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NTS 501 NT INTRO AND SURVEY Class VIII: 1-2 Corinthians.

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Presentation on theme: "NTS 501 NT INTRO AND SURVEY Class VIII: 1-2 Corinthians."— Presentation transcript:

1 NTS 501 NT INTRO AND SURVEY Class VIII: 1-2 Corinthians

2 1-2 Corinthians 1.1 Introduction to Corinthian Correspondence How have 1-2 Cor used to justify theological or practical decisions in the life of the church? Positive & negative examples 1 Corinthians – theology in practice 2 Corinthians – theology of comfort, suffering Some critical issues in 1 & 2 Cor Historical reconstruction (e.g. composition of 2 Cor) Spiritual gifts 1 Cor 12-14; Role of women in 1 Cor 11, 14 Paul’s opponents in 1 Cor 10-13

3 1-2 Corinthians 1.2 The City of Corinth To “God’s church in Corinth” (1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1) What kind of place was Corinth? Administrative center of Achaia since 27BC 200,000 inhabitants Strategic location Economy City of the ‘new rich’ & self promotion Isthmian games 1 Cor 9:24-28

4 1-2 Corinthians The city of Corinth – sex, booze, and religion “Not for every man is the voyage to Corinth” (Strabo, Geog ) “Corinthianize” (Aristophanes); “Corinthian girl” (Plato) 1000 temple prostitutes in temple of Aphrodite (Strabo, Geog ) The “Corinthian hat” [on a drunk] Acrocorinth – temple of Aphrodite, goddess of love, lust, beauty Near the forum – temple of Apollo & Athena Northern city wall – sanctuary of Asclepius, the god of healing Western end of forum – temple for Emperor worship gods and cults (Dionysius, Ephesian Artemis, Fortuna, Poseidon) At least one synagogue  Many of the problems in 1-2 Cor related to the situation – sexual immorality; drunkenness; meet sacrificed to idols; resurrection body

5 1-2 Corinthians 1.3 Author, Date, Provenance Corinthians Paul – no disputes (1Cl 47:1-3/1Cor 1:10-17; 1Cl49//1Cor13) AD 53/54, Ephesus during the 3 rd missionary journey Corinthians Paul – no disputes (e.g. Ig. to Eph 15:3 and 2 Cor 6:16) AD 54/55, Macedonia (Philippi?) during 3 rd missionary journey

6 1-2 Corinthians 1.4 History of Corinthian correspondence At least three visits to Corinth Visits and letters 1 st visit: AD Paul plants the church (Acts 18) Paul writes the “previous letter” 1 Cor 5:9, 11 [Cor A] Paul writes 1 Cor from Ephesus AD (1Cor 16:8; Cor B) 2 nd visit: “painful visit” (2Cor 2:1; 12:4; 13:1-2) Paul writes the “severe letter” (2 Cor 2:4; 7:8; Cor C) Paul writes 2 Cor from Macedonia AD 54/55 (2Cor 7:5; 8:1; 9:2; Cor D) 3 rd visit to Corinth (Acts 20:2)

7 1-2 Corinthians The Occasion & purpose of 1 Cor Paul founded the church (Acts 18) Paul wrote the “lost letter” (5:9) ‘avoid sexually immoral Christians’ Response: ‘Chloe’s people’ (1:11); questions for further clarification (7:1, 25; 8:1,4 ; 12:1; 16:1,12; cf. 16:15-18) Paul in Ephesus AD Return to unity & instruct on correct doctrine & behavior Paul addresses each question & concern systematically

8 1-2 Corinthians Problems within the Corinthian church Disunity within church (1:11-12) Sexual immorality (5:1-13; 6:18-20) Abstinence within marriage (7:1-7) Litigations (6:1-11) & idolatry (10:1-22) Disorder within church services (11-14) Lord’s supper Spiritual gifts The nature of resurrection (15:1-58)

9 1-2 Corinthians 2.1 Themes and Message of 1 Cor Unity & Schism within the church Factions (1:12-13; 3:5, 21-23) Foolishness of the cross & true wisdom of Spirit (1:18-2:16) Christ the foundation, church as temple of HS (3:1-4:21) Litigations among believers (6:1-11) Civil: reputation, bribes, status Behave “as if” and in light of who you truly are Lord’s supper – ‘one hungry…another drunk’ (11:17-34) Roman banquets & social status issues Words of Jesus – koinonia of the new covenant; self-examination; judgment of believers

10 1-2 Corinthians Spiritual gifts – overemphasis on tongues (12-14) Edification & unity of the body – not for show off Superiority of love; superiority of gifts that edifice the body Order in the worship service – each in turn (14:39) Marriage and sexuality (1 Cor 5:1-13; 6:12-7:39) Incestuous relationship – boasting (5:1-13) Church discipline – in order to save him; body of Christ is holy Visiting prostitutes (6:15-16) Unity of the body of Christ; body as temple of the HS; resurrection Marriage and singleness (7:1-39) Celibacy preferred (7:6-8, 25-28, 32-34, 37-40) Marriage “in the Lord” (7:39; cf. 7:12-16) Divorce to be avoided (7:10-13, 16)

