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Ancient Greek Art What do you know about life in ancient Greece?

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1 Ancient Greek Art What do you know about life in ancient Greece?

2 Ancient Greek Art  Ancient Greece is called 'the birthplace of Western civilization'.  About 2500 years ago, the Greeks created a way of life that other people admired and copied. The Romans copied Greek art and Greek gods, for example.  The Ancient Greeks invented democracy, started the Olympic Games and left new ideas in science, art and philosophy (thinking about life).  The Ancient Greeks lived in mainland Greece and the Greek islands, but also in what is now Turkey, and in colonies scattered around the Mediterranean sea coast. There were Greeks in Italy, Sicily, North Africa and as far west as France. Sailing the sea to trade and find new land, Greeks took their way of life to many places.

3 Ancient Greek Art  Unlike Egyptian gods, the Greek gods were like humans, but immortal.  The Greeks believed that a family of gods and goddesses lived above Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. The gods looked down to watch what people were doing, and from time to time, interfered with what went on. Do you know any of the ancient Greek gods or goddesses?

4 Greek gods and goddesses

5 Ancient Greek Art  The Greeks placed human beings at the center of their culture  Art focused on the idealized, beautiful and perfectly proportioned human form

6 Ancient Greek Art Periods: Archaic Classical Hellenistic BC:

7 Archaic Period The art of the Classical Greek style is characterized by a freedom of movement, freedom of expression, and it celebrates the individual man. During this period, artists began expressing the human figure in a more naturalistic manner. The form of classical sculpture became fluid and natural and the stylization of the archaic art gave way to realistic figures which emanated the illusion of moving through space. For the first time in human history, human anatomy was deemed worthy of being immortalized in stone or bronze, and the humble and laborious forward step of the kouros statues was replaced by poses that commanded their space with effortless movement. During the classical period the Greek artists replaced the stiff vertical figures of the archaic period with three-dimensional snap shots of figures in action. While the archaic sculptures appeared static the classical statues held dynamic poses bursting with potential energy. The overall patterns of immobile muscles were developed into a complex universe of tension and relaxation. The ancient Greek sculptors had finally achieved balance through the opposing action of the human muscle groups.It was the first time in human history that the human body was studied for its aesthetic values, and was treated as an autonomous universe. The object of art became the human itself as the focus of the artist revolved around ordinary subjects like the the weight shift during the forward step at the moment before the release of the thunder, the tying of a ribbon around ones head, or just the shift of the pelvis when one leg supports the man's weight. The human form is given greater prominence during the Archaic period. Sculpture of this period most often shows a figure of a young boy, or a Kouros. The figure is stiff and unnatural, arms held rigidly at his sides, with a slight "Archaic" smile on his lips.

8 Ancient Greek Sculpture  These life-size nude youth statues represented either Apollo (Greek God of the sun) or an ideal athlete.  Figure is stylized and does not represent real people. Statue of a kouros (youth) 590–580 BC, marble, Archaic period The art of the Classical Greek style is characterized by a freedom of movement, freedom of expression, and it celebrates the individual man. During this period, artists began expressing the human figure in a more naturalistic manner. The form of classical sculpture became fluid and natural and the stylization of the archaic art gave way to realistic figures which emanated the illusion of moving through space. For the first time in human history, human anatomy was deemed worthy of being immortalized in stone or bronze, and the humble and laborious forward step of the kouros statues was replaced by poses that commanded their space with effortless movement. During the classical period the Greek artists replaced the stiff vertical figures of the archaic period with three-dimensional snap shots of figures in action. While the archaic sculptures appeared static the classical statues held dynamic poses bursting with potential energy. The overall patterns of immobile muscles were developed into a complex universe of tension and relaxation. The ancient Greek sculptors had finally achieved balance through the opposing action of the human muscle groups.It was the first time in human history that the human body was studied for its aesthetic values, and was treated as an autonomous universe. The object of art became the human itself as the focus of the artist revolved around ordinary subjects like the the weight shift during the forward step at the moment before the release of the thunder, the tying of a ribbon around ones head, or just the shift of the pelvis when one leg supports the man's weight.

