Presentation on theme: "A Comparison. GREECE ROME Greece Established city-states along the eastern Mediterranean and into parts of southern Europe. Empire extended from modern."— Presentation transcript:
Greece Established city-states along the eastern Mediterranean and into parts of southern Europe. Empire extended from modern Greece to the border of India to the east. (see pg. 80-81) Started in the Italian peninsula. Roman state extended from modern day Spain to parts of the Middle East, including territory in northern Africa. (see pg. 82) Rome
Greco-Roman Did not create a major religion. Primitive in nature Belief in the spirits of nature and a complex se of gods. Greeks and Romans had different names for their pantheon, but shared similar gods. Promoted political loyalty, but did not provide a basis for ethical thought. Limitations of this religion; failed to satisfy ordinary people, increasing division among upper class and popular beliefs.
Greek and Roman moral philosophy Aristotle and Cicero – moderation and balance of human behavior Stoics – stressed inner moral independence, to be cultivated by strict discipline of the body and by personal bravery. Notable thinkers Socrates – encouraged people to question conventional wisdom Plato – “absolutely True, Good, and Beautiful”
Greece Legacy of human reasoning Geometry Basics theorems of Pythagoras Astronomy Theory of the sun’s motion around a stationary earth Preserved Hellenistic traditions in textbooks Roman genius was more practical; Great roads Aqueducts Arches Rome
Greece Greek drama – comedy and tragedy Greater emphasis on tragedy Poetry Homer – Iliad and Odyssey Ceramic work Literary contributions were less impressive Painting – realistic works in the homes of the wealthy Rome
Greece Monumental construction in square or rectangular in shape. Columned porticoes, with three different tops; Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Invented “classical” architecture Adopted Greek themes Temples, marketplaces, and public baths Stadiums – Coliseum Domes Rome
Polis – Greek word for city-state Citizens actively participated in politics. ATHENS Direct Democracy – not rule through elected representatives. Women had no rights of political participation. About half of all adult males were not citizens. SPARTA Governed by a singular militaristic aristocracy Greece
Rome Rome tried to use various elements of Greek political systems The Roman Republic had two legislative branches: Senate – composed mainly of aristocrats Consuls – shared primary executive power, EXCEPT in times of crisis the Senate could choose a dictator (Caesar). Cicero – writer/political philosopher.
Most Greeks and Romans were self-sustained farmers Because of the geography farming was difficult, producing grains, grapes and olives. Commercial agriculture was one of the forces of establishing an empire Trade was important in Mediterranean civilization Merchants had a somewhat higher status in Rome, than in Greece Slavery was a key component of the Mediterranean economy Aristotle justified slavery as a necessity in a proper society
Greece Under the authority of the men Rarely appeared in public Served the community by bearing and raising children Upper class women had great influence and power within families However in law and culture, women were inferior Infanticide – families burdened with too many children The oppression of women was less severe in the Mediterranean than in China or India Rome