11 1-2 Corinthians Idolatry and meat sacrificed to idols Idol worship in the Roman society pervasive Meet in the Roman “Publix” Food sacrificed to idols – knowledge vs. consideration “eat what ever” but consider the weak “flee idol worship” – “whatever you do…glorify God” Participation in the idols & Lord’s supper not possible (10:20) “All things are lawful” – “seek the advantage of others”

12 1-2 Corinthians The Nature of Resurrection (1 Cor 15:1-58) “first importance” – the gospel that saves you (15:1-9) “how can you say…no resurrection” (15:12) “How are the dead raised…what kind of body” (15:35) Platonic vs. Jewish idea of human body Paul’s arguments No resurrection – no hope Why would Paul risk his life? Christ’s resurrection – the first fruits (15:23) Resurrection body – spiritual body (Gk. sarkikos vs. pneumatikos) Seed and plant Perishable – imperishable Dishonor – glory Weakness – power Victory over death  Excel in the Lord’s work (15:58) & collection for the saints (16:1-4)

13 1-2 Corinthians 3.1 Introduction to 2 Cor What aspects of 2 Cor are relevant to churches of today?

14 1-2 Corinthians 3.2 Integrity of 2 Corinthians 1-9 & – change in tone Is the “tearful letter” (cf. 2 Cor 7:8)? “tearful letter” - offender punished (2Cor 2:5-6); no references in Written back to back? Why fuse & leave such abrupt transition? cf. 9:4 1-9 to congregation at large, to opponents Pauses in dictation/writing? New information? Transition between chps. 8-9 abrupt – “Now concerning…” Intro formula used to give an explanation to the preceding section 2:14-7:4 – interruption of discussion regarding Titus (cf. 2:13, 7:5) Connection b/w 2:13 and 2:14 6:14-7:1 – out place & character for Paul ‘Take us into your hearts’ Necessary qualification for his plea “to open heart” Disruption of thought due to time lapse?

15 1-2 Corinthians 3.3 Occasion and purpose After writing 1 Cor from Ephesus (1Cor 16:5-7) Change in plans - “painful confrontation” (2Cor2:5; 7:12; 13:2) Paul unreliable? (1:15-23) Avoid second confrontation & pain (1:23; 2:1-3) Arrival of “super-apostles” (11:5; 12:11) & contest for authority “tearful letter” (cf. 1Cor5:9; 2Cor 2:3-4, 9; 7:12) “ultimatum” to the church to discipline (2Cor 2:9; 7:12; regret 7:8) Trails in Asia – “deadly peril” (1:8-9) Paul to Troas (2:12-13); message from Titus about repentance (7:9-11) Paul’s confidence restored (7:16) Writing of 2 Cor as a response Purpose of 2 Cor Defend his integrity, apostolic authority & counter false teachers

16 1-2 Corinthians 3.4 Themes and Message of 2 Cor Integrity and apostolic authority of Paul Paul’s integrity and apostolic authority questioned Sincerity and suffering (1:12; 2:17; 4:16; 6:4-10; 11:21-33) Personal relationship w/ Corinthians (2:1-4; 6:12; 11:11) Ministry of HS & New Covenant from God (3:1-18; 5:17) Apostolic authority of Paul (1Cor 5:3-5; 14:37-38; 11:1) ‘super apostles’ challenge (11:12-14, 22-23) Who is a true apostle? Qualifications? (cf. Rom 16:7) Sings and wonders (12:12) “seen the Lord” (9:1; cf. 15:3-8) Founder of the church & authority to discipline (6:13; 12:14; 10:2-6) Spokesperson for authoritative tradition (15:3; 11:2, 23)

17 1-2 Corinthians Offering to the poor 2 Cor 8-9; (cf. Gal 2:10; Acts 11:29-30; 24:17) Unfulfilled promises (cf. 1Cor 16:1-3; 2Cor 8:10-11) God’s economy – “neither excess not want” (8:12-15) Theological and practical factors God’s grace work in Macedonia – extreme poverty (8:1-4) Voluntary; privilege; first to the Lord Theological reasons Christ’s self-giving sacrifice (8:9) God’s promised provision & blessing (9:6-12) Glory of God and confession of the gospel (9:13-14) Integrity in the Lord and before people (8:20-22) “sharing with them and all others” (9:13)

18 1-2 Corinthians Suffering, weakness, comfort, and power Paul “despaired of life” – God’s comfort (1:3-11) Paul accused of timidity & unimpressive appearance ( 10:1, 10 ) He is weak – but God shows power in weakness Triumphal procession (2:14-17) Treasure in earthen vessels (4:7) Paul’s apostolic suffering brings salvation to others (6:6-8) God’s power becomes evident in suffering (4:7; 12:9-10) Focus on eternal things (4:7-12; 5:1-10) Boasting about suffering - expose opponents’ follishness (11:16-12:10)  Human weakness and suffering is the soil on which God’s grace and power becomes a reality – but only to those who have faith to see God’s eternal purpose in it

19 1-2 Corinthians 1.


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