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Building Multimedia Learning Environments with Constructivist Approaches. A critical analysis of applying constructivist theories to the creation of multimedia.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Multimedia Learning Environments with Constructivist Approaches. A critical analysis of applying constructivist theories to the creation of multimedia."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Building Multimedia Learning Environments with Constructivist Approaches. A critical analysis of applying constructivist theories to the creation of multimedia learning projects. Peter Rawsthorne Memorial University of Newfoundland Partial fulfillment of the requirements for ED6620 Dr. Elizabeth Murphy February 24, 2006

3 2 Presentation Overview Setting the context of multimedia and constructivism Defining the difference between multimedia and constructivism Critically analyzing the application of constructivist theory to multimedia learning Closing statements

4 3 Multimedia Multimedia consists of [1] ; 1.Animation 2.Audio 3.Interactivity 4.Graphics 5.Text Multimedia is becoming more pervasive [2] Multimedia is NOT constructivist by default, and much of it is still built using a behaviorist approach [3] Current multimedia principles are derived from the field of cognitive psychology [4]

5 4 Constructivism A whole range of cognitive theories which form constructivism [5] Student learning is accomplished best using a hands-on approach [6] Students work harder at learning when they feel involved with the presentation [7] Has had a strong influence over instructional design in the past decade [8]

6 5 90 º 130 º 60 º 35 º 0º0º 180 º beam-reach close-hauled close-reach broad-reach running the wind in irons An example of multimedia learning and constructivism. From the perspective of the audience or learner, was the multimedia learning from this animated slide constructivist? For you, as the learner it was NOT constructivist. For me, as the person who built the slide, it was constructivist. This is a multimedia ppt build slide, so please put on your headphones, CLICK once, sit back and enjoy the learning. CLICK to continue to the next slide. THE POINTS OF SAILING.

7 6 Student as the designer Constructivism works best when the student is the designer [9] Students will utilize standardized media elements (video and audio clips, text segments, etc.) to allow on-the-fly assembly of learning experiences [10]

8 7 A range of cognitive theories In Multimedia Learning (2001) Mayer proposed seven principles of multimedia design based on several research study findings, … re-organized into six key categories: integration, parsimony, narration, individual differences, personalization, and interactivity [7] In other words, different learning theories apply during the construction of the different multimedia elements.

9 8 Graphic Images and Constructivism Drawing images is a constructivist activity. –Particularly when focused within the subject of study –When it has a scaffold to have learners stay on task Learners obtain better understanding than students who create written summary or only read text [11] In this case when the learner correctly drew the boat they would have had to determine (through their own research and knowledge construction) the angle the sails would have in relation to a beam-reach. Further confirming that a beam- reach is 90 degrees to the wind.

10 9 Text and Constructivism Writing appears to enhance the retention of co- constructed knowledge over time [12] Students learn better when on-screen text and visual materials are physically integrated rather than separated [13] When the learner added the text to the graphic of the boat they constructed knowledge as they would have needed to research the words to be used, they would have reflected [14] upon their research and then wrote down the degree to the wind and the name of the point of sail. beam-reach 90 º

11 10 Audio and Constructivism Audio enhances learning when the teacher asks or answers questions using... two-way audio technologies [15] The use of audio streaming technologies enhance the sensory impact of information [16] Writing is a reflective activity. Reflection builds understanding [14]. The writing of the script for the audio component should also be considered reflective as an understanding will have to built and scripted before the audio could be recorded.

12 11 90 º the wind Animation and Constructivism Make the animation an active (or interactive) process for the learner... An active environment will tend to draw viewers in and yield better attention to the information. [17] Animation does not insure that students will understand the explanation unless research- based principles are applied to the design. [13] For this animation to be directly constructivist it should be built using a Microworlds type approach where the learner creates the boats, sets the sails, and releases the wind.

