Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Rick.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Rick."— Presentation transcript:

1 Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Rick Funston and Gene Deutscher University of Nebraska Rick Funston and Gene Deutscher University of Nebraska

2 Feeding to a “Target Weight” % of Mature breeding Item 55%65% Pre-breeding wt Conception (21d) Calving wt Calf birth wt Calving difficulty,% Calf death loss,% 6 5 Fall Preg Rate, % 85 93

3 Effect of Time of Gain From Weaning to Breeding on Heifer Performance Percent of Target Gain No difference in age at puberty, conception rate, or calf performance the next year. Clanton et al., 1983 EVENGAIN vs LATEGAIN, Age and Weight at Puberty, no effect, 12% less feed w/ LATEGAIN. Smith et al., 1995

4 What is the appropriate Target Weight??

5 Methods  3-year study  MARC II heifers – 80 each year  Developed to either 55 or 60% of mature weight  Placed with bulls May 20 – 45 d  Data collected through 4 th pregnancy diagnosis

6 Developing heifers to lower target weights 53%57% Beginning Wt Winter ADG Prebreeding Wt Prebreeding BCS Cycling % 7485 Pregnant 45 days 9288 Precalving Wt Precalving BCS Calf birth Wt 7373

7 Developing heifers to lower target weights 53%57% Calving difficulty 2119 Actual WW Calf ADG Adj 205 d Wt Cow Weaning Cow Weaning nd Calf Preg % rd Calf Preg % th Calf Preg % 9696

8 Developing heifers to 53 vs 57% of mature weight:  Decreased costs $22/head  No differences in pregnancy rate  No differences in calf production  Decreased mature weight through 4 th pregnancy diagnosis

9 Animals Must Fit The Environment !

10 When is the appropriate time to calve heifers for a June – calving cow herd???

11 Effect of Age and Time on Return to Estrus Age of CowDays after calving % Cycling 5 or older years

12 Crude Protein in Cattle Diets on Northern Great Plains Rangeland CRUDE PROTEIN, % 0 APRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDECFEB

13 Methods  3-year study  MARC II heifers – 50 each year  Developed to reach 60% of mature weight at breeding  Placed with bulls either August or September 5 th – 45 d  Data collected through 4 th pregnancy diagnosis

14 Developing heifers to calve before or with the cow herd CalvingMayJune Beginning Weight Winter Gain Prebreeding Wt Pelvic Area, cm Cycling before breeding 8992 Pregnant 45 d 8893 Precalving Wt Precalving BCS Calf birth Wt 7374

15 CalvingMayJune Calving difficulty 130 Actual WW Calf ADG Adj 205 d Wt Cow Weaning Cow Weaning nd Calf Preg % rd Calf Preg % th Calf Preg % 9795 Developing heifers to calve before or with the cow herd

16 Developing heifers to calve with the cow herd vs one- month earlier:  Decreased costs $11/head  No differences in pregnancy rate  Decreased calving difficulty  Decreased calf WW and adj 205 d weight  Tended to lower mature weight through 4 th pregnancy diagnosis

17 Does Fat Supplementation Improve Reproductive Efficiency?

18 Introduction  Positive reproductive effects have been associated with fat supplementation independent of energy contribution  Increased pregnancy rates  Decreased duration of anestrus  Increased calf vigor

19 Heifer Development Heifers that conceive early in the breeding season have a greater lifetime productivity Heifers that conceive early in the breeding season have a greater lifetime productivity (Lesmeister et al., 1973) Fat supplemented heifers reached puberty earlier (diet X sire breed interaction) Fat supplemented heifers reached puberty earlier (diet X sire breed interaction) (Lammoglia et al., 2000) Inconsistencies (Funston et al., 2000; Howlett et al., 2003) Inconsistencies (Funston et al., 2000; Howlett et al., 2003)

20 Feeding 2 lb of whole sunflower seeds for either 30 or 60 d before PGF did not improve estrous response or pregnancy rate in beef heifers.

21 Linoleic Acid and Age at Puberty  Heifers fed whole sunflower seeds (5% added fat) from 4 months of age  CLA tissue content higher in HF  Leptin and insulin not different  IGF-I lower in HF group  Total cholesterol was increased in HF  No difference in age at puberty Garcia et al., 2003

22 Fat Source In beef cattle, plant-derived fatty acids appear to have the greatest impact on reproductive performance In beef cattle, plant-derived fatty acids appear to have the greatest impact on reproductive performance (Burns and Filley, 2002) Soybeans are readily available in Nebraska Soybeans are readily available in Nebraska

23 Problems feeding whole soybeans?  Most research has been with pregnant beef cattle  Heifer development, MO, longer WSB were fed, lower the conception rates  Other negative effects reported by veterinarians  Why?

