall ruler of Greece.

7 Wrap it up! Think of what you know and what you’ve seen today…
Can you think of a song or movie soundtrack that could be used as a theme for Ancient Greece? What kinds of contributions did Greece make to modern society?

8 Warm Up: How does physical geography affect the lives of people today?
Example: Bodies of Water, Mountains, Islands, Plains, etc…

9 Question! How did mythology help the early Greek civilization explain the natural world and the human condition?

10 Greek Mythology Polytheistic Religion
Offered explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events Greek Gods and Goddesses often played tricks on each other and had human characteristics and personalities.

11 Greek Gods and Goddesses
Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Aphrodite Symbols and images in Western literature, art, and architecture

12 Zeus God of justice and mercy, protector of the weak, punisher of the wicked.

13 Hera Supreme Goddess, goddess of marriage and childbirth and takes special care of married women.

14 Apollo The god of healing who taught man medicine. God of light, music, & truth

15 Artemis Goddess of the hunt, the moon, and the natural environment

16 Athena Goddess of reason, intelligence, art, literature, and War

17 Aphrodite Goddess of love and beauty

18 Warm Up: How did Ancient Greek Gods and Goddesses provide explanations of human existence and the natural world? Provide examples!

19 Warm Up: What TWO things do Greek Myths try to explain?

20 Foundations of Democracy
Classical Athens developed the most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. It became a foundation of modern democracies.

21 Greek Politics Citizens had political rights and the responsibility of civic participation in government. Who is a citizen? FREE ADULT MALE

22 Greek Politics Women and foreigners had no political rights.
Slaves had no political rights.

23 City-States A city-state is an independent country whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as part of another government.

24 Athens Stages in the evolution of Athenian government: monarchy, oligarchy, tyranny, democracy Tyrants who worked for reform: Draco, Solon Draco: Solon: Origin of democratic principles: Direct democracy, public debate, duties of the citizen

25 How did democracy develop in Athens?
Question! How did democracy develop in Athens? There are 4 stages Refer to your handouts from last class.

26 Think of any quiz questions you want answered!
Review: Think of any quiz questions you want answered! Anything you want reviewed?

27 The Persian Wars A series of conflicts between the Empire of Persia and city-states of the Hellenic world that started in 499 BCE and lasted until 450 BCE.



30 Marathon (490 BCE) Happened outside of Athens
Athens’ victory was overwhelming: 6,400 Persians but only 192 Athenians died Messenger ran about 25 mi (40 km) back to Athens, where he announced the victory before dying of exhaustion In another version, an Athenian runner was sent to Sparta before the battle to ask for help, running 150 miles in two days; Sparta refused

31 WARM UP Name the Persian Wars battle we discussed last class.
What were the results? Why is it important today? What were its long-term effects for the Greeks? Who was the Greek general we saw in the video?

32 Xerxes

33 Leonidas


35 Thermopylae (480 BCE) Battle in northern Greece (480 BC) in the Persian Wars. The Greek forces, mostly Spartan, were led by Leonidas. After three days of holding their own against the Persian king Xerxes I and his vast southward-advancing army, the Greeks were betrayed, and the Persians were able to outflank them. Sending the main army in retreat, Leonidas and a small contingent remained behind to resist the advance and were killed to the last man.


37 Salamis (480 BCE) The Greek fleet of some 370 ships, under the command of Themistocles, lured the Persian fleet of about 800 ships into the narrow strait between the island of Salamis and the Athenian port of Piraeus. Athens sank about 300 Persian vessels while losing only about 40 of their own. As a result of this battle, Xerxes had to postpone his planned land offensive, giving the Greek city-states time to unite against him.

38 The Persian Wars Why are the Persian Wars important?
1. Persian wars united Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire.

