Presentation on theme: "AIM: AN OVERVIEW OF EUROPEAN HISTORY By: James Lu, Brian Heo, Brian Lui, Jarek Liang, Ting Li, Barak Zhou, Vivien Teng, Brandon Ngai."— Presentation transcript:
AIM: AN OVERVIEW OF EUROPEAN HISTORY By: James Lu, Brian Heo, Brian Lui, Jarek Liang, Ting Li, Barak Zhou, Vivien Teng, Brandon Ngai
Stone Age Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) o Started around 2 million years ago and lasted up until around 8000 BCE o The people existed as hunter-gatherers, the men hunted animals and the women foraged for edible plants o They were nomadic peoples and followed packs of people o They lived in small bands of people Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) o Began with the development of agriculture o This brought the start of permanent communities along sources of sources of water o Allowed for job specialization because of food surplus o The roots of early civilization One of the first farmsteads that resulted from the Neolithic Era
Celtic Europe Early European civilization that first appeared in modern day Germany, Austria, and Czech Republic Lived after 1000 BCE Traded with Mediterranean societies Migrated all over Europe and merged with indigenous people to become early Europeans Lived in patriarchal societies They were polytheistic; they believed in over 400 gods and goddesses
Aegean World Minoan Crete o 2000 BCE to 1450 BCE o Was a civilization that revolved around trade o Polytheistic religion Mycenean Greece o Were originally farmers and shepherds that spoke in an Indo-European language. Life changed in around 600 BCE o Influenced by Minoan culture o Skilled in trade and developed long distance trading o Tough, warlike, and inquisitive o Traded with powerful nations and took from the weak Phoenicians o Collection of city-states o Was also a civilization that revolved around Mediterranean Sea trade o Developed their own language to assist in trading
Greece Rose in the lands bordering the Aegean Sea Mountainous land with not much fertile land Trading civilization Major cities included Athens(the first democracy) and Sparta(military state) Advanced for its time Very rich culture, influencing civilizations to come o Philosophy - Socrates, Plato, Aristotle o Rise of theater - drama and comedies o Very rich art and architecture Persian Wars- the city states banded together to fight off the Persians Women had limited rights, and lived to stay home and tend the household Peloponnesian War- fight between Athens and Sparta that decreased their power.
Rise of Macedonia Took advantage of Greece after the Peloponnesian War Philip II established the Confederacy of Corinth and attacked the Greek city-states. Managed to take over due to superior weapons, such as catapults. When Philip II died in 336 BCE, Alexander took over. Alexander took over the Persian empire, an accomplishment that made him known as Alexander the Great. He died before he had a chance to rule his great empire.
Hellenistic Synthesis 323 BCE to 30 BCE Result of Alexander the Great's uniting people. Hellenistic Art was a mix of Greek, Egyptian, and Persian Art Alexandria was an important city in Alexander's Empire, which was named after Alexander the Great o Was the center of the empire o Contained a great library that held many famous works Empire was broken up into three after Alexander's death The Famous Discus Thrower Sculture made during the Hellenistic era
Roman Empire The Republic lasted from 507 BCE to 31 BCE o The Senate held the real power o Only men could vote. Women had no power o Class struggle between plebeians, common folk and elite. Plebeians protested and won more rights Rome gained power through its strong military, and conquering nearby lands Gaius Julius Caesar was Rome's most brilliant general. He did not oppress the people he conquered, and was popular among them. Caesar formed the first triumvirate with Marcus Licinius and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Caesar rises out of the three and becomes emperor Pax Romana- period of Roman peace. Widespread trade among Roman empire. However, this weakened the Roman army Many technological advances such as aqueducts Upper class lived very well. Lower class' standard of living was lower: in the cities, they lived in slums and in the countryside, they had to deal with bullying soldiers and tax collectors. The emperors that came after him were largely ineffective and their rules led to the steady decline of the Roman Empire.
