Presentation on theme: "Ch. 25 Alcohol. History People have been drinking alcoholic beverages for over 6000 years."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 25 Alcohol
History People have been drinking alcoholic beverages for over 6000 years.
Our country was in part founded with the help of alcohol.
Alcohol, slaves, molasses created a vicious but important cycle with the early colonies and eventually the United States.
Alcohol became illegal under US federal law in Supporters saw it as a chance to "clean up" America.
Alcohol was thought by many as the “devils brew”.
Many went to jail. Many made money. Many died. Organized crime got its start in cities like Chicago with the selling of illegal alcohol.
Types of Alcohol There are many types of alcohol. –Ethanol- the kind of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks and the only alcohol that is safe to drink in small quantities.
Other types of alcohol Methanol and rubbing alcohol –Are found in many household products such as paint products, antiseptics, and shaving lotions. –They are extremely toxic in any amount, even inhaled fumes. –May cause blindness and death.
A High Risk Behavior
What is Alcohol Fermentation- is the chemical action of yeast on sugars.
Alcoholic beverages- Water, flavoring, and minerals are added to ethanol to form one of several beverages, including beer and wine.
Intoxication- a physical and mental impairment from the use of alcohol. Intoxication can range from an inability to walk to unconsciousness.
Turn to page 551 in your text. What are the Myths about alcohol?
Drinking alcohol through a straw “filters out” the alcoholic content of the beverage.
Someone who doesn’t seem drunk can’t be drunk.
Beer and wine are safer drinks than “hard” liquors like whiskey.
Using Alcohol on weekends or only once in a while is harmless.
When a person has a hangover, coffee, a cold shower, or fresh air will sober him or her up.
A hangover is caused by a combination of: 1. by the body's being poisoned by alcohol, 2. withdrawal from alcohol, 3. dehydration and 4. low glucose levels in the brain. Alcohol robs your brain cells of water and glucose (the brain's food), which is in part why you experience hangover symptoms such as headache, dehydration, and the shakes the day after a night of heavy drinking.
Alcohol and Teens In recent years, as evidence of the harm drinking can do has increased, alcohol consumption among adults has declined. Alcohol consumption in recent years has not declined among teens as it has among adults.
Half of all teens who die each year die as a direct result of alcohol or other drugs.
Alcohol is a factor in many unplanned pregnancies, STD, dating violence, rapes, suicides and homicides.
Nearly 5 million problem drinkers in this country are between the ages of 14 and 17.
Why Young People Drink To escape problems and pressures To feel better or get over being sad or lonely To deal with stress and relax
To feel more self- confident in social situations For excitement Because their friends are doing it
To deal with boredom To get away with something they are not supposed to do To fit in
Factors that affect Teen Alcohol Use Young people who are handsome, attractive, fit and healthy looking
A party-like atmosphere with upbeat music Healthful environment, beauty of the outdoors Problem free drinking
Verbal message that does not include risks of using the product The message is that alcohol is an aid to successful, romantic, and problem-free relationships, working situations, and recreational opportunities.
One of the most effective forms of advertising is to have the consumer buy products with the name of the company on them. You are literally a walking billboard.
Half of all fatal car crashes in this country involve alcohol and 50% of boating accidents
You and Your Decisions About Drinking The negative consequences greatly outweigh any imagined benefits.
What Alcohol Does to the Body
Short-term effects of drinking The short-term effects alcohol has on the body depend on several factors Amount of alcohol consumed Person’s gender, size, and whether or not there is food in the person’s stomach.
Brain Thought processes are disorganized Memory and concentration are dulled. Decision-making can be badly affected.
Reflexes are slowed The first organ affected by alcohol Lowers inhibitions or your checks on emotions
Liver The second most affected organ next to the brain Place where oxidation occurs, changes alcohol to water, carbon dioxide, and energy. The liver oxidizes about one drink each hour, possibly less.
The alcohol that is not oxidized continues to circulate throughout the body. Small amounts of alcohol will still be found 24 hours after drinking. Alcohol is water- soluble.
The Liver removes about 95% of the alcohol from the blood (the other 5% leave through the urine, perspiration and in breathing). Alcohol is removed at about 1 ounce per hour.
If you are taking large doses of the painkiller acetaminophen (Tylenol®) and drinking alcohol, you are risking serious liver damage.
Blood Vessels Alcohol dilate the blood vessels which increase blood flow especially to the skin. Hypothermia is a danger in colder temperatures
Heart Alcohol increases heart rate and blood pressure May lead to arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeats)
Can cause scar tissue in the heart muscle Increase chance of heart attack and stroke Weakens heart muscle
Kidneys Alcohol affects the pituitary gland which acts on the kidneys to produce more urine, this causes dehydration.
Dehydration is one of the factors influencing a hangover. What are three other factors? –Low glucose levels in the brain –Poisoning from alcohol –Withdrawal
Stomach Because the alcohol molecule is very small and water soluble, it does not have to be digested.
Absorbed very quickly Increases flow of gastric juices, which can cause ulcers. Ulcer- Open sores of the lining of the stomach.
Alcohol interferes with the small intestine’s ability to absorb nutrients.