39 The Persian Wars Why are the Persian Wars important?
2. Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea.

40 The Persian Wars Why are the Persian Wars important?
3. Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture.

41 Warm Up: Name the 3 battles of the Persian Wars that we have covered.
What were the outcomes of those battles—Who Won? How many Persian Wars were there? Why are the Persian Wars so important to human society today? What’s the BIG picture?

42 Political developments
Mountains both helped and hindered the development of city-states Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life Colonization was prompted by overpopulation and the search for arable land

43 Economic and Social Developments
Agriculture (limited arable land) Commerce and the spread of Hellenic culture Shift from barter to money economy (coins)

44 Warm Up: What is a “Golden Age”?
What happened to Themistocles after the Persian Wars? Which city-state is in control of the Mediterranean world? Who is the next major leader of Athens and what was his major achievement?

45 GOLDEN AGE of PERICLES Time between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars

46 Golden Age of Pericles Pericles extended democracy; most adult males had an equal voice.

47 Golden Age of Pericles Pericles had Athens rebuilt after destruction in the Persian Wars; the Parthenon is an example of this reconstruction.


49 Do you know what any of these people did?
Drama: Aeschylus, Sophocles Poetry: Homer History: Herodotus, Thucydides Sculpture: Phidias Science: Archimedes, Hippocrates Mathematics: Euclid, Pythagoras Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

50 Athens Tyrants who worked for reform: Draco, Solon Draco: Solon:
Origin of democratic principles: Direct democracy, public debate, duties of the citizen

51 Sparta Oligarchy (rule by a small group) Rigid social structure
Military society

52 Warm Up: Attempt to answer the following questions.
Drama: What are the two main genres of Plays/Movies? Literature: Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey” are examples of what kind of literature? History: The “Father of History”, Herodotus, is sometimes known for mixing ____________ into his historical writings. Art: Besides drawings and paintings, how do we know what the ancient Greeks looked like? Architecture: What kind of Columns are on the front of LCHS? Science: How do we know that the Earth is a Spheroid? Mathematics: (A*A + B*B = C*C) Explains the dimensions of what geometric shape? Philosophy: Why are you here? / How did you get here?/ How do you know?

53 Peloponnesian War 431–404 [b.c.e.]
Caused by competition for control of the Greek world: Athens and the Delian League vs Sparta and the Peloponnesian League

54 Importance of Peloponnesian War 431–404 [b.c.e.]
Results: Slowed cultural advance Weakened political power


56 Why did we do this? Greece is responsible for inventing and innovating many of the things we use today—math, history, architecture, art, literature, drama, philosophy, science, and many others. Today, we will explore and explain how these inventions and innovations developed, who developed them, and provide examples of how they shape our world today.

57 Assignment: Choose 2 people from the list on the Next Slide.
Answer the questions associated with your chosen area. Give some background information that applies to your specific topic. Add some additional information of interest.

58 Greek Contributions to Society
Drama: Aeschylus, Sophocles Poetry: Homer History: Herodotus, Thucydides Sculpture: Phidias Architecture: Types of columns: (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian) Science: Archimedes, Hippocrates Mathematics: Euclid, Pythagoras Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

59 Warm Up: Explain how and why Greece declined.
Who will take advantage of this decline of the city-states? What kingdom will grow to take over all of Greece?

60 Activity You have the names and the fields of study, now talk to others in the class to find famous works by each of the people on the sheet.


62 Alexander the Great 356-323 B.C.E.

63 "Hellenistic" Greece: B.C.E.

64 Alexander the Great’s Empire

65 Alexander the Great in Persia

66 Greek Cities in the East

67 Trade in the Hellenistic World

68 Library at Alexandria (333 B.C.E.)

69 The “Known” World – 3c B.C.E.

70 Division of Alexander’s Empire


72 Ancient Greece Themistocles Darius of Persia Xerxes of Persia Pericles
Aeschylus Sophocles Homer Herodotus Thucydides Phidias Archimedes Hippocrates Euclid Pythagoras Socrates Plato Aristotle Philip II of Macedon Alexander the Great


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