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Welcome to Ancient Greece Religion Politics Economics Social Structures Geography Achievements.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Ancient Greece Religion Politics Economics Social Structures Geography Achievements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Ancient Greece Religion Politics Economics Social Structures Geography Achievements

2 800-700 BC : Monarchies begin to be replaced by Aristocratic Republics 621 BC: Draco's code of law - Athens. 546 BC: Persian invasion and conquest of Greek territories through out Asia Minor 507 BC: Cleisthenes' democratic constitution. 776 BC : Date of the first Olympic games. 600 BC : Coin currency introduced 566 BC : Panathenaic festivals established

3 490 BC First Persian invasion of Greece, the Battle of Marathon. 480 BC Second Persian invasion of Greece, Spartans are defeated at Thermopylae, Athens is occupied by the Persians. The Persians are finally defeated at Salamis. The founding of the Delian League. 431 - 404 BC The Peloponnesian War 404 BC Athens Surrenders to Sparta 336-323 BC Alexander the Great’s reign About 450 BC, Sophocles wins more awards for plays than any other playwright 443 - 429 BC Pericles is leader of Athens during the Golden Age Massive public building program and construction of Parthenon 430 BC Plague in Athens 411 BC Revolts in Athens

4 323-148 BC: Greek City States remain relatively independent; however, warfare between rival leagues continues 200-196 BC: First Roman victories over Greece 146 BC: Corinth destroyed by Rome 86 BC: Athens sacked by Rome About 300 BC: Euclid wrote The Elements About 200 BC: Winged Victory (Nike) created

5 Religion: Gods in our image Polytheistic Explained occurrences in Nature Gods – human form, emotions, behaviors Interfered in lives of mortals Worship and sacrifices intended to keep gods happy for survival and prosperity

6 Family Tree of Greek Gods Read the Greek Creation Myth here and then returnhere

7 Achievements Arts Three periods of art in Ancient Greece: Archaic about 1000 BC – 450 BC Simplest style, clean lines Classical about 450 BC – 330 BC More complex, more natural poses Hellenisticabout 330 BC – 30 BC Most ornate of all, used more outside of Greece

8 Achievements Architecture - Columns Doric: earliest style, no decoration, plain squared tops Ionic: middle style, narrower at top, curled on each side at top Corinthian: last style, most ornate

9 Achievements Architecture - Acropolis The Acropolis hill – “Sacred Rock” – last line of defense in time of crisis Fortified citadel on hill above city Added to over time Original buildings made of wood Destroyed by fire and war and rebuilt

10 Achievements Architecture - Acropolis Then This link includes a visual timeline of the Acropolis

11 Achievements Architecture - Acropolis Now

12 Achievements: Architecture - Parthenon Temple to Athena – patron of Athens Columns are Doric and curve at top to create illusion Dimensions created to house statue of Athena

13 Achievements In Math, Show Your Work Geometry: Euclid’s Elements 13 Volumes Each volume has definitions, postulates and then theorems Every statement is proven, no matter how obvious Includes circles, tangents, plane geometry, prime numbers, perfect numbers Before Euclid any mathematician could have his own postulates Euclid’s work helped standardize mathematics's_postulates.png

14 Achievements Sculpture- Kouros Archaic period Statues not intended to represent individuals – represent an ideal Kouroi always young men, standing nude Depicts motion, one leg and/or one arm forward Archaic smile The Calf-Bearer

15 Achievements Sculpture: Nike Hellenistic period White marble, represented prow of ship Posed ready to “deliver shout of victory” Noted for “naturalistic pose and rendering of figure’s draped garments, depicted as if rippling in strong sea breeze…” Nike, Winged Victory

16 Achievements Theater/Drama Theater not purely for entertainment; part of state religious festival Originally chorus of 12 men and one actor 3 tragedians chosen to present 4 plays each as part of competition “’tragedy’ refers to tragic drama: … in which a central character called a tragic hero suffers some serious misfortune which is not accidental and therefore meaningless, but is significant in that the misfortune is logically connected with the hero's actions. Tragedy stresses the vulnerability of human beings whose suffering is brought on by a combination of human and divine actions, but is generally undeserved with regard to its harshness. “

17 Achievements Drama: Aeschylus Aeschylus: first of the three most prize winning Greek playwrights Also a soldier and actor First to introduce second actor to plays; allowed for more characters to be introduced and greater variation in plot

18 Achievements Drama: Sophocles Sophocles earned about 20 awards for first place in dramatic competitions Reduced the importance of the Chorus by adding a third actor Invented skenographia (scene painting) to illustrate the background Oedipus gouges out his eyes after discovering the true nature of his crime.

19 Achievements Drama: Euripides Last of the three Great Tragedians Focused on mythological themes and heroes First to write roles for strong female characters First to introduce intrigue and comedy into plays

20 Politics: Democracy City-States – Poli Monarchy Warrior Aristocracies, often led by tyrant Democracy (Please follow the following three links and return) Draco’s Code of LawsDraco’s Solon’s Solon’s reforms Cleisthenes First democracy about 500 BC Assembly of male citizens

21 Draco’s Code of Laws Around 620 BC Draco, the lawgiver, wrote the first known written law of Ancient Greece. Draco was an Athenian lawgiver whose harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death-- hence the continued use of the word draconian to describe repressive legal measures. Today the word draconian means harsh or severe. Draco's laws were shockingly severe, so severe that they were said to have been written not in ink but in blood. Solon succeeded him in about 594 BC Back Back

22 Solon’ Reforms Solon's great contribution to the future good of Athens was his new code of laws. The first written code at Athens, that of Draco, was still in force.. Solon revised every statute except that on homicide and made Athenian law altogether more humane. His code, though supplemented and modified, remained the foundation of Athenian statute law until the end of the 5th century, and parts of it were embodied in the new codification made at that time Back Back

23 Economics: Living Wage 5 th and 4 th centuries BC, Greece had most advanced economy in known world Some historians believe it was the most advanced pre-industrial economy of its time Average daily wage of Greek worker – about 12 kg of wheat Average daily wage of Egyptian worker – about 3.75 kg of wheat during about same time

24 Social : Changeable Social Status In Athens: Family ties did not confer social privileges Four social classes, based on wealth Earn more money, could change class Women and slaves could own property but had no political rights Slaves could earn freedom Publicly owned slaves In Sparta: Spartan kings came from one of two families All male citizens equal after completion of education Slaves had no power or status Helots – slaves who were captured in war, treated harshly

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