13 12 Interaction and Constructivism Supported by the experiences of educators, constructivist theory, case studies and experimental results [18]. Extend the record-and-playback [2] capabilities by adding indexing and search to internal structures enable learners to construct their own knowledge from within the multimedia environment.

14 13 Constructivist Multimedia Design Needs to provide multiple paths of navigation [5] Provide learner control over system, process and content [5] Promotes the creation of non-linear [19] learning Self directed multimedia building through Microworld [20] type approaches. Should include knowledge building activities such as search and indexing [2]

15 14 Summary Multimedia is NOT constructivist by default. Constructivism draws upon many sources of theories and principles. Multimedia can be constructivist if the correct pedagogical approach is used. Having the student design and build their own multimedia learning environments would be the ultimate constructivist approach.

16 15 References [1] Wikipedia. (2006). Multimedia. Retrieved on Feb. 18, 2006 from [2] Kumela, D., Watts, K. & Adrion, R. (2004). Supporting Constructivist Learning in a Multimedia Presentation System. 34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. Retrieved on Feb. 17, 2006 from [3] Herrington, J. & Standen, P. (2000). Moving from an Instructivist to a Constructivist Multimedia Learning Environment. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 9(3), [4] Alonso, F. (2005). An instructional model for web-based e-learning education with a blended learning process approach. British Journal of Educational Technology 36(2), 217–235. [5] Wild, M. & Quinn, C. (1998). Implications of educational theory for the design of instructional multimedia. British Journal of Educational Technology (29)1, [6] Wikipedia. (2006). Constructivism. Retrieved on Feb. 23, 2006 from [7] Mitchell, M. (2003). Constructing Multimedia: Benefits of Student-Generated Multimedia on Learning. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-enhanced Learning. Retrieved on Feb. 20, 2006 from [8] Carr-Chellman, A. & Duchastel, P. (2000) The ideal online course. British Journal of Educational Technology 31(3), [9] Begona,G. (2002). Knowledge Construction and Technology. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 11(4), [10] Wilson, B. & Lowry, M. (2000). Constructivist Learning on the Web. Retrieved on Feb. 21, 2006 from earning%20on%20the%20Web.htm earning%20on%20the%20Web.htm

17 16 References [11] Gobert, J. & Clement, J. (1999). Effects of Student-Generated Diagrams versus Student-Generated Summaries on Conceptual Understanding of Causal and Dynamic Knowledge in Plate Tectonics. Journal Of Research In Science Teaching 36(1), 39–53. [12] Rivard, L. & Straw, S. (1999). The Effect of Talk and Writing on Learning Science: An Exploratory Study. Science Education 84(5), [13] Moreno, R. & Mayer, R. (2000). A Learner-Centered Approach to Multimedia Explanations: Deriving Instructional Design Principles from Cognitive Theory. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-enhanced Learning. Retrieved on Feb. 16, 2006 from [14] Heflich, D. & Iran-Nejad, Asghar. (1995). Reflective Educational Practice from the Perspective of Wholetheme Constructivism. The University of Alabama. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED393851) Retrieved Feb 27, 2006, from E-Subscribe database. [15] Vrasidas, C. (2000). Constructivism versus objectivism: Implications for interaction, course design, and evaluation in distance education. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 6(4), [16] Axmann, M. (2000). Instructional Design: The Next Generation Retrieved on Feb. 19, 2006 from onal%20design%20-%20the%20next%20gen.pdf onal%20design%20-%20the%20next%20gen.pdf [17] Grillmeyer, O. (2000). Designing Effective Animations for Computer Science Instruction. Retrieved on Feb 18, 2006 from [18] Smith, G. & Olkun, S. (2005). Why Interactivity Works: Interactive Priming Of Mental Rotation. Journal of Educational Computing Research 32(2), [19] Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp ). New York: McGraw-Hill. [20] Spiro, R., Feltovich, P., Jacobson, M., & Coulson R. (1991). Random Access Instruction for Advanced Knowledge Acquisition in Ill-Structured Domains. Educause Review 5, 24–33.


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