Christianity Romans oppressed the Jewish people because they didn't believe in the Roman gods and goddesses Jesus became popular as he spread Christianity He was killed because he preached of someone more powerful than the Roman emperor. Jesus disciples, such as Paul, spread Jesus's teachings Many Roman emperors rejected Christianity and persecuted followers until Constantine converted to Christianity and made it the national religion.
Trade between East and West The Silk Road was extremely important for trade between the Asian world and the East with the Roman Empire o Increased usage due to a sudden craze for Chinese products, more specifically silk o Christianity, religion, and culture was spread from the Roman Empire to the Asian world o Alexander the Great's conquering of Central Asia was important for the start of the Silk Road Silk Trade was one of the factors that led to the downfall of the Roman Empires o Senate tried to ban the importation of silk
Fall of Roman Empire Third-Century Crisis- frequent change in rulers, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near destruction of long-distance commerce and the monetary economy. Weak army due to Pax Romana. Diocletian made fundamental changes to restore order to the Roman Empire. o Set maximum prices for various goods and services. Tried to increase quality of these goods and services. o Split Roman Empire into the West and the East. Constantine took over after Diocletian. o Moved capital from Rome to Byzantium. The Western Roman Empire fell to Germanic people. It entered the Dark Age. The Eastern Roman Empire continued to exist for some time. However, it never regained the power it used to have.
Life in Europe Western Europe o Fell to Germanic tribes. Roman Empire disintegrated. o Feudal (manorial) system rose. Kings gave land to the lords, who swore allegiance to the king. These lords granted fiefs, or pledge to provide military service, to knights, who vowed to protect him from danger. The knights had self-sufficient farming estates known as manors.The peasants, known as serfs, worked on these manors. They could not leave and were treated like slaves. o Roman Catholic Church developed many problems, such as simony (selling ecclesiastical appointments) and indulgences (buying forgiveness of sin) Population growth occurred from 1086- 1200. o Three-field system o Use of horses to till soil. England united by Duke of Normandy. o Magna Carta- limited king's power. Black Death- 1348- 1350. About 1/3 of European people died.
Reconquista and Crusades Reconquista o Occurred in Spain. o Fight to reclaim land from the Muslims. Crusades o 1095 CE - 1291 CE o First Crusade was initiated by Pope Urban because he wanted to take back the Holy Land, which was Jerusalem. Called all Christians to fight against the Muslims that controlled the region. o Gave idle knights a cause and stopped their fighting among themselves. o After the Crusades, there were increased trade between Western Europe and the East.
Changes in Religion East-West Schism- split of the Catholic Church in 1054. East became known as Eastern Orthodox Church. West became known as Roman Catholic Church. Occurred because of differences in language, ideals, and value of the role religious leader as compared with the political leader. Western Schism o Weakened the power of the church when two men both claimed to be the pope, splitting the Catholic Church, and was a long term cause of the Protestant Reformation Protestant Reformation o Martin Luther was angered by the decline of the Roman Catholic Church. They sold indulgences. o Martin Luther wrote the Ninety-five Theses in 1517 o Other religions started to sprout from Protestant Christianity, such as Lutheran, and Anglican Christianity
The Protestant Reformation and the Counter Reformation The new ways of thinking found in the Renaissance were also applied to theology and religion. After the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church implemented the Counter Reformation, where Catholic ideologies were clarified. The creation of the religious order of the Jesuits helped to stem Protestant converts.
Largest Cities in Europe: 1450-1750
Colonization There were many factors that led to the migration of Europeans to the New World. These factors can be categorized in two ways: Push Factors: o Push factors were negative. This included religious persecution, poverty, and natural disasters such as crop failure and drought. In Europe, poverty and the lack of religious freedom were the major ones. Pull Factors: o Pull factors usually represented the opposite. The New World offered more land and better economic opportunities. People also sought religious freedom, as the Catholic Church at the time possessed a great power over the people. During this time period, the Spanish first took over parts of South America. England settled in what is now the U.S. and France settled further in the north. In South America, gold and silver was mined or salvaged from people before taken back to Europe. Some colonies also grew cash crops. In the north, soil was not as fertile, so England and France did not economize as much as the Spanish.