24 Soybean Phytoestrogen Analysis Phytoestrogenppm Genistein1095 Daidzein 940 Glycitein 100

25 Soybeans in Heifer Diets of Different Physiological Maturity Soybeans in Heifer Diets of Different Physiological Maturity

26 Objective 1) Investigate the inconsistencies associated with fat supplementation in heifers 2) Determine the effects of soybeans as the fat source in heifer diets of different physiological maturity

27 Experiment 1 Objective:  Determine how utilization of soybeans in heifer diets affect:  Cycling status  Synchronization rate  Conception rate  Pregnancy rate

28 Experiment 1  104 crossbred beef heifers  660 lb  10 months old  3 lb whole soybeans  4% added fat  Experimental period: 110 d

29 Heifer Diets Diet Ingredient, % of diet (DM) Control (3% fat) Soybean (7% fat) Corn Silage Wheat Straw Soybeans010.4 Corn Gluten Feed Brome Hay Supplement CP TDN

30 Methods Synchronized estrus: Synchronized estrus: MGA (14 d) - PGF 2  injection on d 110 (19 d later) MGA (14 d) - PGF 2  injection on d 110 (19 d later) Artificially inseminated (AI): Artificially inseminated (AI): 12 hours after visual detection of estrus 12 hours after visual detection of estrus 1 of 2 randomly assigned sires 1 of 2 randomly assigned sires

31 Methods  Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after last AI for 60-d breeding season  Pregnancy to AI determined by ultrasonography 45 d after last AI

32 Results No differences in cycling status due to treatment: No differences in cycling status due to treatment: (P > 0.10) (P > 0.10) % Cycling ControlSoybean Before8379 Mid9490 PGF9487

33 Estrous Response Average Timed Control2.9 Control2.9 WSB3.2 WSB3.2 P < 0.05 P = 0.05

34 Conception and Pregnancy Rates P > 0.10

35 Experiment 2 Objective: Examine effects of fat supplementation (soybeans) on follicle characteristics of prepubertal heifers Objective: Examine effects of fat supplementation (soybeans) on follicle characteristics of prepubertal heifers

36 Experiment 2 50 crossbred heifers 50 crossbred heifers 470 lb, 9 mo. old 470 lb, 9 mo. old 3 lb soybeans + 1 lb corn 3 lb soybeans + 1 lb corn Control = 4 lb DDG Control = 4 lb DDG Experimental period = 161 d Experimental period = 161 d

37 Experiment 2 Ultrasound guided follicular aspiration Ultrasound guided follicular aspiration 2 injections PGF 2α 14 d apart 2 injections PGF 2α 14 d apart 60 h after 2 nd injection (d 147) 60 h after 2 nd injection (d 147) Follicle Diameter Follicle Diameter Aspirate Aspirate Placed with bulls for 45 d breeding season Placed with bulls for 45 d breeding season

38

39 Results No differences in estrous activity due to treatment: No differences in estrous activity due to treatment: Sample period 1: 32% Sample period 1: 32% Sample period 2: 84% Sample period 2: 84% (P > 0.10) (P > 0.10) No difference in pregnancy rate No difference in pregnancy rate (P > 0.10)

40 Experiment 2 Aspirates will be assayed for: Aspirates will be assayed for:*Estrogen*Androstenedione (P = 0.166)

41 Experiment 3  Objective: Examine effects of fat supplementation (soybeans) on follicle characteristics of postpubertal heifers

42 Experiment 3  20 crossbred virgin heifers  780 lb  3 lb Soybeans + 1 lb corn  Control: 4 lb Dried Distillers Grain  Experimental period: 30 d

43 Experiment 3 Ultrasound guided follicular aspiration Ultrasound guided follicular aspiration 2 injections PGF 2α 14 d apart 2 injections PGF 2α 14 d apart 60 h after 2 nd injection 60 h after 2 nd injection Follicle Diameter Follicle Diameter Aspirate Aspirate

44 Follicle Analysis Aspirates will be assayed for: Aspirates will be assayed for:*Estrogen*Androstenedione (P < 0.07)

45 Supplementing Soybeans in Heifer Development Diets  Decreased synchronization rate  Increased time of synchronized estrous  No significant differences in AI conception or pregnancy rates, or final pregnancy rates  Follicular dynamics????

46 Heifer Development and Fat Supplementation  548 lb, 9 mos; 24 per treatment  Fed diets for 113 d; (2% added fat)  Discontinued 1 week before MGA %CONCOTSBSH Pubertal FSCR Howlett et al., 2003 (P > 0.10)

47

48


Download ppt "Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Replacement Heifers: Target Weights, Target Dates, and Fat Supplementation Rick."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google