9 Classical Period The art of the Classical Greek style is characterized by a freedom of movement, freedom of expression, and it celebrates the individual man. During this period, artists began expressing the human figure in a more naturalistic manner. The form of classical sculpture became fluid and natural and the stylization of the archaic art gave way to realistic figures which emanated the illusion of moving through space. For the first time in human history, human anatomy was deemed worthy of being immortalized in stone or bronze, and the humble and laborious forward step of the kouros statues was replaced by poses that commanded their space with effortless movement. During the classical period the Greek artists replaced the stiff vertical figures of the archaic period with three-dimensional snap shots of figures in action. While the archaic sculptures appeared static the classical statues held dynamic poses bursting with potential energy. The overall patterns of immobile muscles were developed into a complex universe of tension and relaxation. The ancient Greek sculptors had finally achieved balance through the opposing action of the human muscle groups.It was the first time in human history that the human body was studied for its aesthetic values, and was treated as an autonomous universe. The object of art became the human itself as the focus of the artist revolved around ordinary subjects like the the weight shift during the forward step at the moment before the release of the thunder, the tying of a ribbon around ones head, or just the shift of the pelvis when one leg supports the man's weight. During the Classical Period there was more interest in art, imagination and buildings. The Classical Greek art style represents a quest that the Greeks had for perfection and balance. The art glorified the beauty of the body The art of the Classic Greek style is characterized by:  A joyous freedom of movement  A celebration of mankind as an independent individual.  Artists quest for ideal beauty leads to their depicting the human figure in a naturalistic manner.

10 Classical Period The art of the Classical Greek style is characterized by a freedom of movement, freedom of expression, and it celebrates the individual man. During this period, artists began expressing the human figure in a more naturalistic manner. The form of classical sculpture became fluid and natural and the stylization of the archaic art gave way to realistic figures which emanated the illusion of moving through space. For the first time in human history, human anatomy was deemed worthy of being immortalized in stone or bronze, and the humble and laborious forward step of the kouros statues was replaced by poses that commanded their space with effortless movement. During the classical period the Greek artists replaced the stiff vertical figures of the archaic period with three-dimensional snap shots of figures in action. While the archaic sculptures appeared static the classical statues held dynamic poses bursting with potential energy. The overall patterns of immobile muscles were developed into a complex universe of tension and relaxation. The ancient Greek sculptors had finally achieved balance through the opposing action of the human muscle groups.It was the first time in human history that the human body was studied for its aesthetic values, and was treated as an autonomous universe. The object of art became the human itself as the focus of the artist revolved around ordinary subjects like the the weight shift during the forward step at the moment before the release of the thunder, the tying of a ribbon around ones head, or just the shift of the pelvis when one leg supports the man's weight.

11 Kritios Boy 480 BC, marble, 34”  Made by Athenian sculptor Kritios  He stands on his own, not attached to block it’s carved out of  Openings between arms and legs  Relaxed natural stance  Beginning of Classical Period An example of Contrapposto: Sculpting a human figure with the weight of the body on one leg, the shoulders and hips counterbalance so that figure does not fall over.

12 What is Contrapposto? 40 points Contrapposto is sculpting a human figure in a natural pose with the weight on one leg, and the shoulder and hips counterbalancing each other When a sculpture is in contrapposto, it shows more natural movement and can stand up on its own Contrapposto

13 Kritios Boy 480 BC, marble, 34” Mycerinus and His Queen 2470 BC, slate Greek sculptures have more movement, they can stand on their own, they are more naturalistic

14 Kritios Boy 480 BC, marble, 34” Statue of a kouros (youth) 590– 580 BC, marble Archaic Classical

15 Three Goddesses East pediment of the Parthenon B.C.  The Parthenon is a temple in Athens dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena (Goddess of wisdom), whom the people of Athens considered their protector. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece.

16 Three Goddesses East pediment of the Parthenon, B.C.  The east pediment of the Parthenon showed the birth of goddess Athena from the head of her father Zeus.  From left to right, their posture varies in order to accommodate the slope of the pediment that originally framed them.pediment  The sculptures that represented the actual scene are lost, only some of the figures survive.  Artists created a naturalistic rendering of anatomy  Complex draperies create a sense of visual movement.  They are perhaps, from left to right, Hestia, goddess of the hearth and home, Dione, and her daughter Aphrodite.

17 Lysippus, Statue of a Victorious Athlete 330 BC, Bronze, life size What characteristics of this statue are “Classical”?  Sense of movement  Relaxed natural pose  Idealized human figure How was this statue made? It was cast using a mold.