Columbian Exchange Culture, crops, animals, disease and people transferred between the Eastern and Western hemispheres. As a result, diets and populations around the world changed significantly. Cash crops were grown in the New World using coerced labor. The increased diversity of food in Europe benefited Europeans physically. Religions were spread around the world. The Portuguese established a global trading-post empire after researching navigation and trading with West Africa. Oceania and Polynesia were not affected much because of the lack of communication with Europe.
Renaissance From the 14th to 17th century, the Renaissance had a significant effect on Europe. During this time, the arts, literature, science, and politics flourished. Many ancient manuscripts dealing with philosophy, mathematics and physics, such as the works of Aristotle and the mathematician Pythagoras, were unearthed. Art, mathematics and science not only develop but also merge together. Artists such as Da Vinci incorporate Renaissance ideas into masterpieces, to reflect the new form of thinking. Humanism developed during this time; reasoning and use of evidence is introduced (also seen later during the Enlightenment). Humanism would affect the way people viewed the Catholic Church, eventually leading to the Reformation.
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Era During the Scientific Revolution, scientists challenged the ancient way of viewing the world that had been learned from the ancient manuscripts rediscovered during Renaissance times. The works of Copernicus, Galileo, and other scientists eventually created the scientific method and laid the groundwork for modern science. ¨Scientific work and religious teachings often clashed, since scientific results disagreed with the Bible. The Scientific Revolution paved the way to the beginnings of the Enlightenment era. The Enlightenment came about as a result of advances in scientific thought combined with the observation that the majority of people lived in deplorable conditions because society was badly structured and governed. The Enlightenment grew out of the criticism and protests against the status quo and how people behaved. Philosophers like Voltaire, Montesquieu, Locke, and Hobbes introduced new ways of thinking about government, even if their ideas were not always pro- democratic.
Industrial Revolution The Enclosure Movement occurred when landowners closed off their lands and farmers lost their jobs. As a result, many farmers moved to the city in search of jobs. This rapid urbanization created a new middle class since factory owners gave newcomers jobs. Conditions were often dirty and unsafe which led to diseases. As a result of the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe, the countries in the continent rapidly modernized. Education opportunities opened up for everyone as a result of a need for skilled workers. A new middle class rose to power comprising of skilled workers, factory owners, and businessmen.
French Revolution The French Revolution was a conflict between France's three estates. The upper classes(First and second estates) usually voted against the third estate(the poor), and so none of their reforms would ever get passed. Droughts destroyed the harvest and along with the country's war debt, France was in a terrible economic state. King Louis XIV called a meeting between the three estates known as the Estates General. However, he decided to lock out the third estate. In response, the third estate declared themselves the National Assembly and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man based on Enlightenment ideals. In 1791, the National Assembly ratified a new constitution that was similar to that of the United States. The new constitution called for a constitutional monarchy. Austrians and Prussians invaded France in an effort to restore the monarchies but were held back by revolutionaries. A new constitution was then written by the Jacobins which abolished the monarchy and created a republic. These radical Jacobins later imprisoned the royal family and beheaded the king for treason. The constitution became scrapped and the Committee of Public Safety was formed under Maximilien Robespierre. Rule under the Committee was known as the Reign of Terror since they killed anybody who stood in their way. Eventually France had enough and beheaded Robespierre and wrote a new constitution which established a five man government known as the Directory. Napoleon Bonaparte eventually took over in a military coup and declared himself leader of the French people.
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon rose to power after a coup against the French directory. He initiated reforms in agriculture, infrastructure, and public education. He also normalized relations with the church and restored a degree of tolerance and stability. His Napoleonic Codes recognized the equality of French citizens and embodied some Enlightenment ideas. Napoleon was able to make France a military power by fending off invaders and making France aggressive. Napoleon conquered Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, and other kingdoms within Italy.
