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Terms for Study  hoplite  hoplon  panoply  phalanx  othismos  Marathon  Thermopylae.

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Presentation on theme: "Terms for Study  hoplite  hoplon  panoply  phalanx  othismos  Marathon  Thermopylae."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Terms for Study  hoplite  hoplon  panoply  phalanx  othismos  Marathon  Thermopylae

3 The Hoplite vs. the Phalanx  some general observations:  average Greek soldier  5’6”, 150 lbs  average weight of gear  lbs  generally agreed phalanx is in use by 650 BC  not everywhere!  some northern Greeks fight like Homeric heroes during the Peloponnesian War  men with hoplite gear not necessarily forming a phalanx  things to remember  all early Greek armies are completely AMATEUR!!  except Sparta!  phalanx battle takes little training, as long as formation is retained

4 bronze bell-cuirass with matching helmet “ Argos panoply ” 8th century tomb

5 Late 7th century bell- cuirass (2 pieces)

6 Argos helmet, 5 pcs of bronzeCorinthian / Illyrian style, single piece of bronze (most helmets had horsehair crest)

7 porpax antilabe ASPIS, or HOPLON made from wood, coated with bronze ( inch diameter, ca. 15 pounds)

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9 Attic, ca BC

10  greaves  abundant in Homer  re-introduced late  not common until later 7th century BC  early ones knee to ankle  later ones lower thigh to ankle  also found 7th century onwards  ankle guards  foot guards  arm guards  especially upper arm Apulian Greek, ca. 550 BC

11 Spears and Swords  Spear (doru)  length: anywhere from 6.5 to 9 feet  average approx 8 ft  ash or cornel wood  weight approx 2.2 lbs  not for throwing  Sword (ksiphos)  secondary weapon  variety of types  by ca. 500 BC most are 2ft in length, leaf shaped spear point spikes

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14  the “ hoplite ” ὁ πλίτης named for his shield, the “ hoplon ” ὅ πλον the phalanx φάλαγξ, closely packed hoplites  

15 Questions…...  what do men do before battle?  how does a phalanx ‘ line up ’ ?  how when do the men begin to approach each other  do they run, walk, quick-march?  how well do they retain cohesion during the ‘ charge ’ ?  how are skirmishers employed?  what happens during the collision?  what exactly is the othismos?  what functions did other, non-hoplites, serve on the battlefield?

16 Pre-Battle  breakfast  Sparta  comb their hair  Xenophon mentions donning gear at last minute  dismissal of hypaspistai (shield bearers), skeuophoroi (baggage carriers), akolouthoi (attendants)  sphagia: pre-battle sacrifice  rooster, lamb, sheep  harangue from general?  “ Not for me a huge general, one with long, straddling legs vaunting in his aristocratic locks and fancy beard. Give me a small man, knock-kneed, but firm on his feet and full of heart. ” ---Archilochos

17 Line - Up!  how many deep depends on polis in question  Sparta = 8 (traditional); 12 (by ca.370)  Thebes, Boeotians = 25, 50  standard = 8-16  phrase ‘ eight shields deep ’  reserves? mere weight?  “ it is very hard to find men willing to stand, when they see some of their own side in flight ” --Xenophon  Array itself not perfectly understood  Front two or three ranks only have spears protruding beyond promachoi  Final arrangements may be made when opposing armies are VERY close together  Spartans at Nemea sacrificed with enemy 200 yds away  singing, yelling, clanging

18 Dispositions  Right flank (column) reserved for the best  ‘ flank of honor ’  front row, right column  in single polis force, best men/general  in allied forces, hegemon or recognized best fighters  far right flank

19 Approach  how to signal the charge? (or, how to signal anything!)  paean  trumpets, aulos  general  balance  running too much vs. lack of steam  run, walk, quick time, or double quick?  perhaps full run begins at 200 yds?  can a phalanx maintain its cohesion with members running at 4-6 mph over moderately uneven ground for 100 yds?  why does it veer to the right as it progresses?  how to navigate trees, rocks, streams, depressions  Aristodemus at Plataea?  skirmishers? cavalry?  what are they used for?  pyknosis (3ft), synapsismos (18in), ‘ most open ’ (6ft)

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23 Use of Skirmishers?  peltast  probably ‘ out-of-style ’ in early days of phalanx warfare  or at least not mentioned  seen again in large numbers during Peloponnesian War  importance increases during 4th century

24 Othismos  means: “ push ”  literal or figurative?  how open or closed is actual battle?  can this change during/after the charge?  what would determine victory or defeat in either?  length?  what are the ‘ mechanics ’ ?  does weapon skill mean anything?  evidence from Hanson and Van Wees?

25 Death and Wounds  5% for winners  14% for loser  10% of total forces  chasing down fleeing enemies not easy in full gear after a battle!  cavalry!  wounds:  exposed thighs, face, groin  unexposed head, chest  VDH: always infection casualties later

26 Siphnian Treasury, ca. 525

27 Winning and Losing  Early days: Possession of Battlefield  Burial of Dead  On-site dedications (trophai)  temporary *usually*  Subsequent temple dedication  gear, money, building

28 Chaeronea, 338 Serpent Column, Plataea, 479

29 Athenian Treasury at Delphi, Salamis, 480

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31 Innovation  “ the spirit for competition gave way to the desire for utter destruction ”  esp. during Peloponnesian War  manpower shortages, extended, long-distance, or multiple campaigns  Epaminondas  place best guys on the LEFT  staggered (oblique) approach  Leuktra (371 BC)

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34 Innovation: Lachaeum  Athenian general Iphikrates  391/0 BC, Corinthian War  Athenian peltasts destroy 600 Spartans  hit and run  speed and mobility of Spartan cavalry not utilized  Iphikrates ’ use of peltasts  half-way point btw classical hoplite phalanx and Macedonian phalanx

35 Phalanx and Tyranny  basileus (Big Man) of Dark Age gradually replaced by aristocracies and oligarchies  tyrants ‘ replace ’ aristocracies  BC very common  opportunistic usurpation of polis ’ executive power  illegal, but not negative term  usu. short lived (there are exceptions of hereditary tyrannies)  Pheidon, King of Argos  semi-legendary  sources put him in the 8th century; likely he fl. in 7th (attended Olympic Games in 668 BC?)  Aristotle tells about his land reforms and land protection laws  gain popularity among non-aristocratic but moderately wealthy farmers?  use of a phalanx to rival the power of the aristocrats he overcame  Battle of Hysiae, 669 BC  Do tyrants encourage use of phalanx to incorporate untrained, unskilled warrior-farmers?  Do untrained, unskilled warrior-farmers who have been fighting for some time prop up tyrants who ‘ speak for them ’ ?

36 Phalanx and Polis  The Questions  How does phalanx warfare affect the existing social conditions?  What happens between Homeric-style social order and the introduction and widespread adoption of phalanx battle order?  Which comes first: semi-wealthy but politically voiceless farmers agitate for reform, support tyrants, fight in phalanges?  are non-aristocratic farmers eager to serve in a phalanx, or are they compelled to serve by their social betters?  kleos, kudos, still important!  may be earned within the phalanx!  service to one ’ s polis more important, personal gain and glory less important  (but still present!)


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