18 Lysippus, Statue of a Victorious Athlete 330 BC, Bronze, life size  Also known as the Getty Bronze  Victorious athlete crowning himself with a laurel wreath  S-curve of body, (contrapposto) weight on right leg  Face, hands, muscles are exact in detail  Hair is natural and unruly

19 Hellenistic Period The art of the Classical Greek style is characterized by a freedom of movement, freedom of expression, and it celebrates the individual man. During this period, artists began expressing the human figure in a more naturalistic manner. The form of classical sculpture became fluid and natural and the stylization of the archaic art gave way to realistic figures which emanated the illusion of moving through space. For the first time in human history, human anatomy was deemed worthy of being immortalized in stone or bronze, and the humble and laborious forward step of the kouros statues was replaced by poses that commanded their space with effortless movement. During the classical period the Greek artists replaced the stiff vertical figures of the archaic period with three-dimensional snap shots of figures in action. While the archaic sculptures appeared static the classical statues held dynamic poses bursting with potential energy. The overall patterns of immobile muscles were developed into a complex universe of tension and relaxation. The ancient Greek sculptors had finally achieved balance through the opposing action of the human muscle groups.It was the first time in human history that the human body was studied for its aesthetic values, and was treated as an autonomous universe. The object of art became the human itself as the focus of the artist revolved around ordinary subjects like the the weight shift during the forward step at the moment before the release of the thunder, the tying of a ribbon around ones head, or just the shift of the pelvis when one leg supports the man's weight. During the Hellenistic period Artists became concerned with action and emotion. This is a great time of prosperity that encourages the production of art of a more secular nature. Instead of depicting ideals such as perfect beauty, the artists explore reality. Humane themes such as childhood, old age, ugliness, and suffering are now of interest. Artists expand their work with: dramatic poses and emotions sweeping lines high contrasts of light and shadow. Secular: not concerned with religion For instance, "the Boxer" shows the boxer's bleeding knuckles after the fight.

20 Dying Gaul, BC, Roman marble copy of bronze Greek original, Hellenistic Period

21  Life-size Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze statue  Shows the struggle of a wounded man about to die  Leans on arms because his legs can’t move  Agony in the face and pose of the warrior  Death seems more real, not as heroic as it was shown in earlier artworks

22 Dying Gaul, BC, Roman marble copy of bronze Greek original, Hellenistic Period Kritios Boy 480 BC, marble, Classical

23 Nike of Samothrace, 190 BC, Marble, 8’

24  One of the greatest of the Hellenistic sculptures  Greek goddess Nike (Victory)  The winged goddess of Victory stands on the prow of a ship  Force of the wind whips the drapery into animated folds  Highly theatrical

25 Nike of Samothrace, 190 BC, Marble, 8’ Old Market Woman, 2 nd c. BC, Marble, 49 ½ “

26 Ancient Greek Architecture  The architecture of ancient Greece has influenced building styles today.  The best examples of Greek architecture are found in temple buildings.  Ancient Greek temples were dedicated to a divinity (god) and featured a statue of that divinity

27 Parthenon  Temple of the Greek goddess Athena  On the hill of the Acropolis at Athens, Greece  Architects were striving for ideal proportions in a Doric Temple design Built in the mid-5th c. BC

28 Ancient Greek Architecture The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: Doric Ionic Corinthian Capital Column Shaft

29 Doric Order The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital) is plain and it does not have a base. The Greeks used it first during the Archaic Period and the most famous Doric temple is the Parthenon. Doric Column Column- Fluted pillar that supports the entablature Flute-Vertical groove along the length of the column. Metope Triglyph Entablature-Section composed of the architrave, the frieze and the cornice; it supports the pediment

30 Doric Order

31

32 Parthenon Doric Order

33 Ionic Order The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant than the Doric. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). It stands on a base and has a continuous frieze. Ionic Column

34 Ionic Order Temple of Athena Nike  Temple of Athena Nike (Victory) is in the Acropolis in Athens, Greece.  420 B.C. by the architect Kallikrates and is in the Ionic order

35 Ionic Order The White House

36 Corinthian Order The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves. Corinthian Column

37 Corinthian Order Temple of the Olympian Zeus  174 BC, completed by the Roman emperor Hadrian  Only a small portion survives today

38 Ancient Greek Orders Doric Order Ionic OrderCorinthian Order

39 Ancient Greek Orders

40 Name that Order Ionic Order

41 Name that Order Doric Order

42 Name that Order Corinthian Order

43 Design your own Temple s/challenge/cha_set.html

44 Why are all of the Greek statues and buildings white?  Many of the Greek statues and buildings were originally painted, but over time they have lost their color  In early periods bright garish colors were applied to statues.  In the Classic period colors were more subtle and used on eyes, lips, hair

45 10. Doric13. Ionic 14. Corinthian 1. Cornice 2. Frieze 3. Architrave 4. Capital 5. Column 6. Entablature 7. Pediment 8. Base 9. Shaft 10. Doric 11. Triglyph 12. Metope 13. Ionic 14. Corinthian cornice frieze architrave capital column entablature pediment base shaft triglyph metope

46 Ancient Greek Pottery We are studying Ancient Greek sculpture, architecture, and pottery. Why are we not studying Ancient Greek paintings?