European Imperialism By the early 18th century, the Mughal Empire was in decline following decades of war and religious conflict between Muslims and Hindus. The British East India Company took advantage of the weakening Mughals and set up administrative regions throughout the empire. The British East India Company was a joint-stock company that operated like a multinational corporation with exclusive rights over British trade with India. British Parliament took control of India from the company after the Sepoy Rebellion and made all of India a crown colony. Nearly 300 million Indians became British subjects and Queen Victoria was recognized as Empress of India. Europeans also imperialised in China by getting the Chinese addicted to opium so they could get Chinese goods in return for their opium. This led to the Opium Wars which caused a lot of conflict with China. European powers were trying to establish a greater presence in China by establishing spheres of influence within parts of China. Commodore Perry arrived in Japan in a steamboat which led the Japanese to modernization since they realized they were behind the world. This led to the Meiji REstoration which was an era of Japanese westernization.
Italy and Germany In the mid 19th century, Italy was a tangle of foreign-controlled small kingdoms. Austria controlled Venetia, Lombardy, and Tuscany in the North France controlled Rome and the Papal States in the middle. Spain controlled the Kingdoms of Two Sicilies in the south. Sardinia was controlled by Italians. When the king of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II named Cavour (Brains of Italy) his prime minister, nationalism took off in the country. Garibaldi (sword of Italy) raised a volunteer army and in 1860 drove the Spanish from the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. Mazzini (Soul of Italy) often caused uprisings and rebellion and also encouraged others to do the same. Italians managed to gain control of Venetia after siding with Prussia and this caused the French to withdraw. Italy was now unified as a result of nationalism. Bismarck was prime minister in Germany and pushed unification of Germany through his policies of blood and iron. Bismarck provoked war with Austria and quickly defeated them in 7 weeks. Bismarck used realpolitik to unite southern German provinces. He forged a note from the French ambassador to the Prussian king implying insult. This led to a war between Prussia and France with the Prussian victory. Prussia then declared itself part of Germany, and Germany was now unified.
World War I Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914 Complicated alliance systems mobilize entire Europe into war Trench Warfare: Soldiers fight in dug-in positions and attack each other with machine guns and artillery. 1917, United States joins the Allies and breaks the stalemate. War ends with Armistice signed on Nov. 11, 1918 Treaty of Versailles heavily punishes Germany
Interwar Period Nations that fought in the war were left economically crippled, esp. Germany. Economic depression throughout Europe as countries find themselves deeper in debt. League of Nations fails to serve its purpose. People look upon totalitarian governments for stability. Communism took control in Soviet Union and Fascism rose in Italy, Germany, and Spain.
World War II Adolf Hitler of Germany invades Poland, WW2 begins. German Blitzkrieg strategy quickly defeats most of Allies. Germany's ambitious invasion of the Soviet Union turns out to be a massive failure, leaving Germany heavily weakened. US joins the war as Japan bombs Pearl Harbor Millions of Jews die in the Holocaust Allies wins the war in Europe as US, Britain, and USSR defeats Germany and Italy. United States defeats Japan in the Pacific front using Island Hopping and two Atomic Bombs. United States and Soviet Union emerge as Super Powers.
Cold War Communism spreads in Eastern Europe. US forms NATO alliance with Western Europe and aids them in economic recovery through Marshall Plan. USSR forms the Warsaw Pact in response to NATO. An iron curtain falls in Europe, dividing it into West and East. US aids East Berlin by dropping supplies in the Berlin Airlift
Post Cold War Eastern Europe liberated from Communist control. Warsaw Pact disintegrates after fall of Soviet Union. Berlin Wall falls. Nationalism arises in Eastern Europe, new nations form. European Union forms. YOLO WE OUT.
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