Alcohol is the second most important risk factor for mouth cancer after tobacco % of mouth cancer patients say they frequently drink alcohol. tobacco Smoking and drinking alcohol greatly increases your risk. If you don’t smoke, then how much you drink is the most important risk factor for mouth cancer.
Driving Under the Influence
All states and the District of Columbia now have 21-year-old minimum drinking age laws.
At BACs as low as 0.02 percent, alcohol affects driving ability and crash likelihood. The probability of a crash begins to increase significantly at 0.05 percent BAC and climbs rapidly after about 0.08 percent.
Reduces the ability to judge distances, speeds, and turns. Reduces the ability to judge accurately one’s own capabilities.
Increases the tendency to take risks Slows reflexes Reduces the ability to concentrate
Adds to forgetfulness to take precautions such as using signals when turning
Costs of DWI Possible suspension of license Possible jail time after arrest Arrest, jail, court, fine Confiscation of license Higher insurance rates Possible lawsuits Bail money
What can you be pulled over for?
Long Term Effects of Drinking May include vitamin deficiencies Stomach and skin problems Permanent damage to liver and central nervous system. Loss of appetite
Brain Damage Possible major brain damage First organ effected by alcohol and usually the most effected. Loss of memory & problem solving abilities
The effect of alcohol on the brain can seriously interfere with everyday functions.
Chronic Liver Problems Second most effected organ by chronic alcohol use. Interferes with the way fat is broken down in the liver (fatty liver) Interferes with the growth of new liver cells
Produces cirrhosis of the liver. A condition of scarring and liver malfunctioning. The liver is a filter, scarring does not allow blood to flow properly and allow the liver to do it’s job
Hepatitis- an inflammation or infection of the liver Causes weakness, jaundice, fever, and sometimes death.
Tolerance and Dependence Tolerance- making it necessary to drink more and more in order to produce the same effect a lesser amount used to.
Withdrawal- alcohol is removed from the body and the alcoholic experiences symptoms of jumpiness, sleeplessness, sweating, and poor appetite to severe tremors, convulsions and hallucinations.
Multiplier Effect Synergistic Effect- occurs when two or more medicines or chemicals are taken simultaneously, the combined produce an interactions that magnify the effect of each other.
Alcohol and Pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS-is a condition in which a fetus has been adversely affected mentally and physically by its mother’s heavy alcohol use during pregnancy.
FAS babies/people may have: Low birth weight Impaired speech Cleft palate General weakness Slow body growth Facial abnormalities
FAS is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in the United States
Quiz Tomorrow Lessons 1&2
QUIZ TOMORROW Ch. 25 Lessons 1&2
Lesson 3 Alcohol and Society
Patterns of Alcohol Abuse Binge drinking- is periodic excessive drinking. Popular among some high school and college students.
Light drinker = someone who consumes an average of less than one drink per day Moderate drinker = no more than two drinks per day on average. Heavy drinker = more than two drinks per day on average. Excessive drinking = more than four drinks per day on average.
Alcohol poisoning- a dangerous toxic condition that occurs when a person drinks a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time.
Alcoholism A physical and psychological dependence on the drug ethanol. Is a disease
Traits of an Alcoholic They may be preoccupied in one way or another with alcohol. They cannot manage tension without drinking.
Once they pick up the first drink, they cannot promise or predict what they will say or do or how much they will drink.
They may have personality changes or memory lapses due to drinking.
Stages of Alcoholism 3 stages Time spans may be long or short depending on the individual influenced by the age in which they start drinking.
Stage One Typically begins with social drinking. Gradually alcohol is used to manage stress. Intoxicated regularly Blackouts Tolerance increases
Stage two Gradually reaches a point where they cannot stop drinking. Drink alone. May drink every day Makes excuses for drinking Drinking becomes central in life.
Stage Three Final and worst stage Alcohol is the most important thing in life. Problem can no longer be denied Uncontrolled drinking Person has fallen apart, physically, mentally, emotionally and socially.
The first step in treatment of alcoholism is usually detoxification. The most effective long term treatment for alcoholism has been support groups (like AA).
The Cost of Alcoholism
Costs to the Family Domestic violence Codependency- people who are involved with alcoholics and whose lives are enmeshed in the alcoholic’s problems. –Ignore their own needs –Lose trust –Self-esteem –Own health
Cost to Society Leading cause of death for year olds. Alcohol claims 100,000 American lives each year. Major cause of injuries and fatalities in the workplace.
Choosing to Be Alcohol-Free “I do not need it” Is the number one reason teens give for not drinking. Don’t have to drink to be popular, or accepted, or to have fun.
Alcohol may interfere with self control over one’s emotions, decisions, and behavior.
Where can you get help? School counselor Trusted adult Support group Alcoholics Anonymous. (The teen of an alcoholic can get help from the same sources)
How can you stop someone from drinking and driving?
Distillation of Alcohol Fermented product is heated. Alcohol evaporates at a lower temperature than water.
The evaporated alcohol is collected by cooling it as it passes through a coil.
The end product is a distilled beverage. Hard Liquor- whiskey, gin, vodka, rum, brandy, and rye are but a few.
In distilled beverages alcohol is measured in proof. Hard liquor. In alcoholic beverages that are not distilled, alcohol is measured in a percentage. Beer and wine.