47 Ancient Greek Pottery Very few Greek painted pictures have survived the 2500 years since they were painted. Pottery, even if it gets broken, can be put back together. So most of what we know about Greek art comes from the pictures they painted on fancy pottery. These pictures provide insights into many aspects of Athenian life.

48 Black-Figure Pottery  During the Archaic period, Athenian potters began to paint people in silhouette: this is called black-figure, because the people are all black on a red background.  Actually black figure is done all with one type of clay.  The clay found near Athens has a lot of iron in it, so it looks black when it is wet.  But if you fire it in a kiln, letting air get in, the iron mixes with the oxygen and turns red  If you fire it in a kiln with no air getting in, the iron can't mix with oxygen, and the pot stays black.  One of the greatest potters was Exekias who developed narrative scene decoration and perfected the style Fire-To bake in a kiln. Firing is a term used for cooking the clay. Kiln-The oven for firing the clay

49 Black-Figure Pottery  You make a pot using the potters wheel, and let it dry a little ("leather-dry").  Then you mix the wet clay with water, to make a kind of paint (slip), which you use to make the black figures.  When your pot is dry, you fire it in a kiln.  First you give it a lot of air, so the whole pot turns red, slip and all.  Then you shut off the air supply at the end of the firing. When the air runs out, the fire sucks oxygen out of the clay pot.  The slip is thinner and easier to suck air out of. So the slip turns black (the color of iron without oxygen) faster than the rest of the pot (which is red, the color of iron with oxygen).  At first the Athenian potters didn't know much about drawing people, and their people look a little funny. Later they got better at it. They began to care more about drawing the muscles and the eyes right. So how do you get a picture on the pot?

50 Black-Figure Pottery  The amphora, large storage jar with 2 handles, was signed by Exekias  He considered it one of his finest works  The inscription reads, Exekias painted and made me, indicating that he both formed and painted the amphora. Exekias, Black-Figured Amphora, 530 BC, 24”

51 Black-Figure Pottery

52  This famous amphora, signed by Exekias shows Achilles and Ajax in armour intent on playing a dice game.  The amphora is one of the most refined products of the black-figure style.  The moment when the two heroes, having temporarily laid down their arms during the long siege of Troy, devote themselves to play. Exekias, Black-Figured Amphora, 530 BC, 24” Black-Figure Pottery

53 Red-Figure Pottery  Around 530 BC, Athenian potters were more and more frustrated by the black-figure way of vase-painting.  They wanted to paint figures that overlapped and they wanted to be able to depict the muscles better  So instead of painting the people black, they began to paint the background black and leave the people red (Red-figure pottery).  This is harder because you have to carefully paint all around the people in the picture, but it makes the people look much more real.  Some of the greatest vases are in red figure. Red-figured water jar (hydria), signed by Meidias as potter, about BC

54 Red-Figure Pottery Red-figured water jar (hydria), signed by Meidias as potter, about BC

55 Red-Figure Pottery Black-Figure Pottery

56 Red-Figure Pottery Black-Figure Pottery

57 Types of Ancient Greek Pottery  Painted vases were often made in specific shapes for specific daily uses—storing and transporting wine and foodstuffs, drawing water, drinking wine or water and for special, often ritual occasions

58 Types of Ancient Greek Pottery A krater was a large bowl used for mixing water and wine. A hydria, was used for carrying and storing water. An amphora was used to store wine and water, "amphora" means "with two handles" A kylix is a drinking cup. A Lekythos was used to store perfume oil.

59 Ancient Greek Pottery The pottery of the ancient Greeks was important for its beauty and decoration and for the light it sheds on the life and culture of ancient Greece. Because fired clay pottery is highly durable—and few or no Greek works in wood, textile, or wall painting have survived—the painted decoration of this pottery has become the main source of information about the process of Greek artists learning to represent three-dimensional objects and figures on a flat or curved surface. The Greeks used pottery vessels primarily to store, transport, and drink such liquids as wine and water. Smaller pots were used as containers for perfumes and ointments. Why is ancient Greek pottery important?


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